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the internal condition that activates behavior and gives it direction. Energizes and directs goal-oriented behavior. The force that causes and individual to behave in a specific way.

According to various theories, motivation maybe be rooted in the basic need to minimized physical pain and maximized pleasure. Basic needs: Eating Resting Drinking (water)





i-a. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION comes from rewards inherent to a task or activity itself. not only makes people perform well and more accurately, but the people do not expect anything for doing it- the activity in itself is the reward.

INTRINSIC MOTIVATION Feeling of competency Personal development

i-b. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION comes from outside of the performer. they are valued outcomes given to someone by another person. (supervisor or higher level manager)

EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION Money > pay bonuses Promotions Time off Special Assignments Award Verbal praise


SELF-CONTROL is increasingly understood as a subset of emotional intelligence. A person may be highly intelligent to a more conservative definition, yet unmotivated to dedicate this intelligence to a certain task.




THE INCENTIVE THEORY A reward, tangible or intangible, is presented after the occurrence of an action (behavior) with the intent to cause the behavior to occur again. Sources of motivation: Oneself (intrinsic motivation) Other people (extrinsic motivation)



ii-a. Need Hierarchy Theory human beings have wants and desires which influence their behavior. Only unsatisfied needs influence, satisfied needs do not. since needs are many, they are arranged in order or importance, from the basic to the complex. the person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is a least minimally satisfied.

Maslows Hierarchy of Human Needs:

( LOWEST (basic) to HIGHEST (most complex) )
Physiological needs > > >

To satisfy, offers:
rest and refreshment breaks physical comfort on the job reasonable work hours

Safety needs

> > >

safe working conditions job security base compensation and benefits

Social needs / Belongingness

> > >

friendly workers interaction with customers pleasant supervisors

Esteem needs

> > >

responsibility of an important job promotion to higher status job praise and recognition from boss

Self-actualization needs

> > >

creative and challenging work participation in decision making job flexibility and autonomy

ii-b. Herzbergs Two Factor Theory



Motivators or Satisfiers gives positive satisfaction Challenging work Recognition Responsibility Growth opportunities Achievements

ii-b. Herzbergs Two Factor Theory


Hygiene Factors Do not motivate if present, but if absent, result in demotivation. Salary Job security Fringe benefits Working conditions Organizational policies Technical quality of supervision

COGNITIVE THEORIES iii-a. Goal-setting Theory is based on the notion that individuals sometimes have a drive to reach a clearly defined end state. Often, this end state is a reward in itself. A goals efficiency is affected by 3 features: Proximity Difficulty Specificity

PROXIMITY An ideal goal should present a situation where the time between the initiation of behavior and the end state is close. DIFFICULTY A goal should be moderate; not too hard or not too easy. SPECIFICITY The goal should be objectively defined and intelligible for the individual.

Douglas Vermeeren states that: That unless an individual can clearly identify their motivating factors or their significant and meaningful reasons why they wish to attain the goal, they will never have the power to attain it. The failure is directly attributed to motivating factors.


Reinforcement Theory
(based on E.L. THORNDIKES LAW)

simply looks at the relationship between behavior and its consequences. This theory focuses on modifying an employees onthe-job behavior through the appropriate use of one of the following four techniques:
Positive reinforcement rewards desirable behavior. Avoidance is an attempt to show and employee what the consequences of improper behavior will be. Extinction is basically ignoring the behavior of a subordinate and not providing either positive of negative reinforcement. Punishment (threats, suspension) is an attempt to decrease the likelihood of a behavior recurring by applying negative consequences.

1. 2.



Discussion Outline: The Significance of Communication Communication and the Managers Job The Communication Process Methods of Communication Communication Channel Organizational Communication Personal Communication Channels Communicating During Turbulent Times Managing Organizational Communication

What is communication?

process by which information is exchanged and understood by two or more people, usually with the intent to motivate or influence behavior.

Why is communication significant to management?

Communication is a linking process to management. Communication is the primary means by which people obtain and exchange information. The most consuming activity the manager engages. Information and communication represent power in organizations.

