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ModeIs

InternaI Effectiveness ExternaI Effectiveness


ndividual
Level
nstitutional
Level
Community
Level
Society
Level
nternational
Level
Goal X X X X X
Resource-nput X X
Process X X
Satisfaction X X X X X
Legitimacy X X X
neffectiveness X X
Organizational
Learning
X X X X X
Total Quality
Management
X X X X X
< Referring to the extent to which the conceptions of
SE in models are consistent
< High model congruence indicates that the criteria
and indicators of effectiveness developed are
similar, consistent, compatible, or at least not
conflicting in nature.
< The degree to which the school's productive output
meets standards of quantity, quality, and timeliness of
people who receive, review, and/or use that output.
< The degree which the process of carrying out the work
enhances the capability of school members to work
together interdependently in the future
< The degree to which the school experience contributes
to the growth and personal well-being of school
members.
Time
Criterion
A
Criterion
B
Criterion
C
Criterion
D
Criterion
E
Condition
School based management
Driving Forces
Leadership
Strategic management
mechanism
Environmental
Analysis
Systematic planning
& structuring
Appropriate staffing
& directing
Constructive monitoring
& evaluating
Next cycle
Leadership
Strategic Management Process in School
ModeIs of SE SBM & SM
Goal Model Goals are subject to review and development after cyclic environment
analysis
System-resource model Flexibility of procuration and use of resources is increased; autonomy is
given to procuration of more resources; strategic planning helps to procure
more resources
nternal process model nternal environment is reviewed and analyzed cyclically; evaluation and
development planning facilitate improvement and development for
individuals, groups and the school
Legitimacy model Systematic environmental analysis and school evaluation help the school
develop appropriate legitimate activities and ensure accountability
Organizational learning
model
Strategic management planning process is continuous learning process that
helps the school be aware of the changing educational environment and
needs, overcome external constraints and internal barriers, improve
performance, and develop itself effectively
neffectiveness
model
Systematic school evaluation provides information for improving
poor performance, solving problems, and eliminating difficulties
< Terdapat beberapa definisi:-
< Suatu item maklumat yang dikumpul dalam satu
jangka masa tertentu (skala interval) untuk
melihat/mengesan perkembangan atau
pencapaian prestasi sesebuah sistem Fitz-
Gibbon , 1990
< Statistik yang dikumpul dalam suatu jangka masa
tertentu untuk melihat/mengesan pencapaian
prestasi suatu sistem pendidikan - Ergo, 1990
< Himpunan statistik dengan konstruk asas
pendidikan dan berguna dalam konteks amalan
polisi pendidikan Shavelson -1989
< Statistik yang layak dipanggil indikator bila ia
dapat menerangkan sebahagian besar atau
seluruh sistem walaupun dengan sedikit angka
yang signifikan (OER, 1988)
< Sebagai contoh:-
< Jumlah pelajar yang mendaftar (bukan indikator)
kerana tidak menerangkan fungsi
< Kadar pelajar yang lulus Matematik berbanding
jumlah yang ambil (indikator)
< Jika digunakan untuk mendapat maklum balas
pencapaian pendidikan:-
mesti memberi maklumat yang sah dan
berkaitan dengan matlamat yang ditetapkan
Mesti mengandungi maklumat berkenaan ciri-ciri
berkaitan dengan tindakan bagi menggelakkan
pengaruh pelaksana dan pembuat dasar
ndikator mesti bersifat informatif, adil dan diterima
sebagai berguna untuk membolehkan sebarang
penggunaan yang melibatkan kos
Jika suatu perubahan berlaku, indikator harus
sensitif untuk menggambarkan perubahan
tersebut
Pelaksana mesti menerima indikator pendidikan
sebagai benar jika ingin digunakan sebagai
indikator kepada sesuatu perubahan yang bakal
berlaku dalam sebuah organisasi
< Terdapat dua pendekatan:-
< 'Sistem Modelling
- indikator dipilih untuk menjelaskan tujuan
pelaksanaan sesuatu sistem (kompleksiti proses
pendidikan)
- melibatkan pungutan data pelbagai variabel dari
tahap yang berbeza
- sukar dilaksana dalam skala yang kecil kerana
melibatkan kos yang tinggi
< Problem Finding
bertujuan untuk mencari indikator yang dapat
memberi tanda tanda kewujudan masalah
mempunyai fokus yang konsisten dengan sistem
pengurusan
mudah dilaksana dalam skala yang kecil
< ndikator perlu rujuk kepada nilai hasil keluaran
mengikut unit yang diuruskan
< ndikator berkait outcomes lihat staf mana yang
mampu memberi pengaruh
< ndikator outcomes adalah bersifat kontekstual
perlu dijelaskan bagi memperoleh keadilan
< ndikator mampu memberi maklum balas kepada
penambahbaikan pengurusan (tidak berguna jika
simpan dalam fail sahaja)
< ndikator harus diterimapakai, dan adil bagi semua
< ndikator harus boleh menerangkan mengenai
sesuatu
< ndikator tidak menipu lebih banyak data
digunakan untuk umum lebih sedikit penipuan
yang didapati
< ndikator boleh diuji semak
< ndikator boleh dianggap telah diperbaiki jika
pencapaian sesuatu unit dilihat ada perubahan
< Harus diambil dari segi masa, proses yang
dijalankan dan hasil yang akan diperoleh
< Harus berdasarkan kepada apa yang hendak
dinilai bermula dengan hasil
< Kebiasaan hasil yang dilihat adalah pencapaian
pelajar
< ntake : Enrolment, resource basis
< Process : Attendance, resource allocation
< mmediate Output : Completion rates, cost
analysis
< Long term outcomes : employment, education,
prisons, cost benefit analysis
Productions : Student and school resources
< ntake : well being, satisfaction, interests
< Process: experiences (breadth, value)
< mmediate output: satisfaction measures,
responses to courses and to institution
< Long term outcomes: adult reported quality of life.
