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General objective To learn and understand the oxidation reaction of alkenes, carbonyl compounds and hydroxyl compounds (alcohols).

Objective: At the end of the chapter, you should: -Know to define of the oxidation reaction.

-State the product of the oxidation reaction

-Complete and write the equation of oxidation reaction

Oxidation reaction is a process of adding oxygen to the reactants in a chemical reaction. Usually the oxidation and reduction processes running simultaneously, and this reaction known as oxidation-reduction (redox reactions)

Example: -combustion alkane with oxygen The combustion of alkanes produce carbon dioxide and water and this are the main oxidation reactions of hydrocarbons

alkanes + O2

CO2+H2O + heat

CH4 + 2O2

CO2+2H2O + heat

C4H8 + 6O2

4CO2 + 4H2O + heat

The combustion of alkenes produce carbon dioxide and water CO2+H2O + heat 2CO2 +2H2O+ heat

- alkenes + O2 - C2H4 + 3O2

oxidation alkenes with acidic potassium permanganate and acidic potassium dichromate.( Baeyer reagent)

I I C = C + MnO4

I I C - C +MnO2 I I OH OH

cold KMnO4


1,2 ethandiol

The Oxidation reaction of an alcohol -Primary and secondary alcohols can be oxidized into a carbonyl compounds - 1 alcohol oxidized into aldehyde & carboxylic acid - 2 alcohol - oxidized into ketone - 3 alcohol cannot oxidized

The Oxidation reaction of Carbonyl group - Aldehyde -oxidized into carboxylic acids - ketones cannot oxidized


acidified KMnO4

metanoic acid

- Example:

The most common oxidizing agent used : acidic potassium permanganate, KMnO4 Acidic potassium dichromate, KCr2O7

RCH2OH +KMnO4 -ethanol +KMnO4

RCOOH+MnO2+ KOH ethanoic acid+MnO2+KOH ketone+2Cr3++ 7H2O propan-2-one

R-CH(OH)-R+K2Cr2O7 - 2-propanol +K2Cr2O7

Chapter 11 13

aldehyde +KMnO4 - methanal +KMnO4

carboxylic acid +MnO2 metanoic acid +MnO2 -

Tollen reagent test is one of the identification tests of aldehyde compounds from other organic compounds. When the aldehyde compound is mixed with Tollen reagents, a silver mirror layer (silver) will produce.

Add oxygen from oxidizing agent Insert O between H of carbon double oxygen
H2 C
H2 C

H 3C



+ (O)

Aldehydes can be easily oxidised to carboxylic acids This is the end of a two stage process that started with a primary alcohol
H O H C H H C H [O] O C H H C H H ethanal (aldehyde) This needs to be distilled off before further oxidation [O] O C O H H C H H ethanoic acid (carboxylic acid)

H ethanol (primary alcohol)

This is more simply represented as:

K 2Cr2O 7(aq)/H (aq) RCHO + [O] RCOOH reflux Aldehyde Carboxylic Acid

Ketones cannot be oxidised without the molecule being broken up. Notice the reagent: potassium dichromate
A2 Chemistry Carbonyls

Oxidation reaction is a process of adding oxygen to the reactants in a chemical reaction. Oxidation reactions of alkanes and alkenes would produce of carbon dioxide, water and heat.

Alkene reacts with a Baeyer reagent also an oxidation reaction that produces a diol compound.
Oxidation reactions of alcohol involve oxidizing agents such as acidic potassium permanganate and acidic potassium dichromate.

Oxidation reaction of primary alcohols will produce aldehydes and aldehyde will further oxidized to carboxylic acids.
Oxidation reaction of secondary alcohol will produce ketones. Ketone cannot be oxidized further to carboxylic acids.

Other oxidizing agents of an aldehyde are ammonium silver nitrate solution also known as Tollen reagents .

Organometallic Compounds
Carbon-metal bonds vary widely in character from mostly covalent to mostly ionic depending on the metal

The greater the ionic character of the bond, the more reactive the compound
Organopotassium compounds react explosively with water and burst into flame when exposed to air

Chapter 12


Preparation of Organolithium and Organomagnesium Compounds

Organolithium Compounds
Organolithium compounds can be prepared by reaction of an alkyl halide with lithium metal in an ether solvent
The order of reactivity of halides is R-I > R-Br > R-Cl (R-F is seldom used)

Chapter 12


Grignard Reagents
Grignard reagents are prepared by the reaction of organic halides with magnesium turnings
An ether solvent is used because it forms a complex with the Grignard reagent which stabilizes it

Chapter 12