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Group leader:

Khizar Shahid Group members: Khizar Shahid Ali Arif Abdulwahab Ali Adnan Ahmad Waqas Ahmad

10107 10109 10118 10139 10156

amplifier

Amplifier
An amplifier is an electronic device that increases the voltage, current,

or power of a signal.

uses
Wireless communication Broad Casting Audio Equipment

Biasing OF junctions
Modes EBJ CBJ Application

Cutoff

Reverse

Reverse
Switching application in digital circuits

Saturation

Forward

Forward

Active Reverse active

Forward

Reverse

Amplifier Performance degradation

Reverse

Forward

The BJT Bipolar Junction Transistor


The Two Types of BJT Transistors:

npn
E

pnp
n C
E p n p C

Cross Section

Cross Section

BJT Current & Voltage - Equations IE VB


E

VC +
E

IC VB
C

C -

IE

+ VE C

IC C + VC
B

IB + + B

+ VE
B

IB

npn IE = I B + I C VCE = -VBC + VBE

pnp IE = I B + I C VEC = VEB - VCB

Three Types of BJT Biasing

Biasing the transistor refers to applying voltage to get the transistor to achieve certain operating conditions.
Common-Base Biasing (CB) : input = VEB & IE output = VCB & IC input = VBE & IB output = VCE & IC input = VBC & IB output = VEC & IE

Common-Emitter Biasing (CE):

Common-Collector Biasing (CC):

Common-Base Amplifier
Although the Common-Base configuration is not the most common biasing type, it is often helpful in the understanding of how the BJT works.
Emitter-Current Curves IC Active Region Saturation Region IE

Cutoff IE = 0
VCB

Common-Base Amplifier
Circuit Diagram: NPN Transistor
C

IC

VCE

IE

+ _

B VCB VBE

Region of Operation
Active

IC IB

VCE

VBE

VCB 0V

C-B Bias

+ _

The Table Below lists assumptions that can be made for the attributes of the common-base biased circuit in the different regions of operation. Given for a Silicon NPN transistor.

VCB IB

VBE

E-B Bias

=VBE+VCB ~0.7V

Rev. Fwd.

Summary of the CB Amplifier

Very low input resistance High output resistance Short-circuit current gain is nearly unity High voltage gain Non inverting amplifier Current buffer Excellent high-frequency performance

Common-Emitter Amplifier
Collector-Current Curves

Circuit Diagram
VCC
+ _

IC VCE

IC

Active Region IB

IB

VCE Saturation Region Region of Description Operation Active Small base current controls a large collector current Cutoff Region IB = 0

Summary of CE amplifier
Large voltage gain Inverting amplifier Large current gain Input resistance is relatively low. Output resistance is relatively high. Frequency response is rather poor.

Common-Collector Amplifier
Emitter-Current Curves

IE

The Common-Collector biasing circuit is basically equivalent to the common-emitter biased circuit except instead of looking at IC as a function of VCE and IB we are looking at IE. Also, since ~ 1, and = IC/IE that means IC~IE
Saturation Region

Active Region

IB

VCE

Cutoff Region IB = 0

Summary for CC Amplifier or EmitterFollower


High input resistance Low output resistance Voltage gain is smaller than but very close to unity Large current gain The last or output stage of cascade amplifier

Frequency response is excellent well

To remember
CE- Amplifier CB- AMPLIFIER CC- AMPLIFIER

Current Gain

Current Gain

Current Gain

Voltage Gain

Voltage Gain

Voltage Gain