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Muslim Pharmacy

In

the field of pharmacy, the first drugstores were opened by Muslim pharmacists in Baghdad in 754 The first apothecary shops were also founded by Muslim practitioners

The advances made in the Middle East by Muslim chemists in botany and chemistry led Muslim physicians to substantially develop pharmacology

Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi (Rhazes) (865-915)


- acted to promote the medical uses of chemical compounds

Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) (936-1013)


-pioneered the preparation of medicines by sublimation and distillation - developed the Liber Servitoris

provides the readers with recipes and explains how to prepare the `simples from which were compounded the complex drugs then generally used

Sabur Ibn Sahl (d 869)


-the first physician to initiate pharmacopoedia, describing a large variety of drugs and remedies for ailments

Al-Biruni (973-1050)
- wrote one of the most valuable Islamic works on pharmacology entitled Kitab al-Saydalah

-also called The Book of Drugs

-give detailed knowledge of the properties of drugs and outlined the role of pharmacy and the functions and duties of the pharmacist

Ibn Sina (about 980-1037 A.D.)


Called Avicenna by the Western world

Persian Galen Pharmacist, poet, physician, philosopher and diplomat Among the brilliant contributors to the sciences of Pharmacy and Medicine during the Arabian era His pharmaceutical teachings were accepted as authority in the West until the 17th century; and still are dominant influences in the Orient.

Maridini

of Baghdad and Cairo Ibn al-Wafid (1008-1074)


- works were printed in Latin more than fifty times, appearing as De Medicinis Universalibus et Particularibus by `Mesue' and the Medicamentis Simplicibus by `Abenguefit
- Peter of Abano (1250-1316) translated and added a supplement to the work of al-Maridini under the title De Veneris

Al-Muwaffaq

Living in the 10th century wrote the foundations of the true properties of Remedies

described arsenious oxide and has been acquainted with silicic acid
made clear distinction between sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate drew attention to the poisonous nature of copper compounds, especially copper vitriol, and also lead compounds

For hundreds of years, the Arabic world has had a profound influence on the science and art of pharmacy. Pharmacy's independence from medicine can be traced to the opening of the private apothecary in Baghdad circa AD 750.While charlatans, spice and perfume sellers, and drug dealers were common in the 8th century, pharmacy was already beginning to emerge as a respected profession. Mercurial ointments, mortars and pestles, flasks and spatulas, as well as evidence-based pharmacotherapeutics have their roots in Arabic pharmacy. Abu Bakr Mohammad IbnZakariya al-Razi (864-930AD) was perhaps one of the first to challenge the medical dogma and quackery of the day, and was a prolific writer of books on medicinal remedies for both professional and lay public audiences.1 Overall, these early developments have had a significant impact on the subsequent maturation of pharmacy in Europe, and ultimately, the rest of the world.

In Saudi Arabia, the first college of pharmacy was established in King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, in 1959. The first year commenced with the enrollment of 17 students. Currently the total number of students in the College of Pharmacy at KSU has increased to over 1500 students. Other schools of pharmacy have since been established in Saudi Arabia. These include King Abdul Aziz University (KAAU) in Jeddah, The College of Dentistry and Pharmacy in Riyadh (a privately funded institution), The Faculty of Clinical Pharmacy at King Faisal University (KFU) in Al-Ehsa, Faculty of Pharmacy at King Khalid University in Abha

Chinese Pharmacy

Shen Nung (about 2000 B.C.)


Father of Chinese Pharmaceutics Emperor who started Chinese Pharmacy sought out and investigated the medicinal value of several hundred herbs wrote the first Pen T-Sao (The Botanical Basis of Pharmacy), or native herbal, recording 365 drugs, 11,000 Rx handed down by oral tradition Medicinal plants include podophyllum, rhubarb, ginseng, stramonium, cinnamon bark, and, in the boy's hand, ma huang, or Ephedra. Pharmaceutical records - clay tablets & long scrolls in 2000BC.

Pharmacy education in China focuses on pharmaceutical sciences, with the bachelor of science (BS) of pharmacy as the entry-level degree. Pharmacy practice curricula in these programs are centered on compounding, dispensing, pharmacy administration, and laboratory experiences, which are the traditional responsibilities for pharmacists. Additional graduate-level training is available at the master of science (MS) and the doctor of philosophy (PhD) levels, most of which concentrate on drug discovery and drug development research. Presently, the emphasis in practice is beginning to shift to clinical pharmacy. With this change, additional degree offerings are being developed to meet the growing demand for clinical pharmacists.

Modern higher education in pharmacy in China began in the Qing Dynasty in 1906. Before the establishment of the People's Republic of China In 1949, there were 8 schools and universities offering pharmacy programs and degrees. In 1955, the first university to recruit postgraduate pharmacy students in the People's Republic of China was Beijing Medical College (currently known as Peking University Health Science Center). Today, there are more than 257 pharmacy schools and universities that offer the BS degree and higher degrees throughout China. In 2005, more than 6,000 graduates received BS degrees, 800 received MS degrees, and 290 received PhD degrees in pharmacy.