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Analog television

● Introduction
● Analog TV systems
● Progressive and interlaced systems
● Synchronism signals
● Composite signal
● Components signal
● NTSC and PAL systems
● Sampling of the TV signal

1
Basic TV system

Amplitude
Camera Transmitter

Real world Electrical signal

Visual system
TV screen Receiver

2
Human visual system
Sclera

Vitreous humor
Iris
Cornea Lens
Fovea

Aqueous
humor  Retina Optic nerve

Blind  spot

Glare limit

0.01

Subjective brightness
Adaptation range
Sensibility to contrast

0.02 8 Ba
ee) r

Bb
deg

0.05 4
es/
ycl

2
0.1
 (c
cy 

Scotopic
1
uen

0.2
re q

0.5
al f

0.5 Photopic
ati

Scotopic
1 1.5 2 3 4 6 8 1216 24
Sp

threshold 

Temporal frequency (Hz)
Log of intensity
3
Progressive TV system

Number of lines per image:

Depends on desired vertical definition

Number of images per second:

No flicker > 50
Motion sensation > 15
4
Vertical definition (1)
1 cycle

33.5 cycles
per image height

5
Vertical definition (2)
1 cycle

6.5 cycles
per image height

6
Vertical definition (3)

1 cycle

1.5 cycles
per image height

7
Horizontal definition (1)

1 cycle

33.5 cycles
per image width
8
Horizontal definition (2)

6.5 cycles
1 cycle per image width

9
Horizontal definition (3)

1 cycle

1.5 cycles
per image width 10
Interlaced TV system (1)
1/60s 1/60s 1/30s
1 2
3 4
5
6
7 + 8 =
9
10
11 12
13
14
15

Odd field Even field Complete image

A C C A
1
2
3
4
5
6

B B
D D
Odd lines Odd field flyback Even lines Even field flyback

Number of lines: 525 Number of fields: 60


Number of images: 30 2 fields = 1 image
11
Interlaced TV system (2)
1 .
A C
.
3
2
5
4
7
6
9
8
11
10
13
12
15
14
17

. .
16
19
18
D B

Horizontal scanning
Horizontal flyback
Vertical flyback
12
TV signal - B/W
Horizontal
synchronism

100 Maximum level


Amplitude %

75 Blanking level

50

25

0 White level
Video signal
Line N
13
Field synchronism

even

odd

14
TV signal spectrum - B/W
fh: Line frequency (15.750)

fv: Field frequency (60)

f
0
fv 2fv fh 2fh

f
0 5 MHz
15
TV emitter - B/W

Sound 
carrier

Microphone
Audio 
Amplif.
FM
modulator
RF 
Amplif. +
TV camera
Video  Video  Vestigial
Video  AM
adder R.F.  Lateral band 
Amplif. modulator
+  sync Amplif. filter

camara
Sync. Video 
time
generation carrier
base

16
Gamma correction
2.8
Y Y=X

1 1/2.8
Y=X

er 
itt
Em

0.5

r
ive
ce
Re

0 0.5 1 X

17
TV receiver - B/W
   Limiter  Sound Sound 
Amplif. detector Amplif.

FI Video
Tuner Detector
Amplifier Amplif.

Delay
GAC
GAC

Sync.  Line  Line


Sync processing oscilator output
separator Sync  Field Field
processing oscilator output

18
Color TV systems

R - Red G - Green B - Blue

R
G Bandwidth is
Camera
B 3 x 5 MHz = 15 Mhz

19
Component TV color signals
R Y = 0.30R + 0.59G + 0.11B 5 MHz
Camera G u = 0.495 (B – Y) 1 MHz
B v = 0.877 (R - Y) 1 Mhz
Bandwidth is 7 Mhz

Y - Luminance u = 0.495 (B – Y) v = 0.877 (R - Y)


20
TV color signals (1)
R Y = 0.30R + 0.59G + 0.11B 5 MHz
Camera G R-Y 1 MHz
B B-Y 1 Mhz
Bandwidth is 7 Mhz

R-Y = R - (0.30R + 0.59G + 0.11B) = 0.7R - 0.59G - 0.11B

B-Y = B - (0.30R + 0.59G + 0.11B) = -0.3R - 0.59G + 0.89B

Y Y+R-Y=R
R-Y Receiver Y+G-Y=G Screen
B-Y Y+B-Y=B

G - Y = -(0.3/0.59)(R - Y) - (0.11/0.59)(B - Y)
21
TV color signals(2)

Saturated magenta

Saturated yellow
Saturated green
Desaturated red

Saturated cyan
Saturated red

Saturated blue
Saturated red
(very bright)

