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Chapter 08

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration

Outline Glycolysis Transition Reaction Citric Acid Cycle Electron Transport System

Fermentation
Metabolic Pool
Catabolism
Anabolism

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration

A cellular process that requires oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide
Usually involves breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide and water
Energy extracted from glucose molecule:
- Released step-wise - Allows ATP to be produced efficiently

Oxidation-reduction enzymes include NAD+ and FAD as coenzymes

Glucose Breakdown: Summary Reaction

Cellular Respiration

NAD+ and FAD NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)


Called a coenzyme of oxidation-reduction it can
- Oxidize a metabolite by accepting electrons - Reduce a metabolite by giving up electrons

Each NAD+ molecule used over and over again

FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide)


Also a coenzyme of oxidation-reduction Sometimes used instead of NAD+ Accepts two electrons and two hydrogen ions (H+) to become FADH

NAD+ Cycle

Cellular Respiration: Overview of 4 Phases


Glycolysis:

Cellular Respiration

Occurs in cytoplasm Glucose broken down to two molecules of pyruvate ATP is formed Both pyruvates are oxidized Electron energy is stored in NADH Two carbons are released as CO2 Electron energy is stored in NADH and FADH2 ATP is formed Four carbons are released as CO2 Extracts energy from NADH & FADH2 Produces 32 or 34 molecules of ATP

Transition reaction:

Citric acid cycle:

Electron transport chain:

Glucose Breakdown: Overview of 4 Phases

Glucose Breakdown: Glycolysis

Cellular Respiration

Occurs in cytoplasm outside mitochondria Energy Investment Steps:


Two ATP are used to activate glucose Glucose splits into two G3P molecules

Energy Harvesting Steps:


Two electrons (as hydrogen atoms) are picked up by two NAD+ Four ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation Net gain of two ATP Both G3Ps converted to pyruvates

Glycolysis: The Balance Sheet

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Substrate-level Phosphorylation

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Glycolysis

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Glycolysis

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Glucose Breakdown: The Preparatory (Prep) Reaction

Cellular Respiration

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End product of glycolysis, pyruvate, enters the mitochondrial matrix

Pyruvate converted to 2-carbon acetyl group


Attached to Coenzyme A to form acetyl-CoA Electron picked up (as hydrogen atom) by NAD+

CO2 released, and transported out of mitochondria into the cytoplasm

Mitochondrion: Structure & Function

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Preparatory Reaction

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Glucose Breakdown: The Citric Acid Cycle

Cellular Respiration

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A.K.A. Krebs cycle Occurs in matrix of mitochondria Both acetyl (C2) groups received from the preparatory reaction:
Join with an enzyme CoA molecule to make acetylCoA Acetyl (C2) group transferred to oxaloacetate (C2) to make citrate (C6) Each acetyl oxidized to two CO2 molecules Remaining 4 carbons from oxaloacetate converted back to oxaloacetate (thus cyclic)

NADH, FADH2 capture energy rich electrons ATP formed by substrate-level phosphorylation

The Citric Acid Cycle

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Citric Acid Cycle: Balance Sheet

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Cellular Respiration

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Electron Transport Chain Location:


Eukaryotes: cristae of the mitochondria Aerobic Prokaryotes: plasma membrane

Series of carrier molecules:


Pass energy rich electrons along Complex arrays of protein and cytochromes
- Cytochromes are respiratory molecules - Complex carbon rings with metal atoms in center

Receives electrons from NADH & FADH2 Produce ATP by oxidative phosphorylation

Cellular Respiration

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Electron Transport Chain

The fate of the hydrogens:


Hydrogens from NADH deliver enough energy to make 3 ATPs Those from FADH2 have only enough for 2 ATPs Spent hydrogens combine with oxygen

Recycling of coenzymes increases efficiency


Once NADH delivers hydrogens, it returns (as NAD+) to pick up more hydrogens However, hydrogens must be combined with oxygen to make water If O2 not present, NADH cannot release H No longer recycled back to NAD+

Electron Transport Chain

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Organization of Cristae

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Glucose Catabolism: Overall Energy Yield Net yield per glucose:


From glycolysis 2 ATP From citric acid cycle 2 ATP

Cellular Respiration

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From electron transport chain 32 ATP

Energy content:
Reactant (glucose) 686 kcal

Energy yield (36 ATP) 263 kcal


Efficiency 39%; balance is waste heat

Overall Energy Yielded per Glucose Molecule

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Cellular Respiration

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Fermentation (1) When oxygen limited:


Spent hydrogens have no acceptor

NADH cant recycle back to NAD+


Glycolysis stops because NAD+ required

Fermentation:
Anaerobic pathway Can provide rapid burst of ATP Provides NAD+ for glycolysis NADH combines with pyruvate to yield NAD+

Fermentation

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Cellular Respiration

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Fermentation (2)

Pyruvate reduced by NADH to:


Lactate Ethanol & carbon dioxide
- Animals & some bacteria - Cheese & yogurt; sauerkraut

- Yeasts - Bread and alcoholic beverages Allows glycolysis to proceed faster than O2 can be obtained

Anaerobic exercise Lactic acid accumulates Causes cramping and oxygen debt

When O2 restored, lactate broken down to acetyl-CoA and metabolized

Products of Fermentation

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Efficiency of Fermentation

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InLine Figure 143

Metabolic Pool: Catabolism (1) Foods:


Sources of energy rich molecules Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins

Cellular Respiration

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Catabolism (breakdown side of metabolism)

Breakdown products enter into respiratory pathways as intermediates


Carbohydrates
- Converted into glucose - Processed as above

The Metabolic Pool Concept

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Metabolic Pool: Catabolism (2)

Cellular Respiration

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Breakdown products enter into respiratory pathways as intermediates (cont.)


Proteins
- Broken into amino acids (AAs) - Some AAs used to make other proteins - Excess AAs deaminated (NH2 removed) in liver
Results

in poisonous ammonia (NH3) Quickly converted to urea

- Different R-groups from AAs processed differently - Fragments enter respiratory pathways at many different points

Metabolic Pool: Anabolism (1)

Cellular Respiration

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All metabolic reactions part of metabolic pool Intermediates from respiratory pathways can be used for anabolism Anabolism (build-up side of metabolism):
Carbs:
- Start with acetyl-CoA - Basically reverses glycolysis (but different pathway)

Fats
- G3P converted to glycerol - Acetyls connected in pairs to form fatty acids - Note dietary carbohydrate RARELY converted to fat in humans!

Metabolic Pool: Anabolism (2) Anabolism (cont.):


Proteins:

Cellular Respiration

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- Made up of combinations of 20 different amino acids - Some amino acids (11) can be synthesized from respiratory intermediates
organic

acids in citric acid cycle can make amino

acids Add NH2 transamination

- However, other amino acids (9) cannot be synthesized by humans


Essential

amino acids Must be present in diet or die

Cellular Respiration

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Review Glycolysis Transition Reaction Citric Acid Cycle Electron Transport System

Fermentation
Metabolic Pool
Catabolism
Anabolism

Ending Slide Chapter 08

Cellular Respiration