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Environmental Management

Pollution and its control


The presence of a substance in the environment that prevents the functioning of natural processes and produces undesirable environmental and health effects. Pollutant = any material that causes pollution

Water Pollution

Sources of pollution

Point Sources

Sources of pollution with specific points of discharge. Examples:

Factories, Sewage Systems, Power Plants, Coal Mines, Oil wells etc.

Non-Point Sources

Sources of pollution that are harder to identify Examples: Agricultural runoff, Storm water drainage, Acid rain

Sources of pollution contd

Water Pollution - Terminology

Eutrophication water overly enriched w/ nutrients forming algal bloom (robs O2 from water) Half-life time for of substance to be destroyed, inactivated Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) regulatory maximum amount of pollutants allowed in water used by EPA

Plant Nutrients

Eutrophication of Surface Water

Fertilizers increase algal growth in water Eutrophication accelerates algal growth & O2 tieup N & P are the major culprits P pollution sources

Municipal sewage Direct dumping of wastes Eroded phosphate fertilizers

Plant Nutrients contd

N in Groundwater
N easily washed away ~ of all N applied not used by crops

Not all N pollution from agriculture

Maximize N usage by plants, minimize excessive N fertilization

Plant Nutrients contd

Reduction in oxygenation of blood causing suffocation Cyanosis Blue Baby syndrome in humans Related to high nitrate levels in drinking water Upper limit 45ppm in drinking water

Can be a problem w/ well water

Freshwater Shortages

Causes of water scarcity: dry climate and too many people

Stresses on worlds major river systems

1 of 6 people have no regular access to clean water Poverty hinders access to water Hydrological poverty

Stress on Worlds River Basins


North America

Africa South America

High None


Fig. 11-6, p. 241

Increasing Freshwater Supplies

Dams and reservoirs Extracting groundwater

Reducing water waste Catching precipitation

Tradeoffs of Large Dams and Reservoirs

Large losses of water through evaporation Flooded land destroys forests or cropland and displaces people Migration and spawning of some fish are disrupted Downstream cropland and estuaries are deprived of nutrient-rich silt

Reservoir is useful for recreation and fishing Can produce cheap electricity (hydropower) Downstream flooding is reduced

Provides water for year-round irrigation of cropland

Ecological Services of Rivers

NaturalCapital Ecological Services of Rivers

Deliver nutrients to sea to help sustain coastal fisheries Deposit silt that maintains deltas Purify water

Renew and renourish wetlands

Provide habitats for wildlife

Aral Sea Disaster

Large-scale water transfers in dry central Asia Salinity

Wetland destruction and wildlife

Fish extinctions and fishing Wind-blown salt Water pollution Climatic changes Restoration efforts

Shrinking Aral Sea

Stranded Ship at the Aral Sea

Stranded Ship at the Aral Sea

New Ships of the Desert

Tradeoffs of Withdrawing Groundwater

Withdrawing Groundwater
Advantages Good source of water for drinking and irrigation Disadvantages Aquifier depletion from overpumping Sinking of land (subsidence) when water removed Polluted aquifiers unusable for decades or centuries Saltwater intrusion into drinking water supplies near coastal areas Reduced water flows into streams, lakes, estuaries, and wetlands Increased cost, energy use, and contamination from deeper wells

Available year-round

Exists almost everywhere

Renewable if not overpumped or contaminated

No evaporation losses

Cheaper to extract than most surface waters

Saltwater Intrusion into Coastal Water Wells

Major irrigation well Well contaminated with saltwater

Fresh groundwater aquifer

Water table

Sea Level

Interface Saltwater Intrusion Interface Normal Interface

Fig. 11-15, p. 247

Groundwater Depletion
Solutions Groundwater Depletion

Waste less water Subsidize water conservation Ban new wells in aquifiers near surface waters Buy and retire groundwater withdrawal rights in critical areas Do not grow waterintensive crops in dry areas

