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WAQAS ASGHAR

2005/FC-MCE-02
WAJID PERVAIZ
2005/FC-MCE-09
FAISALABAD CAMPUS
UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, LAHORE

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Outline

 MATLAB
 MATLAB and Toolboxes
 MATLAB and Control
 Control System Toolbox
 Solution to some problems

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MATLAB
• MATLAB® 7 r14 is provided by The
MathWorks. (www.mathworks.com)
• High-level technical computing
language and interactive
environment
• Has computational and graphical
tools
• Handles real and complex scalars,
vectors and matrices
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MATLAB Worldwide
 Aerospace and Defense
 Automotive
 Biotech, Medical, and
Pharmaceutical
 Chemical and
Petroleum
 Communications
 Computers and Office
Equipment
 Education
 Electronics and
Semiconductor
 Financial Services
 Industrial Equipment
and Machinery
 Instrumentation
 Utilities and Energy

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MATLAB Toolboxes
MATLAB

Math and Signal Processing Simulink


….. Control System Design
optimization and communications Product Family
and Analysis

Toolboxes Toolboxes Simulink® Toolboxes


Signal Processing Simulink Accelerator
Optimization Communications Simulink Report Generator Simulink Control Design
Symbolic Math Filter Design Simulink Response
Partial Diff. Eq. Filter Design HDL Coder … Simulink Parameter
… … …

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MATLAB and Control
MATLAB-Toolboxes for Control

Linear Control Nonlinear Control Identification

Control System Toolbox Nonlinear Control Toolbox Identification Toolbox


Simulink® Fuzzy Toolbox Frequency-Domain ID Toolbox
Mu Toolbox Simulink® Simulink®

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MATLAB and Control
• Modeling Tools

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Control System Toolbox
Core Features
 Tools to manipulate LTI models

 Classical analysis and design


 Bode, Nyquist, Nichols diagrams
 Step and impulse response
 Gain/phase margins
 Root locus design

 Modern state-space techniques


 Pole placement
 LQG regulation

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Control System Toolbox
LTI Objects (Linear Time Invariant)

 4 basic types of LTI models


 Transfer Function (TF)
 Zero-pole-gain model (ZPK)
 State-Space models (SS)
 Frequency response data model (FRD)

 Conversion between models

 Model properties (dynamics)

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Control System Toolbox
Transfer Function
p1 s n  p 2 s n 1  ...  p n 1
H (s ) 
q1 s m  q1 s m 1  ...  q m 1

where
p1 , p 2 ... p n 1 numerator coefficients
q1 , q1 ... q m 1 denominator coefficients

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Control System Toolbox
Transfer Function

• Consider a linear time invariant (LTI) single-


input/single-output system
y '' 6 y ' 5 y  4u ' 3u

• Applying Laplace Transform to both sides


with zero initial conditions
Y (s) 4s  3
G( s)   2
U ( s) s  6s  5
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Control System Toolbox
Transfer Function

>> num = [4 3]; >> [num,den] =


>> den = [1 6 5]; tfdata(sys,'v')
>> sys = num =
tf(num,den) 0 4 3
Transfer function: den =
4s+3 1 6 5
-----------------
s^2 + 6 s + 5
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Control System Toolbox
Zero-pole-gain model (ZPK)
(s  p1 )(s  p 2 )  ...  (s  p n )
H (s )  K
(s  q1 )(s  q 2 )  ...  (s  q m )

where
p1 , p 2 ... p n 1 the zeros of H(s)
q1 , q1 ... q m 1 the poles of H(s)

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Control System Toolbox
Zero-pole-gain model (ZPK)

 Consider a Linear time invariant (LTI) single-


input/single-output system
y '' 6 y ' 5 y  4u ' 3u

 Applying Laplace Transform to both sides


with zero initial conditions

Y (s) 4s  3 4( s  0.75)
G(s)   2 
U ( s ) s  6 s  5 ( s  1)( s  5)
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Control System Toolbox
Zero-pole-gain model (ZPK)

>> [ze,po,k] = zpkdata(sys1,'v')


>> sys1 =
ze =
zpk(-0.75,[-1 -5],4)
-0.7500
Zero/pole/gain: po =
4 (s+0.75) -1
----------- -5
(s+1) (s+5) k=
4

