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Cln1S
8uZl1A 8AZLAn
ln18CCuC1lCn
W !olnLs are Lhe arLlculaLlon beLween Lwo or
more bones
W 1here Lhree Lypes flbrous
carLllaglnous
synovlal
lbrous [olnLs
W Cenerally permlL llLLle or no movemenL
W 1ypes
SuLures eg beLween Lhe bones of Lhe skull
Comphosls held ln place by flbrous llgamenLs
Lg rooLs of Lhe LeeLh maxllla and mandlble
Syndesmosls unlLlng flbrous Llssue ls greaLer
Lhan ln suLure Lg lnferlor Llbloflbular [olnL
lnLerrosesous membrane beLween radlus and
ulna MovemenL ls resLrlcLed and conLrolled
CarLllaglnous [olnLs
W ermlL some llmlLed and conLrolled
movemenL
2 Lypes
W rlmary carLllaglnous ( synchondrosls)
uslon of dlaphysls and eplphysls
Pave a layer of hyalln carLllage beLween bones
8lgld exhlblL no or sllghL movemenL
Lg sLernocosLal [olnL
CarLllaglnous [olnLs conL
Secondary carLllaglnous (symphysls)
Pave a pad of flbrocarLllage beLween Lhe
hyllne carLllage layer
Lnables a small amounL of conLrolled
movemenL
Lg lnLerverLebral dlsc publc sympysls
Synovlal [olnLs
W no dlrecL connecLlon beLween Lhe arLlcular
surfaces Lherefore freely moblle movemenL
ls llmlLed by muscles llgamenLs and Lhe [olnL
capsule
W Surrounded by flbrous capsule llned wlLh
synovlal membrane whlch secreLes synovlal
fluld Lo lubrlcaLe and nourlsh Lhe arLlculaLlng
surfaces
W ulfferenL surface shapes permlL dlfferenL Lypes
of movemenL
Synovlal [olnL conL
Subdlvlded accordlng Lo Lhe shape
W lane [olnL
!olnL surfaces are flaL
Slngle glldlng movemenL
Lg acromloclavlcular [olnL
W Saddle [olnL
1wo surfaces reclprocally concavoconvex
Small amounL of movemenLs
Lg Cmc of Lhe Lhumb
Synovlal [olnL conL
W Plnge [olnL
Allow movemenL abouL one axls only
SupporLed by sLrong llgamenLs
Lg elbow and knee
W lvoL [olnL
MovemenL occurs abouL slngle axls
Cne bone roLaLes wlLhln a flbroosseous rlng
Lg ALlanLo axlal [olnL
Synovlal [olnL conL
W 8all and sockeL [olnL
Allows movemenL abouL Lhree prlnclple
perpendlcular axes
Lg Plp and Shoulder
W Condylold [olnL
Modlfled form of ball and sockeL [olnL
AcLlve movemenLs Lwo perpendlcular axes
asslve movemenLsLhree perpendlcular axes
Lg MC [olnL
Synovlal [olnL conL
W Lllpsold [olnL
AnoLher form of ball and sockeL [olnL
Lllpsold ln naLure
MovemenL occurs abouL Lwo perpendlcular
axls
Lg radlocarpal [olnL
MovemenLs beLween arLlcular
surface
W Accessory movemenL
8oll
Spln
Sllde
!Cln1S C uL8 LlM8
S1L8nCCLAvlCuLA8 !Cln1
W 1ype Saddle shaped synovlal buL funcLlonally
a ball and sockeL [olnL
W ArLlcular surfaces Medlal end of clavlcle
clavlcular noLch of sLernum and flrsL cosLal
carLllage A compleLe lnLraarLlcular dlsc
separaLes Lhe [olnL lnLo Lo
W Capsule compleLe flbrous capsule
W LlgamenLs anLerlor and posLerlor
sLernoclavlcular lnLerclavlcular cosLoclavlcular
S1L8nCCLAvlCuLA8 !Cln1 conL
W SLablllLy Malnly provlded by cosLoclavlcular
llgamenLs
W MovemenLs elevaLlon and depresslon
proLracLlon and reLracLlon
axlal roLaLlon
AC8CMlCCLAvlCuLA8 !Cln1
W 1ype synovlal plane [olnL
W ArLlcular surface laLeral end of clavlcle and acromlon
process of scapula An lncompleLe lnLraarLlcular dlsc
ls placed beLween Lhe Lwo bones
W Capsule flbrous capsule sorrounds arLlcular margln
W LlgamenLs coracoclavlcular (conold and Lrapezold
parL)
W SLablllLy Malnly from coracoclavlcular llgamenL
W MovemenL passlve glldlng durlng movemenLs of
pecLoral glrdle