Raise price of water to discourage waste

Tax water pumped from Wells near surface water

Reduce birth rates

Set and enforce minimum stream flow levels


Removal of salts from ocean or brackish waters to produce useable water Distillation method Reverse osmosis method Used in 120 countries Major problems: high cost and a lot of brine wastes Research is needed

Reducing Water Waste

Benefits of water conservation

Reduce leakage and save water

Water prices, government subsidies, and waste Improve irrigation Using less water in homes and businesses

Sustainable Water Use

Sustainable Water Use
Not depleting aquifers

Preserving ecological health of aquatic systems

Preserving water quality Integrated watershed management Agreements among regions and countries sharing surface water resources Outside party mediation of water disputes between nations Marketing of water rights Raising water prices Wasting less water Decreasing government subsides for supplying water Increasing government subsides for reducing water waste Slowing population growth

What Can We Do?

What Can You Do?
Water Use and Waste
Use water-saving toilets, showerheads, and faucet aerators
Shower instead of taking baths, and take short showers. Repair water leaks. Turn off sink faucets while brushing teeth, shaving, or washing. Wash only full loads of clothes or use the lowest possible water-level setting for smaller loads. Wash a car from a bucket of soapy water, and use the hose for rinsing only. If you use a commercial car wash, try to find one that recycles its water. Replace your lawn with native plants that need little if any watering. Water lawns and garden in the early morning or evening. Use drip irrigation and mulch for gardens and flowerbeds. Use recycled (gray) water for watering lawns and houseplants and for washing cars.

Flooding After Deforestation of a Hillside

Forested Hillside
Oxygen released by vegetation Diverse ecological habitat

Evapotranspiration Trees reduce soil erosion from heavy rain and wind

Steady river flow Leaf litter improves soil fertility Tree roots stabilize soil and aid water flow

Agricultural land Vegetation releases water slowly and reduces flooding

Flooding After Deforestation of a Hillside

After Deforestation
Tree plantation Evapotranspiration decreases Roads destabilize hillsides

Ranching accelerates soil erosion by water and wind

Winds remove fragile topsoil Agriculture land is flooded and silted up

Gullies and landslides Heavy rain leaches nutrients from soil and erodes topsoil Silt from erosion blocks rivers and reservoirs and causes flooding downstream

Rapid runoff causes flooding

Groundwater Pollution: Causes and Persistence

Sources of groundwater pollution Slow flowing: slow dilution and dispersion Consequences of lower dissolved oxygen Fewer bacteria to decompose wastes

Cooler temperatures: slow down chemical reactions

Degradable and nondegradable wastes in groundwater

Groundwater Pollution
Polluted air
Hazardous waste injection well Buried gasoline and solvent tank Gasoline station Water pumping well Landfill Accidental spills Sewer Cesspool septic tank Leakage from faulty casing Discharge Confined aquifer Groundwater flow

Pesticides and fertilizers Coal strip mine runoff De-icing road salt Pumping well Waste lagoon

Extent of Groundwater Pollution

Not much is known about groundwater pollution Organic contaminants, including fuel leaks Arsenic

Protecting groundwater: Prevention is best

Preventing and Cleaning Up Pollution in Groundwater

Solutions Groundwater Pollution

Find substitutes for toxic chemicals Keep toxic chemicals out of the environment Install monitoring wells near landfills and underground tanks Require leak detectors on underground tanks Ban hazardous waste disposal in landfills and injection wells Store harmful liquids in aboveground tanks with leak detection and collection systems

Pump to surface, clean, and return to aquifer (very expensive)

Inject microorganisms to clean up contamination (less expensive but still costly)

Pump nanoparticles of inorganic compounds to remove pollutants (may be the cheapest, easiest, and most effective method but is still being developed)

Fig. 11-27, p. 259

Ocean Pollution

How much pollution can oceans tolerate? Some pollutants degrade and dilute in oceans Ocean dumping controversies

