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William 8tallings
Data and Computer
Communications
7
th
Edition
Chapter 17 Wireless LANs
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WLANs - Wireless LANs
- Rely upon wireless transmission media
- !nfrared, spread spectrum, narrowband
microwave
- Follow !EEE 802.11 standard
-Services include managing associations, delivering
data, and security
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WLAN Advantages
- Nobility - enable users to access data while
they are on the move
- Ease and speed of deployment - older building
difficult to wire, cable installation costs, etc.
- Flexibility - no need to recable or reconfigure
network when someone changes offices
- Cost
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WLAN applications
- LAN extension extension of an existing wired
LAN
- for large open areas, historical buildings, small
offices, etc.
- CrossBuilding !nterconnect
-Connect two buildings without wires
- Nomadic access
- Ad hoc networking
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ulti-Cell Wireless LAN
Configuration
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nfrastructure Wireless LAN
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Applications -
Ad Hoc Networking
- Peertopeer network
- Set up temporarily to meet some immediate
need
- E.g. group of employees, each with laptop or
palmtop, in business or classroom meeting
- Network for duration of meeting
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Wireless LAN Requirements
- Same as any LAN
- High capacity, short distances, full connectivity, broadcast capability
- Throughput: efficient use wireless medium
- Number of nodes:up to hundreds of nodes across multiple cells
- Connection to backbone LAN: Use control modules to connect to
both types of LANs
- Service area: 100 to 300 m
- Low power consumption:Need long battery life on mobile stations
- Nustn't require nodes to monitor access points or frequent handshakes
- Transmission robustness and security:!nterference prone and easily
eavesdropped
- Collocated network operation:Two or more wireless LANs in same
area
- Licensefree operation
- Handoff/roaming: Nove from one cell to another
- Dynamic configuration: Addition, deletion, and relocation of end
systems without disruption to users
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WLAN Technology
- !nfrared (!R) LANs: !ndividual cell of !R LAN limited to
single room - high speed
-!R light does not penetrate opaque walls
-High security for a small area, and no interference from other !R
LANs in other rooms
-Can't use outdoors - need to
- Spread spectrum LANs: Nostly operate in !SN
(industrial, scientific, and medical) bands
-No Federal Communications Commission (FCC) licensing is
required in USA
- Narrowband microwave: Nicrowave frequencies but do
not use spread spectrum - just wide enough to transmit
-Some require FCC licensing, which guarantees no channel
interference
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EEE 802.11 Architecture
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802.11 Nomenclature and
Design
- Access Points - perform the wireless to wired
bridging function between networks
- Wireless medium - means of moving frames
from station to station
- Station - computing devices with wireless
network interfaces
- Distribution System - backbone network used to
relay frames between access points
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Collision Avoidance
To avoid collisions with other incoming calls, each station transmits a short RTS
(Request To Send) Irame
beIore the data Irame. The Access Point sends back a CTS (Clear To Send) Irame with
permission to start the
data transmission. This Irame includes the time that this station is going to transmit.
This Irame is received
by all the stations in the cell, notiIying them that another unit will transmit during the
Iollowing Xmsec, so
they can not transmit even iI the media seems to be Iree (the transmitting unit is out oI
range).
Channelization
Using Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS), diIIerent hopping sequences are
assigned to diIIerent
co-located cells. Hopping sequences are designed so diIIerent cells can work
simultaneously using diIIerent
channels. Since hopping sequences and hopping timing oI diIIerent cells cannot be
synchronized (according
to FCC regulations), diIIerent cells might try to use the same channel occasionally.
Then, one cell uses the
channel while the other cell backs oII and waits Ior the next hop. In the case oI a very
noisy environment
(multiples and interIerence), the system must hop quickly. II the link is quiet and clean,
it is better to hop
slowly, reducing overhead and increasing eIIiciency.
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Access and Privacy 8ervices -
Authentication
- On wireless LAN, any station within radio range of other devices
can transmit
- Any station within radio range can receive
- Wireless Ethernet"
- Authentication: Used to establish identity of stations to each other
- Wired LANs assume access to physical connection conveys authority to
connect to LAN
- Not valid assumption for wireless LANs
- Connectivity achieved by having properly tuned antenna
- Authentication service used to establish station identity
- 802.11 supports several authentication schemes
- Does not mandate any particular scheme
- Range from relatively insecure handshaking to publickey encryption
schemes
- 802.11 requires mutually acceptable, successful authentication before
association
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edium Access Control
- NAC layer covers three functional areas
-Reliable data delivery
-Access control
-Security
- Beyond our scope
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Reliable Data Delivery
- 802.11 physical and NAC layers subject to unreliability
- Noise, interference, and other propagation effects result
in loss of frames
- Even with errorcorrection codes, frames may not
successfully be received
- Can be dealt with at a higher layer, such as TCP
-However, retransmission timers at higher layers typically order
of seconds
-Nore efficient to deal with errors at the NAC level
- 802.11 includes frame exchange protocol
-Station receiving frame returns acknowledgment (ACK) frame
-Exchange treated as atomic unit
- Not interrupted by any other station
-!f noACK within short period of time, retransmit
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Distributed Coordination
Function
- DCF sublayer uses CSNA
- !f station has frame to transmit, it listens to medium
- !f medium idle, station may transmit
- Otherwise must wait until current transmission complete
- No collision detection
-Not practical on wireless network
-Dynamic range of signals very large
-Transmitting station cannot distinguish incoming weak signals
from noise and effects of own transmission
- DCF includes delays
-Amounts to priority scheme
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EEE 802.11
edium
Access
Control
Logic
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802.11 Physical Layer
- !ssued in four stages
- First part in 1337
-!EEE 802.11
-!ncludes NAC layer and three physical layer specifications
-Two in 2.4CHz band and one infrared
-All operating at 1 and 2 Nbps
- Two additional parts in 1333
-!EEE 802.11a
- SCHz band up to S4 Nbps
-!EEE 802.11b
- 2.4CHz band at S.S and 11 Nbps
- Nost recent in 2002
-!EEE 802.g extends !EEE 802.11b to higher data rates
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riginal 802.11 Physical Layer -
D888
- Three physical media
- Directsequence spread spectrum
-2.4 CHz !SN band at 1 Nbps and 2 Nbps
-OR
- FHSS
-2.4 CHz !SN band at 1 Nbps and 2 Nbps
-OR
- !nfrared
-At 1 and 2 Nbps
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802.11a
- SCHz band
- Uses orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
(OFDN)
-Not spread spectrum
- Also called multicarrier modulation
- Nultiple carrier signals at different frequencies
- Some bits on each channel
-Similar to FDN but all subchannels dedicated to
single source
- Data rates 6, 3, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and S4 Nbps
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802.11b
- Extension of 802.11 DSSS scheme
- S.S and 11 Nbps
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802.11g
- Higherspeed extension to 802.11b
- Combines physical layer encoding techniques
used in 802.11a and 802.11b to provide service
at a variety of data rates
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Required Reading
- Stallings chapter 17
- Web sites on 802.11
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Chapter 17 - Review Ouestions
- Discuss the advantages of wireless LANS
- Discuss how a WLAN can be employed to connect LANs
from separate buildings
- Describe the purpose of peertopeer (ad hoc)
networking. Provide examples.
- Describe the WLAN requirements
- Describe an infrared LAN. What are its strengths and
weaknesses?
- Discuss WLAN NAC in regard to reliable data delivery
and access control.
- Compare and contrast !EEE 80211a, b, and g
specifications.