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SENSORY

VISION (EYES)

MOHAMMAD HAFIDZUDDIN BIN ISHAK 145364 NURFITRI LIYANA BINTI SHAMSHUDIN 151470 ROHANA BINTI ISHAK 151850 MOHAMAD AZRI BIN AHMAD 151914 SITI NURUL AMIRAH BINTI MD DUJALI 152116 NURUL AINI BINTI ISMAIL 152234

Specialized cells that begin the process by which the light rays are converted to nerve impulses.

Located

in the distinct layers of retinal neurons.

It has outer and inner segment. Outer segment composed of layers of membranes, disc.

Layers of membranes hold chemical substances that respond to light.


Inner segment contain nucleus, mitochondria, others and synaptic terminal that connects.

Rods Types

Discs membrane are intracellular structure. Contain about 120 million in each retina.

Cones

Light sensitive discs are formed from in-folding of the surface plasma membrane. Contain about 6 million in each retina.

Allow to see in dim light, example : moonlight. It do not provide color vision. In dim light can only see black, white and all shades of grey in between. Person who loses rod vision having difficulty seeing in dim light, should not drive at night.

Stimulates by brighter lights and produce color vision.

3 types : 1) Blue cones sensitive to blue light 2) Green cones sensitive to green light 3) Red cones sensitive to red light

Color vision results from the stimulation of various combinations of those blue, green and red cones.

Two layers choroid and pigment epithelium Function as to absorb light that has bypassed the photoreceptors. To prevent its reflection and scattering back through the photoreceptors.

4 unique photo pigments.


Rhodopsin in rods and one in each 3 different types of cones. A molecule known as opsin found in each photo pigments and differs to 4 photopigments.

Opsin bind together with chromophore and caused the absorption of light most effectively at a specific part of visible spectrum.
Ex: red cones, blue cones and etc.

Involves

two condition-darkness (dark current) and light Dark current: Na+ flows into photoreceptor outer segments through Na+ channels, held open by cyclic GMP (guanosine monophosphate) inflow of Na+ triggers continual release of neurotransmitter (glutamate) from synaptic terminals Glutamate inhibits (hyperpolarizes) bipolar cells synapting with rods

When light strikes the retina & cis-retinal undergoes isomerization, the Na+ channels close Na+ flow decreases Inside of the rod becomes more negative (hyperpolarization) Release of glutamate decreases Dim lights cause small and brief hyperpolarization, partially turn off glutamate release Brighter lights enlicit larger and more hyperpolarizations; completely shut down neurotransmitter release

Two enzymes regulate closing and opening of Na+ channels in the outer segment. Transducin (light) and recoverin (darkness) Transducin activates enzyme PDE (phosphodiesterase), which breaks down cyclic GMP; closes Na+ channels resulting in hyperpolarization of rods & decrease in glutamate Recoverin activates guanylate cyclase, enzyme that stimulates the synthesis of cyclic GMP. Cyclic GMP increases, Na+ channels open , inflow of Na+ triggers increased release of glutamate

Neural layer of the retina Features of visual input are enhanced

Features of visual input discarded

Converge

Input from several cell divided to:

diverge

dominant

Smaller no of postsynaptic neurons

a large no. of postsynaptic neurons

Receptor potential arise in outer segment of rods and cone

Spread through inner segment to synaptic terminal

Neurotransmitter molecules release by rods and cones induce local graded potential in both bipolar and horizontal cell

6-600 rod synapse with a single bipolar

A cone more often synapse with a single bipolar

increase light intensity of rod vision but slightly blurs


Stimulation of rods by light excites bipolar cell

Less sensitive but have sharp image


Cone bipolar excites when a light is turn on

Horizontal cells

transmit

Inhibitory signal

to

Bipolar cell in the area lateral to excited rod and cone

Horizontal cells
Assist in the differentiation of various color Lateral inhibitor enhanced contrast in the visual scene

Bipolar cell Ganglion cell become depolarized and iniatiate nerve impulse

excited

Amacrine cells

Amacrine cells
Signal a change in the level of illumination of retina

Synapse with ganglia cells and transmits information to them

BRAIN PATHWAY AND VISUAL FIELDS

The left half of the visual cortex in the occipital lobe receives information from the right half of the visual field of both eyes (green). The right half of the cortex receives information from the left half of the visual field of both eyes (orange) Lateral geniculate nucleus first stop in the mammalian brain for information in the visual pathway.
Lateral geniculate nucleus of thalamus

Optic radiation Separate information received from the eyes

Binocular overlapping area seen by both eyes at the same time.


Achieve in part by routing axons from one eye together with axons from the other eye to synapse in the same layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus. Depending on the placement of the eyes in the skull,both the extend of visual field and the amount of binocular overlap can vary.