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Chapter 1 Power Electronic Systems

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Power Electronic Systems

• Block diagram
• Role of Power Electronics
• Reasons for growth
1. Advances in microelectronics enabling the fabrication of high performance
controllers in both digital and analog forms.
2. Revolutionary improvements in the capabilities (voltage, current, power
dissipation, switching speeds) of semiconductor devices which operate as the
switches in power electronic converters.
3. Large expansion of the market for power electronic converters.

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Linear or switch mode use of semiconductors

In linear electronics, semiconductor devices are used in the


middle of their linear amplification regions where both the
voltage across the component and the current thru it are
relatively large. This results in high power dissipation.
In power electronics, the semiconductor devices are used
as switches. When the device is on (approximating a closed
switch) the voltage across the device is very low (usually 1-
3 volts maximum) and the current through it is large. The
power dissipation, while substantial, is much less than
operating in the linear amplification region at the same
current level. When the device is off (approximating an open
switch) the voltage across the component is large but the
current is very small and the power dissipation in the off
state can usually be considered as zero.
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• Series transistor as an adjustable
resistor
• Low Efficiency
• Heavy and bulky

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Switch-Mode Power Supply

• Transistor as a switch
• High Efficiency
• High-Frequency Transformer

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Basic Principle of Switch-Mode Synthesis

• Constant switching frequency


• pulse width controls the average
• L-C filters the ripple

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Application in Adjustable Speed Drives

• Conventional drive wastes energy across the throttling


valve to adjust flow rate
• Using power electronics, motor-pump speed is adjusted
efficiently to deliver the required flow rate

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Scope and Applications

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The table shown below characterizes the application areas in terms of the
relative importance or priority the power electronics designer must place on
each of the listed specifications. The assessments in the table are highly
qualitative.

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Power Processor as a Combination of
Converters

• Most practical topologies require an energy


storage element, which also decouples the input
and the output side converters
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Power Flow through Converters

• Converter is a general term


• An ac/dc converter is shown here
• Rectifier Mode of operation when power from ac to
dc
• Inverter Mode of operation when power from ac to dc
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AC Motor Drive

• Converter 1 rectifies line-frequency ac into dc


• Capacitor acts as a filter; stores energy; decouples
• Converter 2 synthesizes low-frequency ac to motor
• Polarity of dc-bus voltage remains unchanged
– ideally suited for transistors of converter 2

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Matrix Converter

• Very general structure


• Would benefit from bi-directional and bi-polarity switches
• Being considered for use in specific applications
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Interdisciplinary Nature of Power Electronics

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