Coastal Water Pollution

Industry Nitrogen oxides from autos and smokestacks; toxic chemicals, and heavy metals in effluents flow into bays and estuaries. Cities Toxic metals and oil from streets and parking lots pollute waters; sewage adds nitrogen and phosphorus. Urban sprawl Bacteria and viruses from sewers and septic tanks contaminate shellfish beds and close beaches; runoff of fertilization from lawns adds nitrogen and phosphorus. Construction sites Sediments are washed into waterways, choking fish and plants, clouding waters, and blocking sunlight. Farms Run off of pesticides, manure, and fertilizers adds toxins and excess nitrogen and phosphorus. Red tides Excess nitrogen causes explosive growth of toxic microscopic algae, poisoning fish and marine mammals.

Closed shellfish beds Closed beach Oxygen-depleted zone

Toxic sediments Chemicals and toxic metals contaminate shellfish beds, kill spawning fish, and accumulate in the tissues of bottom feeders. Healthy zone Clear, oxygen-rich waters promote growth of plankton and sea grasses, and support fish.

Oxygen-depleted zone Sedimentation and algae overgrowth reduce sunlight, kill beneficial sea grasses, use up oxygen, and degrade habitat.

Effects of Oil on Ocean Life

Crude and refined petroleum Tanker accidents and blowouts

Volatile hydrocarbons kill larvae

Tar-like globs coat birds and marine mammals Oil destroys insulation and buoyancy Heavy oil sinks and kills bottom organisms Coral reefs die Slow recovery Oil slicks ruin beaches Limited effectiveness of clean up methods

Preventing and Cleaning Up Pollution in Coastal Waters

Solutions Coastal Water Pollution
Prevention Cleanup

Reduce input of toxic pollutants Separate sewage and storm lines Ban dumping of wastes and sewage by maritime and cruise ships in coastal waters Ban ocean dumping of sludge and hazardous dredged material Protect sensitive areas from development, oil drilling, and oil shipping Regulate coastal development Recycle used oil Require double hulls for oil tankers

Improve oil-spill cleanup capabilities Sprinkle nanoparticles over an oil or sewage spill to dissolve the oil or sewage without creating harmful byproducts (still under development) Require at least secondary treatment of coastal sewage

Use wetlands, solar-aquatic, or other methods to treat sewage

Fig. 11-31, p. 263

Preventing Nonpoint Source Pollution

Mostly agricultural wastes

Use vegetation to reduce soil erosion

Reduce fertilizer use Use plant buffer zones around fields Integrated pest management: Only use pesticides when necessary Use plant buffers around animal feedlots Keep feedlots away from slopes, surface water and flood zones

Sewage Treatment Systems

Sewage treatment in rural and suburban areas Septic tanks Primary (physical) sewage treatment Secondary (biological) sewage treatment

Urban sewage treatment (Clean Water Act)

Sewage treatment facilities in many cities fail to meet federal standards Bleaching and disinfection Disinfectants: chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet radiation

Typical Septic Tank System

Septic tank with manhole (for cleanout) Household wastewater Nonperforated pipe Distribution box (optional)

Gravel or crushed stone

Drain field

Vent pipe

Perforated pipe

Fig. 11-32, p. 264

Primary and Secondary Sewage Treatment

Primary Bar screen Grit chamber Settling tank Aeration tank Secondary Settling tank Chlorine disinfection tank

Sludge Activated sludge Raw sewage from sewers Air pump Sludge digester (kills bacteria)

To river, lake, or ocean

Sludge drying bed

Disposed of in landfill or ocean or applied to cropland, pasture, or rangeland

Improving Sewage Treatment

Systems that exclude hazardous wastes Non-hazardous substitutes

Composting toilet systems

Working with nature to treat sewage Using wetlands to treat sewage

Air Pollution

Air pollution may be defined as the presence in the air (outdoor atmosphere) of one or more contaminants or combinations thereof in such quantities and of such durations as may be or tend to be injurious to human, animal or plant life, or property, or which unreasonably interferes with the comfortable enjoyment of life or property or conduct of business.

