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DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

ANDHRA PRADESH
Name :M.Subramanyam
Designation :Senior Lecturer
Branch :Computer Engg.
Institute :Q.Q.Govt.Polytechnic,Hyderabad.
Year/Semester :III Semester
Subject :UNIX & C
Subject Code :CM-304
Topic :Files
Duration :50 Min
Sub Topic :File Processing facilities
Teaching Aids :PPTs, Animation
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Recap

 Can you store data permanently in variables.

 Can you store data permanently in arrays.

 Are the variables temporary or permanent.

 Are the variables created in RAM or Disk.

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Objectives

On completion of this period, you would be able


to know…
 Program file
 Data files
 Data hierarchy
 Interaction between console and program
 Interaction between file and program

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Introduction to Files

Records
Program file
Data file

a,b & c are


temporary variables

Data file contains only data

Program file contains only code,


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Data files

Data files
 Can be created, updated, and processed by
C programs.
 Storage of data in variables and arrays is only
temporary.
 Data files are used for permanent storage of
large amounts of data.

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Data Hierarchy

 Bit – smallest data item


 Value of 0 or 1
 Byte – 8 bits
 Used to store a character
 Decimal digits, letters, and special
symbols

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Data Hierarchy
Contd..

 Field – group of characters conveying


meaning.
Example: your name
 Record – group of related fields.
 Represented by a struct.
 Example: In a payroll system, a record for a
particular employee that contained his/her
identification number, name, address, etc.,

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Data Hierarchy
Contd..

 Data Hierarchy

 File – group of related records.

Example: employee file

 Database – group of related files.

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Example

Fig.1

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Steps for File operations
Steps Operation Function(s)
Step1 Opening a file or fopen()
creating a file

Step2 Read data from file or fgetc(), fputc(), fgets(),


write data to file fputs(), getw(), putw(),
fscanf(), fprintf(),
fread(), fwrite()
Step3 Save and Close the fclose()
file

Fig.2

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Data Communication
Interaction between OUTPUT
INPUT program and file

the file
Write data to
file
Read data from

fputc()
getw()
fgetc() files fputs()
putw()
fgets()
fscanf() Disk fprintf()
fread() fwrite()
------

output device
Send data to the
printf()
from the KB
Read data

scanf()
gets()
RAM( Program+data) puts()
putchar()
getchar() etc
etc Interaction
between
Keyboard program and Monitor
console
Fig.3

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Summary

In this period, you have learnt about…


 Text file contains only text.
 Data file contains data.
 The hierarchy of bit, byte, field, record and file.
 Steps to perform file operations.
 Interaction between console and program.
 Interaction between file and program.
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Quiz

1)The fscanf() reads data from


a) file
b) keyboard
c) both 1 and 2
d) none

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Quiz

1)The fscanf() reads data from


a) file
b) keyboard
c) both 1 and 2
d) none

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Quiz

2)The printf() writes data to


a) file
b) monitor
c) keyboard
d) none

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Quiz

2)The printf() writes data to


a) file
b) monitor
c) keyboard
d) none

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Frequently Asked Questions

1. Write the steps to perform file operations.

2. List different file I/O functions.

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