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INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF THE SKIN AND WOUND

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MAJID MOHIUDDIN
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INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF THE SKIN AND WOUND VIRAL INFECTIONS:


Chickenpox and Shingles German Measles, Rubella Measles, Hard Measles, Rubeola Smallpox Warts

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BACTERIAL

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VIRAL INFECTIONS OF THE SKIN

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CHICKEN POX
Also

known as Varicella.

Acute,

Generalized viral infection with fever mild constitutional symptoms & skin rash.

Vesicles

also forms in mucous membranes. 5/5/12

SHINGLES
Also

known as Harpes Zoster.

Is

a reactivation of Varicella Virus. result immunosuppression of

Often

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Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV): Herpes Virus (Family Herpesviridae) also known as Herpesvirus3
Mode of --- ATransmission DNA Virus Reservoirs

Etiologic/Causative Agent

Infected Humans
Diagnosis

-Person to person by direct contact


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GERMAN MEASLES, RUBELLA


Mild,

Febrile Viral disease.

Fine,

Pinkish, Flat rash begin 1 (or) 2 days after onset of symptoms. starts on the face & neck & spreads to trunk arms & legs.

It

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Rubella Virus

Etiologic/Causative Agent

(Family Togaviridae)
Reservoirs --- A RNA Virus Mode of Infected Humans Transmission

- By droplet spread - (or) direct contact with nasopharyngeal secretions of infected people.
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Diagnosis

MEASLES, HARD MEASLES, RUBEOLA


An

acute highly communicable viral disease with fever, conjunctivitis, cough, light sensitivity, koplik spots in mouth & red blotchy skin rash.

Rash

begins on the face on 3rd to 7th day & then becomes generalized. 5/5/12

Measles (Rubeola) virus (Family Paramyxoviridae) Reservoirs --- A RNA Virus Infected Humans - Airborne transmission by droplet Diagnosis spread
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Etiologic/Causative Agent

Mode of Transmission

(or) direct contact with nasal (or)

SMALL POX
A

Systemic viral infection with fever, malaise (fatigue), headache, prostration, severe backache, characteristic skin rash, and occasional abdominal pain and vomiting. is similar to rash of chickenpox.

Rash
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Two strains of variola virus; Variola Minor & Variola Major (Family Poxviridae) --- A DNA Virus Mode of
Transmission Reservoirs

Etiologic/Causative Agent

Infected Humans was only source of the virus before. Diagnosis - Person to Person.
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warts
Many

varieties of skin and mucous membrane lesions including common warts ( Verrucae vulgaris), venereal warts, and Plantar warts. are harmless, but some can become cancerous.

Most

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At least 70 different types of Human papillomaviruses- HPV Genus: Papillomavirus & (Family Papovaviridae)
Mode of --- ATransmission DNA Virus Reservoirs

Etiologic/Causative Agent

Infected Humans
Diagnosis

- Direct contact.
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BACTERIAL INFECTIONS OF THE SKIN

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Acne
A

common condition in which pores become clogged with dried sebum, flaked skin and bacteria. Leads to the formation of blackheads and white heads (collectively known as acne pimples) and inflamed. abscesses: more

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- Propionibacterium acnes - Propionibacterium spp.


Reservoirs - All are anaerobic Gram+ve bacilli.

Etiologic/Causative Agent

Mode of Transmission Infected Humans Diagnosis

- Probably not transmissible. 5/5/12

ANTHRAX, WOOLSORTERS DISEASE


Anthrax
the The

can affect

skin (cutaneous anthrax).

lungs (Inhalation (or) Pulmonary anthrax). GI tract (Gastrointestinal anthrax).

In

cutaneous anthrax depressed blackened lesion called ESCHARS occur.

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- Bacillus anthracis - A spore forming, G+ve bacillus.


Reservoirs

Etiologic/Causative Agent

Mode of Transmission - Anthrax infected animals,

- Spores may be present in soil, animal Diagnosis hair, wool, animal skins and hides and product made from them.
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GAS GANGRENE, MYONECROSIS


Necrosis

(Tissue death) due to ischemia (Lack of oxygen) is called gangrene.

