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Objective: To understand basic Aero structure


Topics: 1. Fundamentals of Aerodynamics

2. Aero plane Parts


3. Aero plane Motions 4. Aero plane Forces 5. Structural Components and its application

AEROFOIL
is technically defined as any surface, such as an airplane aileron, elevator, rudder, wing, main rotor blades, or tail rotor blades designed to obtain reaction from the air through which it moves.

ASSYMETRICAL AEROFOIL SYMETRICAL AEROFOIL NACA1203 NACA0003 National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Maximum Camber as percentage : 0.01 X C Position of Maximum Camber : 0.2 X C Airfoil thickness as percentage : 0.03 X C C : Chord

Angle of Attack ()
This is the acute angle measured between the chord of an aerofoil and the relative wind.

Lift:
BERNOULLIS PRINCIPLE: This principle states that as the air velocity increases, the pressure decreases; and as the velocity decreases, the pressure increases . When air flows over the wing, Pressure P1 is created on the bottom surface due to velocity V1 Pressure P2 is created on the Top surface due to Velocity V2 P2<P1 Since V1<V2 Low pressure created on the upper surface of an airplane's wings compared to the pressure on the wing's lower surfaces, causing the wing to be LIFTED upward. This Produces a Resultant Upward Force called LIFT

PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION OVER AN AEROFOIL

CAUSE OF LIFT
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ANATOMY OF COMMERCIAL AEROPLANE

ANATOMY OF FIGHTER AEROPLANE

RADOME:

A housing for a radar antenna; which is dome like nonmetallic shell, transparent to radio waves

COCKPIT: A compartment in the front of the airplane where the flight crew performs their job of flying the aircraft.

FUSELAGE The main body structure of the airplane is fuselage to which all other components (such as wings and empennage) are attached. The fuselage contains the cockpit or flight deck, passenger compartment and cargo compartment.

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UNDERCARRIAGE (Landing Gear) The part of an aircraft that provides support while the aircraft is on the ground. It includes wheels, shock absorbers and support struts. There is an undercarriage unit under the nose of the aircraft as well as approximately midway back, under the fuselage.

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Straight Wing

Swept Wing

Forward Swept Wing

Oblique Wing
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VARIABLE SWEPT WING

DELTA WING

BI- PLANE

TRI- PLANE
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Winglet: Wingtip devices are usually intended to improve the efficiency of fixed wing air craft, to reduce the aircraft's drag by altering the airflow near the wingtips

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WING: A part an airplane that is attached to the fuselage. Wings are shaped like airfoils and are used to provide lift for the airplane

AILERONS, FLAP, SLATS AND SPOILERS: AILERONS: Ailerons are Control surfaces on the trailing edge of each wing that are used to make the aircraft roll

FLAPS: Flaps are Moveable parts of the trailing edge of a wing that are used to increase lift at slower air speeds. Flaps increase lift by changing the shape of the airfoil.

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FLAP, LEADING EDGE: Hinged section of the under side of the leading edge that, when extended, prevents airflow separation over the top of the wing. Leading edge flaps hinge at the leading edge of the airfoil.
FLAP, TRAILING EDGE: Hinged section of the trailing edge of the wing that can be lowered and extended. When lowered, flaps increase airplane lift at low speeds.

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SLATS: Slats are movable auxiliary airfoil located on the leading edge of the wings. When closed, it forms part of the normal contour of the wing; when opened it forms a slot and increases lift.

SLOT: An elongated passage through a wing whose primary function is to improve the air flow over the wing at high angles of attack.

Flaps and slats are used during takeoff and landing. They enable the airplane to get off the ground quickly and to land slowly.

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SPOILER A device, normally located on the top of the wing, for changing the airflow around a wing to reduce lift

EMPENNAGE: The aft portion of an aircraft, usually consisting of vertical stabilizer, horizontal stabilizer, to which control surfaces such as elevators and rudders are attached.

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HORIZONTAL STABILIZER: At the rear of the fuselage of most aircraft one finds a horizontal stabilizer and an elevator. The horizontal stabilizer is a fixed wing section whose job is to provide stability for the aircraft, to keep it flying straight. The horizontal stabilizer prevents up-and-down, or pitching, motion of the aircraft nose. It is also known as a tail plane. The elevator is the small moving section at the rear of the stabilizer that is attached to the fixed sections by hinges.

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ELEVATORS: Elevators are Control surfaces on the horizontal part of the tail that are used to make The aircraft pitch. Pulling back on the control stick will raise the elevators. This causes the aircraft to pitch and increase the angle of attack.

VERTICAL STABILIZER: At the rear of the fuselage of most aircraft one finds a vertical stabilizer and a rudder. The stabilizer is a fixed wing section whose job is to provide stability for the aircraft, to keep it flying straight. The vertical stabilizer prevents side-to-side, or yawing, motion of the aircraft nose. It is also known as a fin. The rudder is the small moving section at the rear of the stabilizer that is attached to the fixed sections by hinges.
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RUDDER: Rudder is a control surface on the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer that is used to make the aircraft yaw. The rudder is controlled by rudder pedals. Pushing the left rudder pedal will tilt the rudder to the left. This will cause the nose of the aircraft to turn to the left. JET ENGINE: An engine provides the thrust force that pushes the airplane through the air.