Air Pollutant

It is a substance or effect dwelling temporarily or permanently in the air , which adversely alters the environment by interfering with the health, the comfort, or the food chain, or by interfering with the property values of people. A pollutant can be solid (large or sub-molecular), liquid or gas . It may originate from a natural or anthropogenic source (or both). It is estimated that anthropogenic sources have changed the composition of global air by less than 0.01%. However, it is widely accepted that even a small change can have a significant adverse effect on the climate, ecosystem and species on the planet. Examples of these are acid rain, ozone in the lower atmosphere, and photochemical smog.


air pollutant means any solid, liquid or gaseous substance including noise present in the atmosphere in such concentration as may be or tend to be injurious to human beings or other living creatures or plants or property or environment. air pollution means the presence in the atmosphere of any pollutant. approved appliance means any equipment or gadget used for the burning of any combustible material or for generating or consuming any fume, gas or particulate matter and approved by State Board for the purpose of this Act. approved fuel means any fuel approved by the State Board for the purposes of this Act. chimney includes any structure with an opening or outlet from or through which any air pollutant may be emitted. control equipment means any apparatus, device, equipment or system to control the quality and manner of emission of any air pollutant and includes any device used for securing the efficient operation of any industrial plant. emission means any solid or liquid or gaseous substance coming out of any chimney, duct or flue or any other outlet. board means the Central Board or a State Board.

Composition of Atmosphere

Nitrogen - 78% Oxygen - 21% Argon 0.934% Water Vapor 0 to 4% Carbon Dioxide - .037% Other gases make up the rest

Atmospheric Gases
Nitrogen, oxygen, argon, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and most other gases are invisible. Clouds are not gas, but condensed vapor in the form of liquid droplets.

Ozone is the primary ingredient of smog!

Ground based smog, which is visible, contains reactants of nitrogen and ozone.

Main causes of Air Pollution

Poisonous gases and other particles emitted from industries without any treatment. Heavy increase in the number of automobiles and their emission. Increased use of chemicals and petrochemicals. Population concentration in cities. Fast rate of de-forestation. Tests / experiments of Atomic weapons Tests of chemical / biochemical weapons Un-organized mining and traditional practice of the use of firewood etc.

Sources of Air Pollution

Air pollution is the result of the combined effects of several pollutants. They can be divided into the following categories based on their: Origin Nature Size Impact etc.

Sources of Air Pollution

According to origin, particulate matter can be divided into two types: natural and man-made. Natural

From volcanoes, fires, dust storms and other natural processes. There are natural cleansing agents that remove and recycle natural pollutants. E.g: Hydroxyl radicals, sea salts, micro-organisms in soil etc.
Major sources of man made particulates is the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels petroleum products, coal, peat and wood. Combustion of solid wastes Industrial chemicals, fly ash, refining fossil fuels, mining and smelting ores as well as pollutants discharged from farming activities also contribute.

Man made

Sources of Air Pollution

Another classification according to origin is Primary and secondary pollutants.

Sources of Air Pollution

According to chemical composition can be divided into organic and inorganic pollutants Another categorization is solid, liquid and gaseous pollutants.

Gaseous pollutants are carbon monoxide, Sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and organic sulfide, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen chloride, oxides of nitrogen etc. Particulate pollutants consist of both solid and liquid particles. Dust, fume, mist, spray and smoke are included in this category.

Sources of Air Pollution

According to source type, pollutants can be classified as being produced from:

Combustion Transportation emissions Industrial processes Use of solvents Radioactivity

Specific phenomena related with Air Pollution

Ozone is normally present in the atmosphere at about .05ppm at sea level. It is produced naturally by the action of electric discharges on oxygen. Ozone in the stratosphere (Outer layer of the atmosphere) absorbs over 99% of the harmful UV radiation. UV radiation damages protein and DNA and causes sunburn and cancer.