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Control System Toolbox
State-Space Model (SS)
.
x  A x B u
y C x D u

where
x state vector
u and y input and output vectors
A , B ,C and D state-space matrices

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Control System Toolbox
State-Space Models
• Consider a Linear time invariant (LTI) single-
input/single-output system
y '' 6 y ' 5 y  4u '' 3u
• State-space model for this system is

 x1 '   0 1   x1   0   x1 (0)   0
 x '   5 6   x    1  u  x (0)    0 
 2   
 2     2  
 x1 
y   3 4  
 x2 

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Control System Toolbox
State-Space Models
>> sys = ss([0 1; -5 -6],[0;1],[3,4],0)
a=
c=
x1 x2
x1 x2
x1 0 1 y1 3 4
x2 -5 -6

b= d=
u1
u1
y1 0
x1 0
x2 1

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Control System
Conversion betweenToolbox
different
models
tf2ss

Transfer function State Space

ss2tf

zp2tf ss2zp
tf2zp zp2ss

Zero-pole-gain

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Control System Toolbox

Time Responses of Systems

• Impulse Response (impulse)


• Step Response (step)
• General Time Response (lsim)
• gensig - Generate input signal for lsim.

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Control System Toolbox
Time Response of Systems
 The impulse response of a system is its
output when the input is a unit impulse.
 The step response of a system is its
output when the input is a unit step.
 The general response of a system to
any input can be computed using the
lsim command.

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Control System Toolbox
Time Response of Systems
Problem Given the LTI system

3s + 2
G( s ) =
2 s 3 + 4s 2 + 5 s + 1

Plot the following responses for:

 The impulse response using the impulse


command.
 The step response using the step command.

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Control System Toolbox
Time Response of Systems

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Control System
Frequency Toolbox
Response: Bode and
Nyquist Plots
• Typically, the analysis and design of a control
system requires an examination of its
frequency response over a range of
frequencies of interest.

• The MATLAB Control System Toolbox provides


functions to generate two of the most
common frequency response plots: Bode Plot
(bode command) and Nyquist Plot (nyquist
command).

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Control System Toolbox
Frequency Response: Bode Plot
Problem
• Given the LTI system
1
G( s ) 
s( s  1)
Draw the Bode diagram for 100 values of
frequency 10
in1the
10  interval .

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Control System Toolbox
Frequency Response: Bode Plot
>>bode(tf(1, [1 1 0]), logspace(-1,1,100));

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Control System Toolbox
Frequency Response: Nyquist Plot
 The loop gain Transfer function G(s)
 The gain margin is defined as the
multiplicative amount that the magnitude of
G(s) can be increased before the closed loop
system goes unstable
 Phase margin is defined as the amount of
additional phase lag that can be associated
with G(s) before the closed-loop system goes
unstable

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Control System Toolbox
Frequency Response: Nyquist Plot
Problem
Given the LTI system
Draw the bode and nyquist plots for 100 values of
frequencies in the interval . In addition, find
the gain
 10and
4
10phase
3
 margins.
 
1280 s + 640
G( s ) =
s 4 + 24.2 s 3 + 1604.81s 2 + 320.24s + 16

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Control System Toolbox
Frequency Response: Nyquist Plot
w=logspace(-4,3,100);
sys=tf([1280 640], [1 24.2 1604.81 320.24 16]);
bode(sys,w)
[Gm,Pm,Wcg,Wcp]=margin(sys)
%Nyquist plot
figure
nyquist(sys,w)

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Control System Toolbox
Frequency Response: Nyquist Plot

The values of gain and phase margin and corresponding frequencies are

Gm = 29.8637 Pm = 72.8960 Wcg = 39.9099 Wcp = 0.9036

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Control System Toolbox
Frequency Response Plots
bode - Bode diagrams of the frequency response.
bodemag - Bode magnitude diagram only.
sigma - Singular value frequency plot.
nyquist - Nyquist plot.
nichols - Nichols plot.
margin - Gain and phase margins.
allmargin - All crossover frequencies and related
gain/phase margins.
freqresp - Frequency response over a frequency
grid.
evalfr - Evaluate frequency response at given
frequency.
interp - Interpolates frequency response data.

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