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# Rapid Prototyping

Vivekanand.K

Presented by

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CONTENTS
History of Rapid prototyping Introduction Basic process Rapid prototyping techniques Traditional development process versus Rapid prototyping process

## Performing Rapid prototyping

Rapid prototyping pros and cons Future developments and conclusion

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History of RP
In 1967, Herbert Voelcker, a prof by profession questioned himself about the possibilities of doing interesting things with the computer controlled and automatic machine tools,hence RP was born. In 1970s, Voelcker developed the basic tools of mathematics that clearly describe the three dimensional aspects and resulted in the earliest theories of algorithmic and mathematical theories for solid modeling.

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Introduction
The term rapid prototyping (RP) refers to a class of technologies that can automatically construct physical models from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) data.

These "three dimensional printers" allow designers to quickly create tangible prototypes of their designs, rather than just two-dimensional pictures. Such models have numerous uses.

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## The Basic process

1.Create a CAD model of the design 2.Convert the CAD model to STL format

## 3.Slice the STL file into thin cross-sectional layers

4.Construct the model one layer atop another 5.Clean and finish the model

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Solid model or closed surface model required

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.STL File
Software generates a object description File consists of the X, Y, Z coordinates of the three vertices of each surface triangle, with an index to describe the orientation of the surface normal Support generation to hold overhung surfaces during build

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.STL File

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## Slicing the File

Series of closely spaced horizontal planes are mathematically passed through the .stl file Generate a .sli file : a series of closely spaced 2D cross-sections of the 3D object Typical Z thickness 0.006 (0.150 mm) The pre-processing software slices the STL model into a number of layers from 0.01 mm to 0.7 mm thick, depending on the build technique.
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Part

## Final Build File

Part sliced Supports sliced RP technology parameters set
layer thickness, scan speed,...
Supports

Send file to RP machine RP machine build one layer at a time from polymers,paper,or powdered metal.

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Post-processing
Removal of part from platform
Removal of supports from part Cleaning of part (wiping, rinsing, ... ) Finishing part (curing, sanding, polishing, )

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RP Techniques
Stereolithography
Laminated Object Manufacturing

## Selective Laser Sintering

Fused Deposition Modeling

## Solid Ground Curing

3-D Ink-Jet Printing
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A)Stereolithography

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FDM material

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## F) 3-D Ink-Jet Printing

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Performing RP
Select a Tool Form a Team Rapid Prototyping Process Analyze proposed system Identify initial customer requirements Identify objects and actions Put together related objects and actions Prototype panels Get feedback Improve prototype Iterate Convert prototype code to actual code Get feedback Improve actual code Iterate Release the product
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Comparison

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## Rapid Prototyping Pros and Cons

PROS:
Saves time and money
Promotes consistency in user interface design Allows early customer involvement Changes perceived ownership to customers Shows progress to management in a concrete way Allows marketers and planners to ensure that customer needs are met

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CONS:
. Metal prototypes are difficult to make, though this should change in the near future Sometimes encourages prototyping by programmers rather than domain experts Usually does not produce reusable code Slows development process if put under formal configuration control Cost of machine is very high

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Applications
In Engineering

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Applications
Medical applications

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Applications
Architectural applications

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FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS

. "Rapid" prototyping machines are still slow by some standards. By using faster computers, more complex control systems, and improved materials, RP manufacturers are dramatically reducing build time.
Another future development is improved accuracy and surface finish. Another important development is increased size capacity.

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CONCLUSION

Growth into new markets and industries will redefine the role of RP and this will redefine our future. Of course, rapid prototyping is not perfect. Part volume is generally limited to 0.125 cubic meters or less, depending on the RP machine The limitations aside, rapid prototyping is a remarkable technology that is revolutionizing the manufacturing process.

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