Specific phenomena related with Air Pollution

A major threat to the ozone layer is from synthetic chemicals called chlorofluoro-carbons (CFC). CFCs act as transport agents moving chlorine into the stratosphere and destroy the ozone causing holes to appear in the ozone layer. The use of CFCs is increasing because of the demand of personal care products such as deodorants, hair sprays, shaving creams and countless other cosmetic materials as well as in refrigeration. If the UV rays reach the earths surface in full intensity, all exposed bacteria would be destroyed; plant and animal tissues would be severely damaged.

Specific phenomena related with Air Pollution

Acid rain is the outcome of Sulfur dioxide(SO2) gas released into the air by the combustion of fossil fuels. This readily forms Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in the minute water films of suspended droplets in the air over cities. The washout of sulfuric acid by precipitation results in rainwater with an abnormally high content of sulfate ion, a condition known as acid rain.

Air (prevention and control of pollution) Act, 1981

The Act is designed to prevent, control and abatement of air-pollution. The provisions relate to preservation of quality of air and control of pollution. The Act has provided for measures, which are preventive in nature, in the cases of industries to be established; and in the case of industries already established, they are remedial. In the case of established industries, it insists on obtaining consent of Board, making the industry amenable to the administrative control of the Board. Once a consent is given, the Board can issue orders, directions etc; which are to be complied with by the industry.

Bodies constituted to enforce the Act

Central Pollution Control Board constituted under section 3 of the Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act, 1974 was authorized to exercise the powers and performs the functions for the prevention and control of air pollution. State Pollution Control Boards constituted under section 4 of the Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act, 1974 was authorized to exercise the powers and performs the functions for the prevention and control of air pollution.

Functions of the Central Board

The main functions of the Central Board is to improve the quality of air and to prevent, control or abate air pollution in the country . In performance of its functions, Central Board may

the Central Government on any matter concerning the improvement of the quality of air and the prevention, control or abatement of air pollution. Provide technical assistance and guidance to the State Board, carry out and sponsor investigations and research relating to problems of air pollution and prevention, control or abatement of air pollution. Perform such of the functions of any state board as may be specified in an order made under sub-section 2 of section 18. lay down standards for the quality of air. Collect and disseminate information in respect of matters relating to air pollution.

Functions of the State Board

In performance of its functions, State Board shall

Plan a comprehensive programme for the prevention, control or abatement of air pollution and secure the execution thereof, collect and disseminate information relating to air pollution; inspect, at all reasonable times, any control equipment, industrial plant, or manufacturing process and to give, by order, such directions to such persons as it may consider necessary to take steps for the prevention, control or abatement of air pollution; advice the State Government with respect to the suitability of any premises or location for carrying on any industry which is likely to cause air pollution; to lay down, in consultation with the Central Board and having regard to the standards, for the quality of air laid down by the Central Board, standards for emission of air pollutants into the atmosphere from Industrial plants and automobiles or for the discharge of any air pollutant into the atmosphere from any other source whatsoever not being a ship or an aircraft; to perform such other functions as may be prescribed or as may, from time to time, be entrusted to it by the Central Board or the State Government.

National Minimum Standards for Air Quality

The new National Minimum standards for Air Quality has been notified by the CPCB under sub-section (2)(h) of section 16 of the Act on 18th November 2009, and has been made effective from that date, for whole of India In the new notification only two categories of area has been created Eco Sensitive Areas (notified by Central Government) and non Eco Sensitive Area

Powers of the Central Government and State Government

The Central Board shall be bound by such directions in writing as the Central Government may give to it. (section 18(1)(a) Every State Board shall be bound by such directions in writing as the Central Board or the State Government may give to it. (section 18(1)(b) Where the Central Government is of the opinion that any State Board has defaulted in complying with any directions given by the Central Board under sub-section (1) and as a result of such default a grave emergency has arisen and it is necessary or expedient so to do in public interest, it may by order, direct the Central Board to perform any of the functions of the state Board in relation to such area, for such period and for such purposes, as may be specified in the order. {section 18 (2)}