Freedom form negative outcomes
Quality of Life: intrinsic values
< ntake: characteristic attitudes, expectations, values,
motivation
< Process: support services, counselling, pastoral care,
teaching and learning process
< mmediate output: attitudes of concern on the course
< Long term outcomes: values from course and perceived
value of course in the light of experience
Affective domain
< ntake; prior skills and behaviors
< Process; teaching and learning processes aimed at the
behavioral outcomes including skills
< mmediate output; skills, health practices, fitness
< Long term outcomes; retained skills and behaviors
Behavioral domain: prior skills and behaviors
< ntake; prior achievement and developed aptitudes,
expectations of the course
< Process; teaching and learning processes aimed at
academic outcomes, knowledge and understanding
< mmediate output; raw achievement and value added
< Long term outcomes; retained knowledge and
understanding
Cognitive domain: aptitudes and achievement
< Produktiviti
< Effisiensi
< Kualiti
< Ketidakhadiran
< Turnover" (pusing ganti)
< Kepuasan kerja guru
< Kepuasan pelajar
< Motivasi
< Kejelekitan (Kolaboratif)
< oal consensus"
< "Internalization of organizational goals"
< "Leadership management skills"
< "Information management and
communications"
< "Readiness"
< Stability"
< "Training and development emphasis"
< "Achievement emphasis"
< Teacher Characteristics
Formal educational attainment
Teacher training attainment
Age/experience
Attrition/turnover
Subject specialization
Subject mastery
Verbal ability
Attitudes
Availability measures
< Facilities
School size
Students per school
Students per class
Classroom per school
Classes per classroom
Availability of special-use facilities
Utilization of special facilities
Condition of facilities
< Equipment
Availability
Utilization
Condition
Curriculum/educational materials
Availability of textbook and support materials
Utilization of textbook and support materials
Articulation of curriculum
Dissemination of curriculum
< Administrative capacity
Educational attainment
Administrative training
Age/experience
Organizational context and incentives
< Administrative Behavior
Frequency, extent and purpose of external
administrative visits.
Nature, frequency, and result of contact with
community
< Teacher Time Allocations
Administrative tasks
nstructional tasks
Preparation
nstruction
Review
Remediation
Monitoring and evaluation
< Student time allocations
Time on-task
nteraction with teacher
nteraction with peers
nteraction with materials and equipment
Time off-task
< Attainment
Progression rates
Attrition rates
Repetition rates
< Achievement
Examination results
Absolute levels
Averages
Scores relative to other groups
Mastery levels
Achievement gains
Effects size
School grades
Attitudes and behaviors
Equity effects
Range
Quantile deviation
Mean deviation
Distribution among criterion levels
< Admission to further study
< Achievement in further study
< Employment
nitial occupational choice
Lifetime occupational choice
Aggregate employment rates
Job search periods
Earining
< Attitudes and Behaviors
Social responsibilities
Social views and opinions
Politicals orientation
Consumer behavior
Externalities
ncreased social mobility
Change in personal values
mproved political participation
Reduced unemployment
mproved mix of manpower skills. etc
< From whose perspective is effectiveness to be
judged?
< Which area of activity within an organization
determines effectiveness?
< At which level of the organization is
effectiveness analyzed?
< What sort of data is used to form an opinion on
effectiveness?
< What standards or measures are used in order
to make effectiveness judgments?
< When trying to find school effects importance of
schools the following points need to be
addressed:-
< Which criterion should be used?
Achievement or attainment measures?
ntermediate or ultimate effectiveness measures?
General or specific curriculum test?