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CONTROLLING MOTION An airplane has three control surfaces: ailerons, elevators and a rudder. Within the cockpit, two controls operate the control surfaces. The control stick controls the ailerons and elevators. The rudder pedals control the rudders. Once in flight, an airplane can have six motions along and around the three axes. TRANSLATIONAL MOTION Motion along a straight line, such as an axis. The translational motions of an aircraft are forward and back along the longitudinal axis, side to side along the lateral axis, and up and down along the vertical axis. ROTATIONAL MOTION Pitch, roll and yaw are the rotational motions of an airplane around the lateral, longitudinal and vertical axes. Pitch : A rotational motion in which an airplane turns around its lateral axis. Elevators are Control surfaces on the horizontal part of the tail that are used to make the aircraft pitch. Roll : A rotational motion in which the aircraft turns around its longitudinal axis. Ailerons are Control surfaces on the trailing edge of each wing that are used to make the aircraft roll. Yaw : A rotational motion in which the aircraft turns around its vertical axis. Rudder is a control surface on the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer that is used to make the aircraft yaw.
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KEEPS THE AIRPLANE ON AIR

PULLS THE AIRPLANE FORWARD

THE FORCE RESISTING THE MOTION OF THE AIRCRAFT

WEIGHT OF THE AIRCRAFT

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FOR STEADY LEVEL FLIGHT ALL THE FORCES ARE BALANCED i.e.., LIFT

= WEIGHT & THRUST = DRAG


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A force may be thought of as a push or pull in a specific direction. This slide shows the forces that act on an airplane in flight. Weight Weight is the force generated by the gravitational attraction of the earth on the airplane. The weight force pulls an aircraft toward the Earth and must be overcome by a combination of lift and thrust. Lift Lift is an aerodynamic force that is perpendicular to the airflow around an aircraft. In normal flight, the lift force "lifts" the aircraft into the air. But most aircraft lift is generated by the wings. Drag Drag is the aerodynamic force that opposes an aircraft's motion through the air. Drag is generated by every part of the airplane. As the aircraft flies through the air, it resists the motion of the aircraft. This resistance is due to friction between the air molecules and the surface of the aircraft. Factors that affect the magnitude of the drag force including: the shape of the airplane, the "stickiness" of the air, the speed. Thrust Thrust is a mechanical force generated by the engines to move the aircraft through the air. The magnitude of the thrust depends on many factors associated with the propulsion system: type of engine, number of engines, throttle setting, and speed.
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Monocoque, from Greek for single (mono) and French for shell (coque), is a construction technique that supports structural load by using an object's external skin as opposed to using an internal frame or truss that is then covered with a non-load-bearing skin. Monocoque construction was first widely used in aircraft in the 1930s. Structural skin is another term for the same concept. Douglas DC-3

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AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS

DOUBLER:
A second sheet or plate installed next to the web or skin in a small area subject to high local loads to provide a double thickness of material. A Tripler is a third sheet to provide three layers of material.

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FRAME: A circumferential structural member in the body that supports the stringers and skin.

DECK: The horizontal floor in the control cabin or passenger cabin. The horizontal structure to support fuselage tank
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BULKHEAD: A heavy structural member in the fuselage to contain pressures or fluids or to disperse concentrated loads. A heavy circumferential frame that may or may not be entirely closed by a web.

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AIRCRAFT FRAME AND BULKHEADS

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FAIRING: An auxiliary structural member shaped to provide a smooth flow of air and reduce drag of a part to which it is fitted.

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LONGERON: A principal longitudinal member of the framing of an aircraft fuselage. Usually continuous across a number of points of support.

SKIN: The outside covering of an aircraft.


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STRINGER: Longitudinal members in the fuselage or span wise members in the wing to transmit skin loads into the body frames or wing ribs.

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STIFFENER: A metal part, other than flat sheet, formed or extruded and used in the framing of a structure to provide rigidity.

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WEB: A thin-gage plate of sheet, when supported by stiffening angles and framing, provides great shear strength for its weight. Used in many applications throughout an aircraft because of its strength to weight ratio.

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RIB: A light structure conforming to the shape of the airfoil over which the skin is attached and which transfers the air load to the spars.

CLIP: Sometimes called as a bracket. Usually a small angle used to attach light weight parts such as wiring clamps
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SPARS: A principal span wise beam in the structure of a wing, stabilizer. It is usually a primary load carrying member in the structure.

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CHORD: Sometimes called as a cap. A strong member that forms the edges of beam structures or heavy frames.

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HAT SECTION: The cross-section shape of the stringers used in the fuselage. A common rolled shape that looks like a top hat with the brim curled up.

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TRAINER A/C WING

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Composite materials (or composites)are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate and distinct on a macroscopic level within the finished structure. Composites are made up of individual materials referred to as constituent materials. There are two categories of constituent materials: matrix and reinforcement. The matrix material surrounds and supports the reinforcement materials by maintaining their relative positions. Engineered composite materials must be formed to shape. The matrix material can be introduced to the reinforcement before or after the reinforcement material is placed into the mold cavity or onto the mold surface. The matrix material experiences a melding event, after which the part shape is essentially set. Depending upon the nature of the matrix material, this melding event can occur in various ways such as chemical polymerization or solidification from the melted state. A variety of molding methods can be used according to the end-item design requirements. The principal factors impacting the methodology are the natures of the chosen matrix and reinforcement materials. Another important factor is the gross quantity of material to be produced. Large quantities can be used to justify high capital expenditures for rapid and automated manufacturing technology. Small production quantities are accommodated with lower capital expenditures but higher labor and tooling costs at a correspondingly slower rate. Most commercially produced composites use a polymer matrix material often called a resin solution. There are many different polymers available depending upon the starting raw ingredients. There are several broad categories, each with numerous variations. The most common are known as polyester, vinyl ester, epoxy,phenolic, polymide,polyamide,polypropylene,PEEK, and others. The reinforcement materials are often fibers. As a rule of thumb hand lay up results in a product containing 60% resin and 40% fibre, whereas vacuum infusion gives a final product with 40% resin and 60% fibre content. The strength of the product is greatly dependent on this ratio.

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