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# Vacuum Techniques

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Vapor Pressure

• Terminology:
– Evaporation: when a liquid becomes a gas
– Sublimation: when a solid becomes a gas
– Vapor: the gas produced when a liquid or solid is
evaporated
– Condensation: when the vapor becomes a liquid
or solid again (condensed phases)
– Equilibrium: the state of any system in which
opposing forces balance each other
– Volatile: liquids that are easily vaporized - have
high vapor pressure
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Vapor Pressure
• Evaporation occurs when:
– the temperature of the material is increased, OR
– the pressure at the surface of the material is decreased
• Vapor Pressure: the pressure at which a liquid or
solid becomes a vapor at a given temperature
– what happens to the vapor pressure as the temperature is
decreased?
• Outgassing: when a material in its condensed phase
becomes a vapor in a vacuum system at low
pressure.
– Extremely small quantities of water, solvents, or fingerprints
left in a chamber can outgas and increase the time it takes
to pump a system down.
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Vapor Pressure
• Liquids in a closed
container will
evaporate until:
– partial pressure in
the air above the
liquid = vapor
pressure of the
liquid

Vapor Pressure

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Vapor pressure of water at
various temperatures

T (O C) P (mbar)
100 (BOILING) 1013
25 32
0 (FREEZING) 6.4
-40 0.13
-78.5 (DRY ICE) 6.6 x 10 -4
-196 (LIQUID NITROGEN) 10 -24
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Vapor Pressure
• Phase Diagrams:
– determine what
state a substance
will exist in at a
given temperature
and pressure
– example: water

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Vapor Pressure
• Phase Diagrams:
– water metals

http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/phase.html

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Vapor Pressure
• Examples:
– At what temperature does water boil when the pressure is
reduced to 1 torr?
– Are the condensed phases to the left or right of the lines?
– If a CVD system runs at 500C and 1 mT, which metals
would be a poor choice to build the chamber out of?
• The Moral of the Story:
– Vapor pressure must be considered when selecting
EVERYTHING that goes into a vacuum system.
– This includes seals, oil, chamber materials, valves, the
wafer, etc.

Gas Density (n)
Ideal Gas Law

PV = NkT

## Gas density at 1 Pascal at room temp.

N/V = n = P/kT
= (1 N/m2)/(1.3807x10-23J/K)(300 K)
= [1 (kg-m/s2)/m2]/[4.1x10-21 kg-m2/s2]
= 2.4x1020 atoms per m3
= 2.4x1014 cm-3 …at 1 Pa

Rule of Thumb

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Mean free path(1)
average distance between molecular collisions in the gas
1 kT 5 × 10 3
λ= = = cm Or, =.0066/P (P mbar)
2σn 2 pσ p(Torr )
σ = molecular cross section ~ projected area of the molecule
(the last form of the equation is for air at 20oC)

p (Torr) ϕ (molec./cm2-s) λ
760 2.9x1023 67 nm
1 3.8x1020 51 µm
1x10-3 3.8x1017 51 mm
1x10-6 3.8x1014 51 m
1x10-9 3.8x1011 51 km
When λ > the smallest dimension of the flow path, the flow is free molecule,
If λ < apparatus dimension, the flow is viscous
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Mean free path(2)
• Mean Free Path:

## • MFP increases as the pressure decreases:

∀ λ (cm) ~= .005 / P (torr)
– at 1 atm, MFP = 0.02 microns
– at 1mT, MFP = 5.08 cm
– at 10-9 torr (UHV), MFP = 50 km

## Mean Free Path vs. Pressure

1.00E+08
1.00E+06
MFP (cm)

1.00E+04
1.00E+02
MFP
1.00E+00
1.00E-02
1.00E-04
1.00E-06
1.00E- 1.00E- 1.00E- 1.00E- 1.00E- 1.00E+0 1.00E+0 1.00E+0
10 08 06 04 02 0 2 4

Pressure (Torr)

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Mean free path(3)

## 1013 mbar (atm) 1 x 10-3 mbar 1 x 10-9 mbar

# 3 x 10 19 4 x 10 13 4 x 10 7
mol/cm3 (30 million trillion) (40 trillion) (40 million)

## MFP 2.5 x 10-6 in 2 inches 31 miles

6.4 x 10-5 mm 5.1 cm 50 km

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Collisions and Mean Free Path

