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Ch.E. 206
Lecture Objectives
To introduce the basic facts about heat
To define the following:
Special Types of Bodies
Emissive Power or Total Radiating Power
Emissivity
Kirchoffs Law
Stefan Boltzmann Law
To understand Net Transfer by Radiation
Use of View Factors
Use of Radiant Heat Transfer Coefficient
Definition
The transfer of energy through space by
electromagnetic waves
Radiation Wavelengths range from 0.5 to 50
microns
Examples: Rays emitting from the sun, hot stoves,
glowing furnaces, nuclear explosion, X-ray.
Sun source of thermal energy.
We relate RADIATION with something hot.
Thermal radiation results from the temperature of a
body.
All bodies above absolute zero temperature emit
thermal rays.
Thermal rays travel in straight lines from source to
Only bodies within sight of each other can exchange
One with flu or fever will emit more rays.
The amount of emitted radiation from a body
is independent of the amount emitted by
another body within sight.

Incident Radiation (I) represents the total
I
Source
Question: What will happen to the rays
(I) has the following effects:

Absorptivity (o): fraction of I absorbed

Reflectivity (): fraction of I reflected

Transmissivity (t): fraction of I transmitted
through
I
o I
I
t I
o, , t
= o I + I + t I
o + + t = 1
Factors affecting o,,t:
Temperature
bodies at low temp. more rays are
absorbed.
bodies at high temp. increase reflectivity
rather than absorptivity.
Nature of Surface
rough surface - o is bigger
smooth surface reflects thermal rays
Factors affecting o,,t:
Wavelength
strong wavelength high transmissivity
weak wavelength will be reflected
Angle of incidence
direct hit ray will be absorbed
with an angle more reflection
Higher angle of incidence:
Reflectivity > Absorbtivity
At a given temperature, the rate of thermal emission
varies directly with the state of aggregation of the
body.
State of Aggregation
compactness of the material
how compact the molecules are of a body.
Liquids and gases molecules not closely
aggregated, amount of thermal emission not
significant.
When in space radiation coming from gases will be
significant.
Conduction and convection usually take place

The net transfer rate by radiation is the difference
between the emission rate and the absorbance rate.
Emission rate dependent on your temp.
Absorbance rate dependent on the other body.

q
r
= q
re
q
ra

Net transfer rate= emitted absorbed

Where:

Special Types of Bodies
Black Body: o = 1.0 or ,t = 0
just an ideal concept
Real bodies are non- black bodies
Gray Body: o = constant
ex. o = 0.2, independent of source, consistent,
behavior is constant.
Opaque Body: t = 0 or o + = 1.0
Most bodies are opaque, t = 0, few bodies will have
a significant value of t.
Non-Black Body: o + + t = 1.0

W = total radiation of all wavelengths emitted per
area per time (Watts/m
2
, BTU/hr-ft
2
)
W = } W

d
0

W

## = emissive power of single wavelength

= wavelength

W

Area under the curve = W
W = heat flux = q/A or q = W A
Emissive Power
Emissivity (c) = ratio of emissive power of a body to
that of a black body
W
B
= Emissive power of a black body
B
W
W
= c
For a a black body: c = 1.0
W

= Emissive power of a body
c =
B
W W
and c = o
Kirchoffs Law
At thermal equilibrium : t cons
W
tan =
o
2
2
1
1
W W
o
=
o
if body2 is black: W
2
= W
B
& o
2
= 1

1
W W
B
1
1
=
o
1
B
1
W
W
o =
1 1
o = c
Therefore, if body2 is black

Stefan Boltzmann Law
The emissive power of a black body is directly
proportional to the 4
th
power of absolute
temperature
4
B
T W o =
Where: o = 5.67 x 10
-8
W/m
2
-K
T in Kelvin
2
4 8
B
m
W
T 10 x 67 5 W

= .
2
4 8
m
W
T 10 x 67 5 W c =

.
c =
B
W W But
2
4
m
W
100
T
67 5 W
|
.
|

\
|
c = .
A W q
re
=
2
4
re
m
W
100
T
A 67 5 q
|
.
|

\
|
c = .

q
re
= heat transfer rate of emitted radiation

q
r
= q
re
q
ra

Net transfer rate= emitted absorbed
Consider only the net transfer rate between 2 bodies at a time
1- source and the 2 - receiver
1
2
Between two gray bodies 1 and 2:
( )
2
4
2
4
1 1 12 2 1 r
m
W
T T A q o =
) (
A
1
= surface area of source
2 to 1 fr factor erchange overall
12
_ _ _ _ _ int _ =
1
2
A
1
T
1
A
2
T
2
Overall Interchange Factor
F
12
= View factor from 1 to 2 (see handouts)
(

c
+
(

c
+
=
1
1
A
A
1
1
F
1
1
2 2
1
1 12
12
(
(

|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
=

4
2
4
1
1 12 2 1 r
100
T
100
T
A 672 5 q .
) (