SPCuLuL8 !Cln1
W 1ype synovlal ball and sockeL
W ArLlcular surfaces head of humerus glenold fossa of
scapula Clenold fossa ls deepened by Lhe glenold
labrum
W Capsule loose and aLLaches Lo arLlcular marglns of
boLh bones buL on humerus aLLaches a shorL way down
onLo shafL
W LlgamenLs superlor mlddle and lnferlor glenohumeral
(relnforce capsule) Lransverse humeral (across
lnLerLubercular groove) coracohumeral
coracoacromlal ( forms an arch above Lhe [olnLl
SPCuLuL8 !Cln1 conL
W SLablllLy effecLlvely provlded by roLaLor cuff
muscles
W MovemenLs flexlon and exLenslon
abducLlon and adducLlon
medlal and laLeral roLaLlon
1hese movemenLs are usually accompanled by
movemenLs of pecLoral glrdle
LL8CW !Cln1
W 1ype synovlal hlnge [olnL
W ArLlcular surfaces caplLulum and Lrochlea of
humerus Lrochlear noLch of ulna and head of radlus
W Capsule compleLe flbrous capsule surrounds Lhe
[olnL lncludlng superlor radloulnar [olnL radlal
olecranon and coronold fossa
W SLablllLy provlded by shape of arLlcular surfaces
collaLeral llgamenLs and muscles crosslng [olnLs
W MovemenLs flexlon and exLenslon
SuL8lC8 8AulCuLnA8 !Cln1
W 1ype synovlal plvoL [olnL
W ArLlcular surfaces rounded head of radlus
flbroosseous rlng form by radlal noLch of ulna
and annular llgamenL
W Capsule conLlnuous wlLh LhaL elbow [olnL
W LlgamenLs annular quadraLe
W SLablllLy malnly due Lo llgamenLs
W MovemenLs pronaLlon and suplnaLlon
lnL8lC8 8AulCuLnA8 !Cln1
W 1ype Synovlal plvoL [olnL
W ArLlcular surfaces head of ulnar and ulnar
noLch of radlus and lnLra arLlcular dlsc
W Capsule weak and loose
W SLabllLy very sLable due Lo lnLraarLlcular dlsc
lnLerroseous membrane and pronaLor
quadraLus
W MovemenLs pronaLlon and suplnaLlon
WrlsL 8adlocarpal [olnL
W 1ype synovlal elllpsold [olnL
W ArLlcular surfaces dlsLal surface of radlus and
arLlcular dlsc proxlmal surfaces of scaphold lunaLe
and LrlqueLral of Lhe proxlmal row of carpal bones
W Capsule compleLe flbrous capsule relnforced by
llgamenLs
W LlgamenLs dorsal and palmar radlocarpal palmar
ulnocarpal and radlal and ulnar collaLeral
W MovemenLs flexlon and exLenslon
abducLlon (radlal devlaLlon) and
adducLlon (ulnar devlaLlon)
WrlsL Mldcarpal [olnL
W 1ype complex synovlal [olnL
W ArLlcular surfaces dlsLal surfaces of scaphold
lunaLe and LrlqueLral wlLh proxlmal surfaces of
Lrapezlum Lrapezold caplLaLe and hamaLe
W Capsule compleLe flbrous capsule relnforce by
llgamenLs
W MovemenLs flexlon and exLenslon
abducLlon (radlal devlaLlon) and
adducLlon (ulnar devlaLlon
WrlsL [olnL
W MovemenLs of radlocarpal and mldcarpal
[olnLs comblne Lo glve greaLer range of
movemenLs
W SLablllLy aL wrlsL ls malnly due Lo llgamenLs
and Lendons crosslng Lhe [olnLs
!Cln1S C 1PL PAnuS
W Common carpomeLacarpal [olnL
W CarpomeLacarpal [olnL of Lhumb
W MeLacarpophalangeal [olnL
W lnLerphalangeal [olnL
Common carpomeLacarpal [olnL
W 1ype Synovlal plane
W ArLlcular surfaces dlsLal surfaces of Lrapezlum
Lrapezold caplLaLe and hamaLe wlLh bases of
second Lhlrd fourLh and flfLh meLacarpals
W CompleLe and surrounds [olnL
W LlgamenLs dorsal carpomeLacarpal palmar
meLacarpal lnLerosseous
W MovemenLs some flexlon and roLaLlon flfLh
meLacarpal only
CarpomeLacarpal [olnL of Lhumb
W 1ype Synovlal saddle [olnL
W ArLcular surfaces dlsLal surface of Lrapezlum
wlLh base of flrsL meLacarpal
W Capsule loose buL sLrong