Check on State Government advice

Though the section 18(1)(b) of the Act gives power to the State Government to give directions to a State Board but the directions do not have binding effect if those are inconsistent with the provisions of the Act. There is no provision under which the Parliament has vested any discretion with the State Government to grant exemption to any particular industrial plant or class of plant. The state board of Karnataka exempted 115 industrial plants in its resolution purportedly on the directions of the state government. The high court of Karnataka quashed the resolution. (K. Muniswamy Gowda v.
State of Karnataka, 1998 (3) Kant. L.J, 594 at P. 608)

Emissions from automobiles

With a view to ensuring that the standards for emission of air pollutants from automobiles laid down by the State Board under Cl. (g) of sub section (1) of Section 17 are complied with, the State Government shall, in consultation with the State Board, give such instructions as may be deemed necessary to the concerned authority in charge of registration of motor vehicles under the Motor Vehicles Act, (4 of 1939) and such authority shall, notwithstanding anything contained in that Act or the rules made thereunder be bound to comply with such instructions. Honble Supreme Court of India with a view to tackle problems arising out of chaotic traffic conditions and vehicular pollution and not being satisfied with the steps taken by the concerned authorities in addressing themselves to those problems, issued certain directions accepting the report of Bhure Lal Committee, as it was felt by the court that any further delay in the performance of its duty by the Administration could not be remitted. ( M.C.
Mehta v. Union of India, (1998) 3 B.L.J.R. 2194 at p. 2195(SC)

Responsibility of the persons

Subject to the provisions of the section 21 of the Act, no person shall, without the previous consent of the state Board, establish or operate any Industrial Plant in an air pollution control area. The person who wants to establish or operate any Industrial Plant has to move an application for consent of the Board accompanied by prescribed fees in a prescribed form and with the particular of the Industrial plant and other particulars as may be prescribed.

Applicability of the Environment Protection Act, 1986. Section 7 of the Act envisaged No person carrying on any industry, operation or process shall discharge or emit or permit to be discharged or emitted any environmental pollutants in excess of such standards as may be prescribed.

Responsibility of the State Board

The State Board has to dispose off the application received by any person for consent for establishing or to operate within a period of four months. The State Board can grant the consent subject to conditions and for some certain period by recording in the order. The State Board can refuse a further consent after the expiry of the granted consent or cancel an already granted consent before the expiry of the period if the conditions imposed in the order have not been fulfilled after according an opportunity of hearing to the person.

Applicability of the Environment Protection Act, 1986. Section 7 of the Act envisaged No person carrying on any industry, operation or process shall discharge or emit or permit to be discharged or emitted any environmental pollutants in excess of such standards as may be prescribed.

It is the responsibility of the state board that it should not permit to be discharged any environmental pollutants in excess of the standards specified in schedule 1 to schedule VI of The EP Rules, 1986.

Responsibility of the person whom consent has been granted

Every person to whom consent has been granted by the State Board shall comply with the following conditions, namely:The control equipment of such specifications as the state board may approve in this behalf shall be installed and operated in the premises where the industry is carried on or proposed to be carried on; The existing control equipment, if any, shall be altered or replaced in accordance with the directions of the State Board; The control equipment referred to in Cl. (i) or (ii) shall be kept at all times in good running conditions; Chimney, wherever necessary, of such specifications as the state board may approve in this behalf shall be erected or re-erected in such premises. Such other conditions as the State Board, may specify in this behalf; and The conditions referred to in Cls. (i), (ii) and (iv) shall be complied with within such period as the State Board may specify in this behalf. Has to submit Environmental statement as has been made mandatory under section 14 of The Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986.

Standards for Emissions of air pollutants

Till The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 was legislated by the Parliament of India, the State Boards were having powers to lay down the standards for air pollutants to be discharged in the atmosphere, under clause (g) of sub-section (1) of Section 17. Since 1986, Central Government has been issuing Standards for Emissions under the provisions of Environment protection Act and its Rules. These standards has been specified in schedule 1 to VI of the Environment (Protection) Rules 1986. Central Board or State Boards may specify more stringent standards than those specified in schedule 1 to VI of the EP Rules.

