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“An original, full-scale, and usually working

model of a new product or new version of an

existing product.”
 Be creative •Prototype as part of the creative process

•With real users

 Evaluate •Within a design team
•Usability and usefulness

•Sell’ a design idea

 Communicate •Request design requirements
•Prove a concept’
Rapid Prototyping (RP) can be defined as a group of
techniques used to quickly fabricate a scaled model of a
part or assembly using three-dimensional computer aided
design (CAD) data.
dates back to the late 80s of 20th
century in which modern prototyping
machines takes virtual designs from
computer aided design (CAD) or
animation, modelling software,
transforms them into thin, virtual,
horizontal cross-sections and then
creates each cross-section in physical
space, one after the next until the
model is finished. It is a WYSIWYG
(What you see is What you get)
process where the virtual model and
the physical model correspond almost
 Not overly detailed
 Easy to create
 Flexible
 Easily modifiable
 Cheap & ‘throw-away’
 No need to invest too much too early
 Can explore many alternative designs
 They quickly and clearly convey a message
A large number of competing technologies are
available in the market. As all are additive
technologies, their main differences are found in the
way layers are built to create parts. Some are
melting or softening material to produce the layers
(SLS,FDM) where others are laying liquid materials
thermosets that are cured with different
technologies (SLA, MJM, PolyJet). In the case of
lamination systems, thin layers are cut to shape and
joined together.
 Selective laser sintering  Thermoplastics & Metal
(SLS) powders
 Fused Deposition  Thermoplastics & eutectic
Modelling metals
 Steriolithography  Photopolymer
 Multi jet Modelling  Photopolymer
 Laminated Object  Paper
 Electron Beam Melting  Titanium alloys
 3D Printing  Various materials
 Object Polyjet Modelling  photopolymer
Stereolithography is a common rapid manufacturing
and rapid prototyping technology for producing parts
with high accuracy and good surface finish. A device that
performs stereolithography is called an SLA or
Stereolithography Apparatus.
Stereolithography, also known as 3-D layering or 3-
D printing, allows you to create solid, plastic, three-
dimensional (3-D) objects from CAD drawings in a
matter of hours.
The SLA has four main parts

 A tank filled with several

gallons of liquid
photopolymer. The
photopolymer is a clear,
liquid plastic.

A perforated platform
immersed in the tank. The
platform can move up and
down in the tank as the
printing process proceeds.

An ultraviolet laser

A computer that drives the

laser and the platform

When LASER light falls on photopolymer it

You create a 3-D model of
your object in a CAD

A piece of software chops

your CAD model up into
thin layers -- typically
five to 10
The 3-D printer's laser
"paints" one of the layers,
exposing the liquid plastic in
the tank and hardening it

The platform in the tank of photopolymer at the beginning of a

print run.
The platform drops down
into the tank a fraction of
a millimeter and the laser
paints the next layer

This process repeats,

layer by layer, until your
model is complete

The platform at the end of a print run, shown here with

several identical objects
Once the run is complete,
you rinse the objects with a
solvent and then "bake"
them in an ultraviolet oven
that thoroughly cures the

The ultraviolet "oven" used to cure completed objects.

Selective Laser Sintering is an additive rapid
manufacturing technique that uses a high power laser (for
example, a carbon dioxide laser) to fuse small particles of
plastic, metal, or ceramic powders into a mass
representing a desired 3-dimensional object. The laser
selectively fuses powdered material by scanning cross-
sections generated from a 3-D digital description of the
part (e.g. from a CAD file or scan data) on the surface of a
powder bed. After each cross-section is scanned, the
powder bed is lowered by one layer thickness, a new layer
of material is applied on top, and the process is repeated
until the part is completed.
Laser beam selectively fuses powder materials:
nylon, elastomer, and some metals

Advantage over SLA: Variety of materials and ability

to fabricate common engineering plastic materials.

Process is simple: There are no milling steps


Uncured material is easily removed after a build by

brushing or blowing it off.
Like most other RP processes (such as 3D Printing and
stereolithography) FDM works on an "additive" principle by
laying down material in layers. A plastic filament or metal
wire is unwound from a coil and supplies material to an
extrusion nozzle which can turn on and off the flow. The
nozzle is heated to melt the material and can be moved in
both horizontal and vertical directions by a numerically
controlled mechanism, directly controlled by a Computer
Aided Design software package. In a similar manner to
stereolithography, the model is built up from layers as the
plastic hardens immediately after extrusion from the nozzle.
Parts up to 600 × 600 × 500 mm (24 × 24 × 20 inches) can
be produced
EBM has a wide range of applications specially
in biomedical

Here are the artificial pelvic musels made by

this technology
Fabrication using EBM
Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) is a rapid
prototyping system developed by Helisys Inc. In it,
layers of adhesive-coated paper are successively
glued together and cut to shape with a laser cutter.
The SGC process uses photosensitive resin hardened in
layers as with the Stereolitheography (SLA) process.
However, in contrast to SLA, the SGC process is
considered a high-throughput production process. The
high throughput is achieved by hardening each layer of
photosensitive resin at once.
The flat work surface is
sprayed with photosensitive

A photomask is produced
The photomask is positioned
over the work surface and a
powerful UV lamp hardens
the exposed photosensitive

All uncured resin is

vacuumed for recycling.
The cured layer is passed
beneath a strong linear UV
lamp to fully cure it and to
solidify any remnant
wax replaces the cavities left by
vacuuming the liquid resin

In the final step before the

next layer, the wax/resin
surface is milled flat to an
accurate, reliable finish for the
next layer
Once all layers are completed, the
wax is removed, and any finishing
operations such as sanding, etc. can
be performed.
• Rapid prototyping
makes it possible to
manufacture an
artificial limb.