W LlgamenLs radlal carpomeLacarpal anLerlor
and posLerlor obllque
W SLablllLy good due Lo Lendons crosslng [olnL
W MovemenLs flexlon and exLenslon abducLlon
and adducLlon opposlLlon
MeLacarpophalangeal [olnL
W 1ype synovlal condylold
W ArLlcular surfaces head of meLacarpal wlLh
base of proxlmal phalanx
W LlgamenLs palmar collaLeral deep Lransvese
(lndex Lo llLLle flnger)
W SLablllLy malnly Lendon crosslng [olnL
W MovemenLs flexlon/exLenslon
abducLlon/adducLlon
lnLerphalangeal [olnL
W 1ype synovlal hlnge [olnL
W ArLlcular surfaces head of proxlmal phalanx
wlLh base of mlddle phalanx and head of
mlddle phalanx wlLh base of dlsLal phalanx
W Capsule encloses [olnL replaced by palmar
llgamenL anLerlorly
W LlgamenLs palmar collaLeral
W SLablllLy malnly by Lendons and llgamenLs
W MovemenLs flexlon and exLenslon
!Cln1S C LCWL8 LlM8
!Cln1S C LLvlS
W Sacrolllac [olnL
W Symphysls publs
W Lumbosacral [olnL
W Sacrococcygeal [olnL
Sacrolllac [olnL
W 1ype synovlal plane anLerlorly flbrous
posLerlorly
W ArLlcular surfaces aurlcular surfaces of lllum
and sacrum
W Capsule compleLe flbrous capsule surrounds
[olnL aLLachlng arLlcular margln
W LlgamenLs anLerlor and posLerlor
(lnLerosseous long and shorL) sacrolllac
llgamenLs accessory sacroLuberous
sacrosplnous
Sacrolllac [olnLconL
W SLablllLy provlded by wedgeshape pf sacrum
lnLerlocklng arLlcular surfaces and llgamenLs
W MovemenLs sllghL glldlng and roLaLlon
beLween surfaces durlng chlldblrLh Lhe pelvlc
lnleL/ouLleL dlameLers lncrease
Symphysls publs
W 1ype Secondary carLllaglnous
W ArLlcular surfaces medlal aspecLs of publc
body wlLh flbrocarLllaglnous dlsc
W LlgamenLs superlor and arcuaLe publc
llgamenLs
W MovemenLs normally very llLLle movemenL
posslble durlng chlldblrLh [olnL surfaces
separaLe sllghLly
Lumbosacral [olnL
W 1ype secondary carLllaglnous
W ArLcular surfaces lnferlor surface body L3 wlLh
superlor surface of sacrum seperaed by
lnLerverLebral dlsc
W LlgamenLs lllolumbar and laLeral lumbosacral
and all llgamenLs assoclaLed wlLh [olnLs
beLween verLebrae
Sacrococcygeal [olnL
W ArLlcular surfaces lnferlor surface sacrum and
coccyx
W LlgamenLs sacrococcygeal
W MovemenLs passlve flexlon and exLenslon
Pl !Cln1
W 1ype synovlal ball and sockeL
W ArLlcular surfaces head of femur wlLh
aceLabulum of lnnomlnaLe and labrum
W SLrong flbrous capsule aLLachlng Lo marglns of
aceLabulum and lnLerLrochanLerlc llne
(anLerlor) and neck of femur (posLerlor) Pas
longlLudlnal obllque arcuaLe and zona
orblcularls flbres
Pl !Cln1 conL
W LlgamenLs lllofemoral pubofemoral
lschlofemoral llgamenLum Leres Lransverse
llgamenL of aceLabulum
W SLablllLy shape of arLlcular surfaces
assoclaLed muscles and llgamenLs
W MovemenLs flexlon and exLenslon abducLlon
and adducLlo medlal and laLeral roLaLlon
nLL !Cln1
W 1ype synovlal blcondylar hlnge [olnL
W ArLlcular surfaces condyles of femur wlLh
condyles of Llbla posLerlor surface wlLh
paLellar surfaces of femoral condyles
W Capsule Lhlck llgamenLous sheaLh malnly
composed of Lendlnous expanslons aLLached
Lo arLlcular marglns of femoral condyle(
excepL anLererosuperlorly) and medlal and
laLeral marglns of Llblal condyles
nLL !Cln1conL
W LlgamenLs obllque and arcuaLe popllLeal llgamenLs
llgamenLum paLellae Llblal and flbular collaLeral
llgamenLs
W lnLraarLlcular sLrucLures anLerlor and posLerlor
cruclaLe llgamenLs medlal and laLeral