Gas Density
n = P/ kT

Cross-section
σ ~ πd2
λ = 1/σn
d

##   2.6 1015 cm 2 → λAr(cm) ∼ 8 / P (mTorr)

Ar Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Atom & molecule dimensions
• Atom dimension=3 A0
• Average molecule separation in at atm
perrsure :
In 1 cm3 nitrogen gas is 2.5 X1019
molecules so:
1/2.5X10 19= 4X10 -20 cm=34 A0

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Average molecular separation
• At atmospheric Pressure:
• 2.5X10 19 molecules occupy 1 cm3;

## • the volume of one molecules =1/2.5x10 19 =4x10 -20 cm3

• the length of each molecules =(4x10 -20 )1/3=3.4x10 -7 cm=34 A0

3 A0
34 A0

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Impingement rate/flux, J per unit area,
surface incidence rate
nV
J=
4
8kT 8RT T
V= = = 145
πm πM M 1cm2
P
J=
(2πmKT )1 2
M = mN av
kN av = R
PN av
J=
(2πMRT )1 2
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Maxwellian Distribution
The speed of molecules whose speed is
between v, v+dv
3 mv 2
m −
N (v) = 4πN ( ) v e
2 2 2 kT
2πkT
∞ ∞ 3 mv 2
m 2 2 − 2 kT
∫0 N ( v ) vdv ∫0 4πN (
2πkT
) v e vdv 3∞
4πN m 2 3 −λv 2 m
v= = = ( ) ∫ v e dv ⇒ λ =
N N N 2πkT 0 2kT

1
∫v e
3 − λv 2
dv = 2
0 2λ
3
m 2 1 2kT 2 8kT
v = 4π ( ) × ( ) =
2πkT 2 m πm

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Maxwellian Distribution
vrms

∞ 3 − mv 2
m
∫ N (v)v dv
2
∫ 4πN ( 2πkT
) v 2e
2 kT
v 2 dv 3∞
4πN m 2 4 −λv 2 m
v =
2 0
= = ( ) ∫ v e dv ⇒ λ =
N N N 2πkT 0 2kT

3
m 2 3 π
v = 4π (
2
) ×
2πkT 8 λ5
3kT
v rms = v 2 =
m

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Maxwellian Distribution

dN (v)
=0
dv
3 − mv 2
dN (v) m d 2
= 4πN ( ) (v e 2 2 kT
)=0
dv 2πkT dv
3 − mv 2 − mv 2
m 2mv mv 2 2
4πN ( ) (2ve
2 kT
−v ×
2
e 2 kT
) = 0 ⇒ v(2 − v )=0
2πkT 2kT kT
2kT
vp =
m

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Surface incidence rate
Maxwellian Distribution
3/ 2
P (v )  m   − mv 2 
f (v ) = =  exp 
4πv  2πkT 
2
 2kT 

## Average speed of an atom:

_
8kT
< v > = c = ∫ v f (v)4πv dv = 2

0
πm
Flux of atoms to the x-y plane surface:

1
Γz = n < v z >= n ∫∫∫ v z f (v)dv = n < v >
3

vZ > 0
4
Very important!
(Campbell)
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Surface incidence rate
rate at which molecules of gas strike a unit area of
surface
(also exit a vessel with a small orifice into a vacuum)
22
 p  8 kT p 3 . 5 × 10 p(Torr ) molecules striking surface
J = 14 nv = 14   = =
 kT  π m 2π mkT MT cm2 s

## • n = molecular density in gas, molecules/cm3

• v = mean velocity of Maxwell Boltzmann distribution
• k = Boltzmann’s constant
• m = mass of molecule
• T = absolute temperature in Kelvins (K)

## The numerical form is obtained by multiplying numerator

and denominator by Avogadro’s number, NAv, and noting
that NAvk = R, the gas constant and NAvm = M, the
molecular weight of the species in the gas
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Example
A vacuum chamber has a base pressure of 10-6 Torr.
Assuming that this is dominated by water vapor, what is
the flux of H2O to a substrate placed in this chamber?

## This is approximately one monolayer of H2O every second

at 10-6 Torr base Dr.
pressure.
G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Equilibrium between a liquid and it vapor

P0
Jc = = J E
(2πmkT )12

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Collision frequency
• V=xt
• The average distance traveled in one second :
V=x(1)
• Collision frequency=V/l l= mean free path

## • For N2 (at room temperature and atm pressure

• C.F=470/6.6x10 -6 =7.1x10 9 per second

## • at low pressure C.F increase or decrease?

• At which pressure the C.F is 1 second?