Monitoring by the State Board

The officers of the Board have been empowered to take samples of air or emission by the Act. For analyzing the samples the State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette establish one or more State Air Laboratories. The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint persons having the prescribed qualifications to be Government analysts for the purpose of analysis of samples of air or emission. State Board may, by notification in the official Gazette, and with the approval of the State Government, appoint persons having prescribed qualifications to be Board analyst for the purpose of analysis of samples of air or emissions.

Solid Waste Management

Waste- Definition & Classification

Any material which is not needed by the owner, producer or processor.

Domestic waste Factory waste Waste from oil factory E-waste Construction waste Agricultural waste Food processing waste Bio-medical waste Nuclear waste

Solid Waste

Classification of Wastes

Solid waste- vegetable waste, kitchen waste, household waste etc.

E-waste- discarded electronic devices like computer, TV, music systems etc.
Liquid waste- water used for different industries eg tanneries, distillaries, thermal power plants Plastic waste- plastic bags, bottles, buckets etc. Metal waste- unused metal sheet, metal scraps etc. Nuclear waste- unused materials from nuclear power plants

Solid Waste in India

7.2 million tonnes of hazardous waste

One Sq km of additional landfill area every-year

Rs 1600 crore for treatment & disposal of these wastes In addition to this industries discharge about 150 million tonnes of high volume low hazard waste every year, which is mostly dumped on open low lying land areas.
Source: Estimate of Ministry of Environment & Forest

Growth of Solid Waste In India

Waste is growing by leaps & bounds In 1981-91, population of Mumbai increased from 8.2 million to 12.3 million During the same period, municipal solid waste has grown from 3200 tonnes to 5355 tonne, an increase of 67% Waste collection is very low for all Indian cities

City like Bangalore produces 2000 tonnes of waste per annum, the ever increasing waste has put pressure on hygienic condition of the city
Source: The Energy & Resources Institute, New Delhi

Waste Collection in India

Primarily by the city municipality -No gradation of waste product e.g. bio-degradable, glasses, polythene bags, paper shreds etc -Dumps these wastes to the city outskirts Local raddiwala (Rag pickers) -Collecting small iron pieces by magnets -Collecting glass bottles -Collecting paper for recycling

MCD- Sophisticated DWM (Delhi Waste Management) vehicle

How solid waste affected us in recent years?

Cloudburst in Mumbai (2005) clogged the sewage line due to large no. of plastic bags Blast in the Bhusan Steel factory at Noida, caused due to imported scrap from Iran

Reduction in the number of migratory birds due to consumption of contaminated foods Stray animals dying on streets and farmland due to consumption of plastic bags, which blocks the food movement in their stomach

Hazardous / Toxic Waste & Dumping Site

Industrialized countries have waste management problems Developed countries have strict environment regulation norms Most attractive option for them- to dump into developing countries

Major Polluting Industries in India

Around 2500 tanneries discharge 24 million cu m of waste water containing high level of dissolved solids and 4,00,000 tonnes of hazardous solid waste

300 distilleries discharge 26 million kilo-litres of spend wash per year containing several pollutants
Thermal power plants discharge huge waste materials

French aircraft carrier Clemenceau

French aircraft carrier Clemenceau

December 12, 2005, Clemenceau, Ghost ship nobody wants 27,000-ton warship full of asbestos, PCBs, lead, mercury, and other toxic chemicals Indian scrap yard of Alang (Bhavnagar district, Gujarat) , a place where environmental regulations are lax and workers' rights are practically nonexistent In most ship breaking nations proper waste management is absent. There are no rules and regulations. And where rules exist, they're unlikely to be enforced. Basel Convention (1989) is an international treaty which prohibits the export of hazardous waste from rich to poor countries Greenpeace raised awareness campaigned against the ship in India as well as in France French President Chirac has announced a dramatic recall of the asbestos-laden warship Clemenceau