Gangrene

may (or may not involve pathogens. However one type of gangrene, called Gas gangrene also called Myonecrosis always involved pathogens. 5/5/12

- Genus: Clostridium. Clostridium spp. (Clostridium perfringens) Reservoirs - Anaerobic bacteria.


Mode of - Necrotizing enzymes and toxins Transmission

Etiologic/Causative Agent

produced in wounds.
Diagnosis

- Soil
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LEPROMATOUS

LEPROSY: Numerous nodules in skin; may be involvement of the nasal mucosa and eyes.

LEPROSY, HANSEN (OR) HANSENS DISEASE

TUBERCULOID

LEPROSY: Few skin lesions; peripheral nerve involvement tends to be severe, with loss of sensations. 5/5/12

Etiologic/Causative Agent -Mycobacterium leprae : an acid fast Reservoirs

bacillus

Mode of Transmission

- Infected Humans (nasal discharges & Diagnosis shed from cutaneous lesions)

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STAPHYLOCOCCAL SKIN INFECTIONS


(Folliculitis, Furuncle, Carbuncles, Abscesses, Impetigo, Impetigo of the new born, Scalded Skin Syndrome)
All

infected hair follicles, boils (furuncles), carbuncles and Stys involve Staphylococcus aureus.

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Etiologic/Causative Agent

-Staphylococcus aureus : G +ve -Impetigo may caused by G+ve (Streptococcus pyogenes) Reservoirs -S. Aureus spreads through skin by producing Hyaluronidase.
Mode of -SSSS is produced by strains of S. Transmission

aureus that produce expoliative(or epidermolytic) toxin, which causes the Diagnosis top layer of skin (epidermic) to split from the rest of the skin.
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STREPTOCOCCAL SKIN INFECTIONS


(Scarlet Fever, Erysipelas and Necrotizing Fasciilitis)
STREPTOCOCCAL

Usually proceed pustular stages.


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IMPETIGO: superficial: may through vesicular and encrusted

Etiologic/Causative Agent

-Streptococcus pyogenes : G +ve coccus also known as group A beta hemolytic Streptococcus (GAS) and Strep A Reservoirs Scarlet fever is caused by Erythrogenic toxin, produced by some strains of Mode of S.pyogenes. -It can be complication (sequela) of untreated strep throat (Streptococcal Diagnosis pharyngitis)
Transmission

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fungal INFECTIONS OF THE SKIN

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DERMATOPHYTOSIS, TINEA (RINGWORM)INFECTION, DERMATOMYCOSIS


The

Dermatophytoses (Tinea infections (or) ringworm infections) are named in accordance with the site of infections fungal lesions of
The scalp (Tinea capitis) Groin area (Tinea crusis) or (Jock

Itch)

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of

the

body

(Tinea

Etiologic/Causative Agent Reservoirs -Microsporum, Epidermaphyton &

Trichophyton Spp. : Dermatophytes.


Mode of Transmission

- Infected Humans, Animals & Soil.


Diagnosis

-Direct & indirect contact with lesions of infected humans (or) animals, contaminated floors, shower stalls, 5/5/12

Protozoal INFECTIONS OF THE SKIN

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LEISHMANIASIS

Cutaneous, Mucosal and Visceral

Leishmaniasis.

The cutaneous form starts with

a papule that enlarges into a crater like ulcer.

Individual ulcers may coalesce.


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Etiologic/Causative Agent

-Various spp. Of flagellated protozoa Genus : Leishmania. Reservoirs The motile, extracellular form is called a promastigote; The non motile, intracellular form is called an Mode of amastigote. Transmission
Diagnosis

-Infected Humans, domestic dogs, a variety of wild animals.


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WOUND INFECTIONS

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When the protective skin barrier is broken as a result of burns, puncture wounds, surgical procedures (or) bites, opportunistic indigenous microflora and environmental bacteria can invade and cause local (or) deep tissue infections. The pathogens may spread via. Blood (or) lymph, causing serious systemic infections.

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THE END

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