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

n, J, l at various P for N2 at 295K
• P(mbar) n(m-3) I(M.F.P) J(cm-2 m-1)
103 -1 atm 2.5X10 25 6.6X10-6 2.9X10 23

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Outgassing
• The release of gas from internal surface
into the vacuum, occurs by desorption of
molecules from bound states on the solid
surface.
Outgassing
vacuum

Chamber wall
molecules

Absorbed
molecules
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Desorbtion = removing the molecules

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

surface
• kT at room temperature is 1/40 eV

## • Meam adsorption stay time is the avarege

• τ =10 -13 exp(q/kT)=10 -13 exp(40q)
• “De Boer equation”

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

• Values of τ for various q at 295 K

q(eV) τ
0.2 3x10 -10
0.4 1µs
0.6 20 ms
0.9 400 s
1.1 1.2x 10 6 s (= 2 weeks)

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Gasses and pumping
Drifting molecules
Outgassing

pump

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Gas flow and throughput
• Gas flow down a pipe
P1>P2

P1 A A` P2
Flow

## Pressure is constant across any cross section

We define throughput as:

dV
Q=P = PV 0 mbar l s-1
dt
Q is constant down the pipe

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Q is constant down the pipe

## Usually, throughput is conserved. (Steady state

V2 V3
V1 Q Q Q
P1
P2 P3

Q = P1V`1=P2 V`2=P3V`3

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Throughput (example)
Throughput: quantity of gas removed by pump per unit time:

Q = p(dV/dt) = pS (Torr-liter/s)

Q = P1S1 = P2S2
P2 = 100 P1 P1

P2

pump 1 pump 2
500 ℓ/s 5 ℓ/s

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Mass flow rate and throughput
PV = NkT
dN PV P dV PV 0
= (d dt )( ) = ( )( ) =
dt kT kT dt kT
dN Q
=
dt kT
dN Q
m =m Mass flow rate
dt kT
Example: A fan moves atmospheric air through a room at rate
of 0.9 m3 per minute. What is the through in (mbar litter s -1)

## Answer: 0.9 m3=900 l and V`=900/60=15 l s-1

Q = PV`=1000x15=15000

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Speed
Where gas enters a pipe from a vessel and where it
emerges from the pipe to enter a pump . The
volumertic flow rates V` is defined as the speed
Pump speed: volume of gas taken in by the pump per
unit time

dV
P=
dt
dV
Q=P = PV 0 = P
dt
Q −1
S = ls
P

S and S*

S*
S Q
pump

vessel

S*>S

Conductance

## Conductance – gives the capacity of a tube to

allow a volume of gas pass from one end to
another in unit time

C=Q/(P1-P2)

P1 Q P2
P1>P2
P1-P2
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Speed of pump at the vessel

C
S, P Q S*, P*
pump
Vessel

Q=SP
Q=C(P-P*)=SP=S*P*

S=S*[C/(S*+C)]
The relation between S, S*, C
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Pumping Speed
• Pumping Speed and Conductance are related as
follows:

1 1 1
= + SEFF CT
Sp
S EFF S P CT
Seff is the effective pumping speed at the
chamber
Sp is the pumping speed (capability) of the pump
Ctotal is the total conductance of the system
between the chamber and the pump.

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Vacuum system & electrical system

P1 P2
V1 V2

∆P
∆V
∆P ∆V

Battery =Pump

Q I ∆P=Q/C
C=1/Z
∆P=ZQ
C=Q/(p1-P2)
∆V=RI

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Conductance
• Conductance: the ease with which a gas is drawn
through a vacuum component (pipe, valve, etc.)
– conductance is dependent on the diameter, length, and shape
of a pipe or orifice

## • Conductance Units: volume/time

– liters/second
• Conductance can be the LIMITING
factor in a pumping system:
– Example: A pump that has a pumping
speed of 400 l/sec, that is pumping
through a conductance of 100 l/sec, is
reduced to an effective pumping speed
at the chamber of less than 100 l/sec.
S*=400 l/sec, C=100 l/sec S=?
S=S*[C/(S*+C)]
S=400[100/(400+100)]= 80 l/sec
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Viscous and Molecular Flow