menlscus1ransverse llgamenLs coronory llgamenLs
W SLablllLy provlded by collaLeral and cruclaLe
llgamenLs ( mosL sLable ln full exLenslon 'close
packed') muscles crosslng Lhe [olnLs
W MovemenLs flexlon and exLenslon medlal and
laLeral roLaLlon
1l8lC l8uLA8 A81lCuLA1lCnS
W Superlor Llbloflbular [olnL
W lnLerosseous membrane
W lnferlor Llbloflbular [olnL
Superlor Llbloflbular [olnL
W 1ype synovlal plane [olnL
W ArLlcular surfaces head of flbula wlLh
undersurface laLeral Llblal condyle
W Capsules aLLaches Lo arLlcular marglns
W LlgamenLs anLerlor and posLerlor llgamenLs
lnLerosseous membrae
W ALLaches Lo Lhe lnLerosseous border of Llbla
nad flbula
lnferlor Llbloflbular [olnL
W 1ype syndesmosls
W ArLlcular surfaces dlsLal end of flbula and Llbla
W LlgamenLs lnLerosseous anLerlor and
posLerlor Llbloflbular Lransverse Llbloflbular
W MovemenLs sllghL accessory roLaLlon
accompanylng movemenL aL ankle [olnL
AnLL !Cln1
W 1ype synovlal hlnge [olnL
W ArLlcular surfaces dlsLal end of Llbla and lnner
surfaces of medlal and laLeral malleoll wlLh
Lrochlear surface and sldes of Lalus
W Capsule Lhln loose capsule aLLachlng Lo
arLlcular marglns excepL for aLLachmenLs Lo
neck of Lalus anLerlorly
AnLL !Cln1 conL
W LlgamenLs delLold (medlal collaLeral)
llgamenL laLeral collaLeral llgamenL ( anLerlor
and posLerlor Laloflbular calcaneoflbular)
capsular anLerlor and posLerlor llgamenLs
W SLablllLy provlded by coapLaLlon arLlcular
surfaces (morLlse and Lenon) collaLeral
llgamenLs and muscles
W MovemenLs dorslflexlon (exLenslon) and
planLarflexlon
!Cln1S C 1PL CC1
W SubLalar [olnL
W 1alocalcaneonavlcular [olnL
W Cuneocubold [olnLs
SubLalar [olnL
W 1ype synovlal plane [olnL
W ArLlcular surfaces concave faceL on under
surface of Lalus convex faceL on upper surface
of calcaneus
W SLablllLy malnLalned by llgamenLs especlally
Lhe lnLerosseous
W MovemenLs lnverslon and everslon
1alocalcaneonavlcular [olnL
W 1ype synovlal ball and sockeL
W ArLlcular surfaces head and lower surface of
neck of Lalus wlLh posLerlor concave surface of
navlcular anLerlor calcaneus planLar
calcaneonavlcular llgamenL
W SLablllLy malnLalned by 'sprlng' and blfurcaLe
llgamenLs Llblalls posLerlor
W MovemenLs lnverslon and everslon of Lhe
fooL
Calcaneocubold [olnL
W 1ype synovlal plane
W ArLlcular surfaces anLerlor surface of
calcaneus wlLh posLerlor surface of cubold
W SLablllLy malnLalned by planLar llgamenLs and
peoneus longus
W MovemenLs pronaLlon and suplnaLlon of
forefooL
1ransverse(mld) Larsal [olnL
W Comprlses Lhe Lalocalcaneonavlcular and
calcaneocubold [olnLs acLlng as a slngle
funcLlonal unlL
W MovemenLs movemenL aL Lhls [olnL ls always
accompanled by movemenL aL subLalar [olnL
and vlce versa lnverslon of forefooL achleved
by adducLlon of fooL aL subLalar [olnL and
suplnaLlon of forefooL aL mldLarsal [olnL
planLarflexlon aL ankle lncreases lnverslon
1ransverse(mld) Larsal [olnL conL
W MovemenLs everslon of forefooL achleved by
abducLlon of fooL aL subLalar [oln and
pronaLlon of forefooL aL mldLarsal [olnL
dorslflexlon anL ankle lncreases everslon
!Cln1S C C8LCC1
W Cuneonavlcular [olnL
W lnLercunelform [olnLs
W Cuneocubold [olnLs
W 1arsomeLaLarsal [olnLs dorslflexlon and
planLarflexlon of Loes
W MeLaLarsophalangeal [olnL dorslflexlon and
planLarflexlon of Loes
W lnLerphalageal [olnL dorslflexlon and
planLarflexlon of Loes