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Heat Transfer by Radiation

Ch.E. 206
Lecture Objectives
To introduce the basic facts about heat
transfer by radiation
To define the following:
Special Types of Bodies
Emissive Power or Total Radiating Power
Emissivity
Kirchoffs Law
Stefan Boltzmann Law
To understand Net Transfer by Radiation
Use of View Factors
Use of Radiant Heat Transfer Coefficient
Definition
Radiation Heat Transfer
The transfer of energy through space by
electromagnetic waves
Radiation Wavelengths range from 0.5 to 50
microns
Examples: Rays emitting from the sun, hot stoves,
glowing furnaces, nuclear explosion, X-ray.
Sun source of thermal energy.
We relate RADIATION with something hot.
Basic Facts About Radiation
Thermal radiation results from the temperature of a
body.
All bodies above absolute zero temperature emit
thermal rays.
Thermal rays travel in straight lines from source to
receiver.
Only bodies within sight of each other can exchange
radiation.
One with flu or fever will emit more rays.
Basic Facts About Radiation
The amount of emitted radiation from a body
is independent of the amount emitted by
another body within sight.

Incident Radiation (I) represents the total
radiation from a source striking a receiver.
I
Incident Radiation (I)
Source
Receiver
Basic Facts About Radiation
Question: What will happen to the rays
once it strikes receiver?
(I) has the following effects:

Absorptivity (o): fraction of I absorbed

Reflectivity (): fraction of I reflected

Transmissivity (t): fraction of I transmitted
through
I
o I
I
t I
o, , t
= o I + I + t I
o + + t = 1
Basic Facts About Radiation
Factors affecting o,,t:
Temperature
bodies at low temp. more rays are
absorbed.
bodies at high temp. increase reflectivity
rather than absorptivity.
Nature of Surface
rough surface - o is bigger
smooth surface reflects thermal rays
Factors affecting o,,t:
Wavelength
strong wavelength high transmissivity
weak wavelength will be reflected
Angle of incidence
direct hit ray will be absorbed
with an angle more reflection
Higher angle of incidence:
Reflectivity > Absorbtivity
Basic Facts About Radiation
At a given temperature, the rate of thermal emission
varies directly with the state of aggregation of the
body.
State of Aggregation
compactness of the material
how compact the molecules are of a body.
Liquids and gases molecules not closely
aggregated, amount of thermal emission not
significant.
When in space radiation coming from gases will be
significant.
Radiation mostly comes from SOLID.
Basic Facts About Radiation
Conduction and convection usually take place
simultaneously with radiation.

The net transfer rate by radiation is the difference
between the emission rate and the absorbance rate.
Emission rate dependent on your temp.
Absorbance rate dependent on the other body.

q
r
= q
re
q
ra

Net transfer rate= emitted absorbed
re = radiation emitted

ra = radiation absorbed

Where:

Special Types of Bodies
Black Body: o = 1.0 or ,t = 0
just an ideal concept
Real bodies are non- black bodies
Gray Body: o = constant
ex. o = 0.2, independent of source, consistent,
behavior is constant.
Opaque Body: t = 0 or o + = 1.0
Most bodies are opaque, t = 0, few bodies will have
a significant value of t.
Non-Black Body: o + + t = 1.0

Total Radiating Power
W = total radiation of all wavelengths emitted per
area per time (Watts/m
2
, BTU/hr-ft
2
)
W = } W

d
0

W

= emissive power of single wavelength


= wavelength

W


Area under the curve = W
W = heat flux = q/A or q = W A
Emissive Power
Emissivity (c) = ratio of emissive power of a body to
that of a black body
W
B
= Emissive power of a black body
B
W
W
= c
For a a black body: c = 1.0
W

= Emissive power of a body
c =
B
W W
and c = o
Basic Laws of Radiation
Kirchoffs Law
At thermal equilibrium : t cons
W
tan =
o
2
2
1
1
W W
o
=
o
if body2 is black: W
2
= W
B
& o
2
= 1

1
W W
B
1
1
=
o
1
B
1
W
W
o =
1 1
o = c
Therefore, if body2 is black

Basic Laws of Radiation
Stefan Boltzmann Law
The emissive power of a black body is directly
proportional to the 4
th
power of absolute
temperature
4
B
T W o =
Where: o = 5.67 x 10
-8
W/m
2
-K
T in Kelvin
2
4 8
B
m
W
T 10 x 67 5 W

= .
2
4 8
m
W
T 10 x 67 5 W c =

.
c =
B
W W But
Basic Laws of Radiation
2
4
m
W
100
T
67 5 W
|
.
|

\
|
c = .
A W q
re
=
2
4
re
m
W
100
T
A 67 5 q
|
.
|

\
|
c = .
re = radiation emitted

q
re
= heat transfer rate of emitted radiation

Net Transfer Rate by Radiation
q
r
= q
re
q
ra

Net transfer rate= emitted absorbed
Consider only the net transfer rate between 2 bodies at a time
1- source and the 2 - receiver
1
2
Net Transfer Rate by Radiation
Between two gray bodies 1 and 2:
( )
2
4
2
4
1 1 12 2 1 r
m
W
T T A q o =
) (
A
1
= surface area of source
2 to 1 fr factor erchange overall
12
_ _ _ _ _ int _ =
1
2
A
1
T
1
A
2
T
2
Overall Interchange Factor
F
12
= View factor from 1 to 2 (see handouts)
(

c
+
(

c
+
=
1
1
A
A
1
1
F
1
1
2 2
1
1 12
12
(
(

|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
=

4
2
4
1
1 12 2 1 r
100
T
100
T
A 672 5 q .
) (