## Viscous Flow Molecular Flow

(momentum transfer (molecules move
between molecules) independently)
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Flow regims
• Viscous Flow: “mob mentality”
– the type of gas flow that occurs when
gas molecules are so close together
that there are constant collisions
– mean free path is relatively short
– gas flows like a liquid from high
pressure to lower pressure
– predominantly in the rough vacuum
regime

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Flow regims
• Molecular Flow: “loner mentality”
– the type of gas flow that occurs
when gas molecules’ direction of
movement is completely random
(not necessarily towards lower
pressure)
– there are few collisions between
molecules in the chamber
– mean free path is long
– predominantly in the high and ultra-
high vacuum regimes
• Knudsen Flow (or Transition Range)
– transition region between viscous and molecular flows
(some behaviors from both)
– medium vacuum regime
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
M
Flow Regimes
T
C V

(λ)
P
Mean Free Path
Viscous Flow: is less than 0.01
Characteristic Dimension
(d)

## Mean Free Path

Transition Flow: is between 0.01 and 1
Characteristic Dimension

## Mean Free Path

Molecular Flow: is greater than 1
Characteristic Dimension

Knuden`s Number

## Viscous flow λ/d=1 Molecular flow

0.01
T.F
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Flow Regims
• Which flow regime you are in determines the type of
vacuum hardware you will be using:
• Viscous Flow:
– displacement pumps: rotary vane, roots, diaphragm
– direct pressure gauges: manometers, bourdon tubes
– elastomer seals
– less limited by the conductance of the system
• Molecular Flow:
– momentum transfer or entrapment pumps: turbo, ion, cryo
– indirect pressure gauges: ion gauges
– metal seals
– VERY limited by the conductance of the system
• More on these later ...
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Conductance in Viscous Flow(Long
Round Tube; air)

d p1 + p2 4
C = 1.38 × 10 × 2

l 2
C=lit/sec
d = diameter of tube in cm
l = length of tube in cm
P1 = inlet pressure in torr
P2 = exit pressure in torr
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Conductance in Viscous Flow

## Under viscous flow conditions doubling the

pipe diameter increases the conductance
Sixteen(16) times.
The conductance is INVERSELY related to
the pipe length

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Viscous Flow
(Long Round Tube; nitrogen)

EXAMPLE:
d = 4 cm P1 = 2 torr
l = 100 cm P2 = 1 torr
d 4
p1 + p2
C = 1.38 × 10 2
×
l 2
256 3
C = 138 × ×
100 2
C=530 lit/sec
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Conductance in Molecular Flow
(round long tubes)

## Under molecular flow conditions doubling

the pipe diameter increases the conductance
eight times(×8).
The conductance is INVERSELY related to
the pipe length.
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Conductance in Molecular Flow
(Long Round Tube)

3
d T
C = 3.81 × × lit / sec
l M

d = diameter of tube in cm
l = length of tube in cm
T = temperature (K)
M = A.M.U.
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Conductance in Molecular Flow
(Long Round Tube)

EXAMPLE:
T = 295 K (22 OC)
M = 28 (nitrogen)

d3 T
C = 3.81 × × lit / sec
l M

d 3 295 d3
For Nitrogen C = 3.81 × = 12.36 × lit / sec
l 28 l
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Example (Molecular flow):
T=295 K (22 C) d=4 cm
M=28 (Nitrogen) l=100 cm

3
d T
C = 3.81 × × lit / sec
l M

d 3 295 d3
C = 3.81 × = 12.36 × lit / sec
l 28 l
C=12.36x 0.64
C= 7.9 lit/sec

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Calculation the usal pipes
conductance

Conductance in usual
pipes
(molecular flow)

C0
CL
C0 × C L
C pipe =
C0 + C L
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Molecular flow conductance of an
aperture(1)
P2 ,
P1 , J1 J2 J2,
J1, n2
n1

dN
=( J 1 −J 2 ) A
dt
dN
Q =kT ( )
dt
P0
J =
( 2πmkT )1 2
kT RT
Q= A( P1 −P2 ) = A( P1 −P2 )
2πm 2πm
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Molecular flow conductance of an
aperture(2)

Q = C ( P1 − P2 )
RT
Q= A( P1 − P2 )
2πm
RT
⇒ C0 = A Conductance of an aperture
2πm
C0=9.3 D2 l/s -1 for a circular aperture