The Manager as Communication Champion

External Information
Source: Adapted from Henry Mintzberg, The Nature Of Managerial Work(New York:Harper & Row, 1973),72.

Internal Information

Manager as Communication Champion


Strategic Conversations
Open Communication Listening Dialogue Feedback

Direct attention to vision, values, desired outcomes Influence employee behavior

Rich Channels Upward, downward, and horizontal channels Nonverbal communication Personal networks

Model of Communication Process

Methods of Communication

Dialogue/Verbal Communication (Oral)

Non-verbal Communication Written/Visual Communication

Elements for Effective Oral Communication

Active Listening - making sense of what is heard and requires

paying attention, interpreting, and remembering sound stimuli.

Constructive Feedback
- managers often do poor jobs of providing employees with performance feedback.

Nonverbal Communication
Messages sent through human actions and behavior rather through words. Most nonverbal communication is unconscious or subconscious. Occurs mostly face-to-face. Three factors in message interpretation.

Verbal Impact: 7 percent. Vocal Impact: 38 percent. Facial Impact: 55 percent.

The Pyramid of Channel Richness


Organizational Communication: Downward, Upward, and Horizontal Communication

SOURCE: Adopted from Richard L. Daft and Richard M. Steers, Organizations; A Micro-Macro Approach, 538 Copyright 1986 by Scott, Foresman and Company, Used by permission.

Downward Communication
Messages sent from top management down to subordinates. Most familiar and obvious flow of formal communication. Major problem is drop off. Another concern, distortion.

Upward Communication

Messages that flow from the lower to the higher levels in the organizations. Upward communications mechanisms:
1. 2. 3. 4. Suggestion boxes. Employee surveys. MIS reports. Face to face conversations.

Horizontal Communication

lateral or diagonal exchange of messages among peers or co-workers may occur across departments
purpose is not only to inform but also to request support and coordinate activities

Personal Communication Channels


Communication channels that exist outside the formally authorized channels and do not adhere to the organizations hierarchy of authority

Types of Personal Communication Channels Personal Networks Management By Wandering Around Grapevine

Personal Networks

refers to the acquisition and cultivation of personal relationships that cross departmental, hierarchical and even organizational boundaries

Management by Wandering Around

Mingle and develop positive relationships with employees and learn directly from them about their department, division or organization
Managers have chance to describe key ideas and values and in turn learn about the problems and issues confronting employees

The Grapevine

An informal person to person communication network of employees that is not officially sanctioned by the organization Tends to be more active during periods of change. About 80% of topics are business related. About 70-90% of details of grapevine are accurate.

Communicating During Turbulent Times

Open Communication
Dialogue Crisis Communication Feedback and Learning

Communication Barriers & Ways to Overcome Them

Interpersonal Dynamics Channels and Media Semantics Inconsistent Cues

How to Overcome
Active Listening Selection of appropriate channel Knowledge of others perspective MBWA

Status and power differences Departmental needs and goals Climate status of trust, Dialogue Development and use of formal channels Encouragement of multiple channels, formal and informal Changing organization or group structure to fit communication needs Feedback and learning

Lack of formal channels

Communication channels not suited to task Poor coordination

Richard L. Daft, Management, Seventh Edition (Thomson Asian Edition), Chapter 17, Communication, p.622-657 nagement-and-Organizations.topicArticleId-8944,articleId8847.html erpoint/ch14.ppt.

Thank You!


Ten Keys to Effective Listening

SOURCE: Adapted from Sherman K. Okum, How to Be a Better Listener, Nations Business (August 1975), 62 and Philip Morgan and Kent Baker, Building a Professional Image; Improving Listening Behavior, Supervisory Management (November 1985), 34-38.

Dialogue and Discussion: The Differences

Conversation Lack of understanding, disagreement, divergent points of view



Reveal feelings Explore assumptions Suspend convictions Build common ground

State positions Advocate convictions Convince others Build oppositions

Long-term, innovative solutions Unified group Shared meaning Transformed mind-sets

Short-term resolution Agreement by logic Opposition beaten down Mind-sets held onto

Source:Adapted from Edgar Schein, On Dialogue, Culture, and Organization Learning, Organizational Dynamics (Autumn 1993), 46.