(less bright)
White

Gray
1.0 1.0
0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0
0.20 0 0 0
R
1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
0.20 0.5 0 0
G 0 0
1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
0.20 0.5
0 0 0 0
B
1.0
0.65 0.59 0.70 0.89
0.20 0.30 0.15 0.11 0.41
Y
0.70
0 0 0.35 0.35 0.11
R-Y
­0.59 ­0.70
0 0 0.41 ­0.11 ­0.59
0.30 0.11
G-Y
­0.11 ­0.41
0 0 ­0.30 ­0.15 ­0.15 0.89 0.59
0.30
B-Y

­0.30 ­0.15 ­0.15 ­0.59 ­0.89


22
NTSC signals
NTSC defines

I = 0.877 (R – Y) cos 33 – 0.493 (B – Y) sin 33

Q = 0.877 (R – Y) sin 33 + 0.493 (B – Y) cos 33

I Bandwidth: 1.5 Mhz

Q Bandwidth: 0.5 Mhz

Note: Next slides will use, (I,Q), (u,v) or (R-Y, B-Y) indistinctly
Signals are not exactly the same, but concepts are.
There is a weighting factor applied
23
Colors and u-v signals

0.877 (R­Y)  0.7

Red 0.6
103°
0.5 Magenta 
0.4 61°

0.3
Yellow 0.2
saturation
167°
0.1 Hue
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

­0.7 ­0.6 ­0.5 ­0.4 ­0.3 ­0.2 ­0.1 U 


­0.1 0.493 (B­Y)
Blue 
­0.2
347°
­0.3

Green ­0.4
241°
­0.5
Cyan 
­0.6 283°
­0.7

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Transmission of color signals -
NTSC
I Amplitude
modulator 

+90
CHROMINANCE

subcarrier +
oscilator S(t)
3.58 Mhz

Q Amplitude
modulation 
S(t) = I cos(ωst+33) + Q sin(ωst+33)

25
Chrominance signal

Magenta
Yellow
White

Black
Green
Cyan

Blue
Red
0.0
0.11
Burst   
10 ± 1 cycles  0.30
0.41

0.70
0.59 Luminance signal
0.89
1.0

0.90
0.83
0.90

0.83
0.76

0.76
Chrominance signal
0.83

0.83
0.76

0.76
0.90

0.90

26
Composite video signal

­0.33 ­0.4
100 %

0.90
­0.2

0.76
0

0.83
75%
0.2
Carrier amplitude

0.83
0.76
0.4

0.90

0.90
0.6

0.76
0.8

0.83
1.0

0.83
20 %
0.76

1.2
1.33
0
0.90

1.4

27
Weighted composite video
signal

Yellow

Magenta
White

Black
Cyan
Cyan

Blue
Red
100 % ­0.33 ­0.4
­0.2

0.44
Black level

0.63
75 % 0
Carrier amplitude 

0.59
0.2

0.59
0.63

0.44
0.4
0.6

0.63
0.44

0.59
White level 0.8
0.59
1.0
0.63

20 %
0.44

1.33 1.2
0 1.4

28
Composite video signal
spectrum
Y

0 1 2 3 4 5 f (MHz)

0 1 2 3 4 5 f (MHz)
Bandwidth depends on (I,Q) or (u,v) signals

v
0 1 2 3 4 5 f (MHz)
Bandwidth depends on (I,Q) or (u,v) signals

Composite signal
f (MHz)
0 1 2 3 4 5

4. 43 (color subcarrier - PAL)


3.58 (color subcarrier – NTSC) 29
PAL system (1)
0.877 (R-Y)

Line n

R – Y is switched each line φ


to compensate for the 0.493 (B-Y)
phase errors (hue)
0.493 (B-Y)

Line n+1

-0.877 (R-Y)

S(t) = (B-Y)sin(ωst) + (R-Y)cos(ωst)


-
30
PAL system (2)
R­Y R­Y

Cn
En
En
ϕ
C 'n+1

B­Y B­Y
ϕ C n+1
E n+1
E n+1
EMITTER RECEIVER

31
Sampling of the TV signal
● Component sampling
Applications: multimedia, Digital TV

● Composite signal sampling


Applications at the TV receiver
Image enhancement
Flicker reduction

32
Component sampling

ITU - 601 CIF QCIF

Sampled signals Y, u, v Y, u, v Y, u, v

Sampling frequency Mhz. (Y) 13.5 - (u,v) 6.75 (Y) 6.75 - (u,v) 3.375 (Y) 6.75 - (u,v) 3.375

Sampling structure orthogonal 1:1 orthogonal 1:1 orthogonal 1:1

Pixels / image (Y): 720 x 576 (Y): 352 x 288 (Y): 176 x 144
(u,v): 360 x 288 (u,v): 176 x 144 (u,v): 88 x 72

Bits/pixel 8 8 8

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