## Maximums speed of a pump:

S*=C inlet=C0= 9.3D2
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Transmission probability

J1
J2
WJ1 A
WJ2 A

W ( J1 − J 2 ) A
× kT
Q = kT ( J1 − J 2 ) AW
kT RT
Q= AW ( P1 − P2 ) = AW ( P1 − P2 )
2πm 2πM
RT
C0 = A
2πM
⇒ Q = WC0 ( P1 − P2 ) ⇒ C pipe = WC0
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Calculation of the C for Long and usual
pipes
Conductance in viscous flow (long pipes)

d 4
p1 + p2
C L = 1.38 × 10 2
× lit / sec
l 2
Conductance in molecular flow (long
pipes)
d3 T
C L = 3.81× × lit / sec
l M
Conductance in usual pipes (molecular flow)
C0 × C L
C pipe =
C0 + C L
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Calculation the transmission probability

d 3 2πRT RT
CL = C0 = A
6L M 2πM

C0 × C L
C pipe =
C0 + C L
CL C0 CL
C pipe = = =
1 + C L C0 1 + 3L 4d 1 + 4d 3L

C pipe = WC0 ⇒ W=
1
1 + 3L 4d

Conductance

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Series Conductance

RT = R1 + R2
SYSTEM
1 = 1 + 1
CT C1 C2
C1
1 = C 1 + C2
CT C1 x C2 C2
CT = C1 x C 2
C 1 + C2 PUMP

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Pumping Speed
• Pumping Speed and Conductance are related as
follows:

1 1 1
= + SEFF CT
Sp
S EFF S P CT
Seff is the effective pumping speed at the
chamber
Sp is the pumping speed (capability) of the pump
Ctotal is the total conductance of the system
between the chamber and the pump.

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

1 1 1
= +
S1 C S2
D = diameter, in cm
L = length, in cm
P1, S1 C = conductance, in ℓ/s

D3
C connecting tube, conductance C ≅ 12 @ molecular
flow
P2 S2 L
example 1 example 2
pump D = 15 cm D = 10 cm
500 ℓ/s L = 20 cm L = 20 cm
C = 2025 ℓ/s C = 600 ℓ/s
S1= 401 ℓ/s S1= 273 ℓ/s

## Pump is expensive. Tube is cheap.

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Sample vacuum situations and calculations

S1

1/S1=1/C+1/S2
C S2

500 l/sec pump500 l/sec pump + 500 l/sec conductance two 500 l/sec pumps
“infinite” conductance connected in parallel
1/EPS = 1/500 + 1/500 = 2/500 l/sec
or EPS = 250 l/sec EPS = 500 + 500
EPS = 500 l/sec Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
= 1000 l/sec
Sample vacuum situations and calculations
gas flow
3 torr-liter/sec throughput = pressure × pumping speed

Q=P×S

Problem:
If the effective pumping speed from a
maximum pressure
chamber is 100 l/sec and the chamber
0.03 torr
pressure must not exceed 0.03 torr,
what must the gas flow into (or the
EPS = 100 l/sec throughput out of) the chamber be ?
Solution:
maximum throughput = (100 l/sec)×
(0.03 torr),
or 3 torr-liter/second
throughput 3 torr-liter/second
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Sample vacuum situations and calculations
as flow
1 torr-liter/sec

Problem:
Suppose the effective pumping speed
from a chamber is 250 l/sec and we wish
steady-state pressure to inject a gas flow of 0.1 torr-
4×10-4 torr liter/second flow of gas into the chamber.
What will the steady-state pressure be?
EPS = 250 l/sec
Solution:P=Q/S
0.1 torr-
= 4×10-4 torr
liter/second
250
throughput 0.1 torr-liter/second
liter/second
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Sample vacuum situations and calculations
N2 flow standard cm3 per minute
Problem:
8×10-3 sccm A calibrated N2 leak of 8×10-3 sccm is
attached to a chamber and the
measured pressure is 1.5 ×10-6 torr.
What is the effective pumping speed of
the chamber in liters/sec?
“standard” = “atmospheric pressu
Solution:
chamber pressure
8×10-3 sccm = (8/60)×10-3 standard cc/sec
1.5×10-6 torr
= (8/60)×10-6 standard liter/sec
= 760×(8/60)×10-6 torr-liter/sec
EPS = 67 l/sec = 1.01 ×10-4 torr-liter/sec
We divide by the indicated pressure S=Q/pto get:
1.01 ×10-4 torr-liter/sec
1.5 ×10-6 torr -4
1.01x10 /1.5x10= 67 liters/se
-6

## throughput 8×10-3 sccm

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
exercise

## gas inlet, N2 gas inlet, O2

1x10-3 torr ℓ/s 1x10-4 torr ℓ/s

Chamber Chamber 2
1
pump 1 pump 2
100 ℓ/s Estimate:
500 ℓ/s
P(N2) in chamber 1

P(N2) in chamber 2
connecting tube
1 cm inner diameter P(O2) in chamber 1
10 cm length

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Conductance Maximum or Minimum?
• Obviously, in most cases, we want to maximize
conductance.
• But sometimes, we DO want to limit conductance:
– Slow pumping to minimize pressure “shock” to the system.
– Throttling to maintain desired pressure in system.

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Pumping Speed
• Pump speed: volume of gas taken in by the pump per unit time
• at the pressure of the pump inlet:

## • Pumping Speed: the rate at which a vacuum pump removes

gasses from a system.
– Also known as volumetric flow rate

## • Pumping Speed Units: volume/time

– liters/second or ft3/minute (CFM)

## • Pumping Speed and Conductance are NOT synonymous

– Conductance is a property of
a component in a vacuum
system.
– Pumping Speed refers to the
flow of gas across a plane in
a system.
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Basic equation of flow and pump speed

− VdP = SPdt − QT dt
dP QT
+ V ( ) = − SP + QT ⇒
Pu =
dt S
dP S
= −( )dt
If QT= 0 p V
P = P0 exp{− t (V S )}

Re-expressed t = (V S ) ln( P0 P)
The time necessary for the pressure to fall from P0 to P

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Pump down time
d PV
= −SP equation for the throughput
dt
dP S
P =− P
dt V
example
P = P0 e - t/τ
V = 1000 ℓ
t
V S = 500 ℓ /s
τ= τ=2s
S every 2.3 τ, 10 x pressure drop

Why in the real world, it takes much longer from 10-6 torr to 10-7 torr?

Surface outgas
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Examples

1:
In a vacuum chamber, V=40 lit, and S=0.5 lit/s. what is the
time taken for the pressure to fall from P0=1000 mbar to
1 mbar?.
t= (40/0.5)ln 10 3=552 s= 9 min

2:
If a volume of 1m3 has to be pumped down from 1000
mbar to 10 mbar in 5 min what is the pump speed?
S=(V/t)ln(P0/P)
S=(1000/300)ln(10 2)=900 lit min -1 =5.4 m3 h-1
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Gas Sources
• Outgassing: the natural
evolution of species
inside the chamber, at
low pressure,
contributing to the gas
– Sublimation of solid
chamber surfaces
– Desorption from the walls
molecules
– Out-Diffusion of gas that
has been absorbed into
the grain boundaries of
the metal
– Vaporization
Dr. G.of liquids
Mirjalili, Physicsor
Dept. Yazd University
solids in the chamber with
Backstreaming(1)

•Movement of gases (including pump oil vapor) from pumps into the
vacuum chamber. It can be an important issue with diffusion pumps.
•Design of diffusion pumps can make some difference. Placement of a
continuous operation cold plate over the diffusion would be the best
solution, but it is rarely included in microprobe design.
•Oil diffusion pumps have a long history and are considered by many
to be less costly and easier to use in a multiple user facility.

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Oil back streaming

## PRESSURE LEVELS: LESS THAN 0.2 mbar

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Backstreaming(2)

## – an ideal pump only removes molecules and does not

give any back
– real pumps “regurgitate” some gasses back into the
system
• oil from diffusion pumps and rotary vane pumps
(draw)
– oil-based pumping systems are designed with
ballast, anti-suckback valves, and cold traps to
minimize backstreaming
– this is the primary reason for the gradual
replacement of oil-based pumps with “dry”
pumps

## Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University

Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Pumpdown Curve
10+1

10-1
Volume
Pressure (mbar)

10-3

## 10-5 Surface Desorption

10-7
Diffusion
10-9
Permeation

10-11 1
10 10 3 10 5 10 7 10 9 10 11 10 13 10 15 10 17
Dr. G. Mirjalili, Physics Dept. Yazd University
Time (sec)