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WCDMA Handover Principle and Power Control Basics.

Why is Handover done.

1) Mobile systems are composed by cells which the coverage is limited. 2) The mobility of the UE. 3) Providing the continuous service - the basic element in QoS. 4) The load balance: sharing the resource 5) The hierarchy divided by speed and service: high efficiency of using resource

UE HO modes and status


- Reducing activities, saving power and resource

RRC connection
URA_PCH
URA Update After several Cell Updates Cell Update No traffic

CELL_PCH

CELL_DCH
Low speed PS

CELL_FACH - Common channel, low speed service - Triggered by theCN

- Dedicated channel
SMS VP/Voice/PS

IDLE

- Monitering the paging channel - Cell reselecting - Searching a PLMN - Find a cell to camps on

DEAD

HO categories.

Classify by Classify by System Change Signaling Flow Soft handover

Classify by Frequency Change

Description
Low-rate services (e.g. AMR, VP

Intra-frequency Intra- system


Hard handover Inter-frequency Inter-system (Inter-RAT)

High-rate services (e.g. PS384K) No Iur interface between to RNCs For the purpose of coverage or load balancing (e.g. handover between carriers with different load, handover to the carrier that supports the HSDPA service. WCDMA-to-GSM handover)

HO types.

Item
Number of radio links in the activate set Interruption during handover Frequencies in the cells before and after handover Handover gain

Soft Handover (Softer Handover)


Several No

Hard Handover
One Yes

Intra-frequency Maximum-ratio combining or selective combining which can reduce the impact of fading and transmission power of the UE. Occupies more resources. Problems occur when the power of soft handover cells is unbalanced.

Intra-frequency Inter-frequency or Inter-RAT


None

Disadvantage

Call drop ratio is relatively higher

Soft Handover (Connection before Disconnection)

NodeB1

RNC

NodeB2

Softer Handover (A Special Case of Soft Handover)


Node B
Cell A Cell B RNC

Hard Handover- (Disconnection before Connection)

NodeB1

RNC

NodeB2

Basic Concepts about Handover

Active set Radio link (RL) Monitor set Radio link set (RLS) Maximum-ratio combining Selective combining Soft handover gain Pilot channel (CPICH)

Detection set
Event report Event to periodic report Periodic report

Measurements during HO
Intra-frequency measurement

CPICH RSCP, CPICH Ec/Io, or Pathloss (normally Ec/Io)


Inter-frequency measurement

CPICH RSCP, CPICH Ec/Io


Inter-RAT measurement

GSM Carrier RSSI, BSIC Identification, and BSIC Reconfirmation

Intra-frequency Measurement Events


Intra-frequency measurement events are identified through 1X: 1A: A CPICH signal from monitor set enters the reporting range. Means a monitor cell is good enough that the UE can add it into active set. 1BA CPICH signal in active set leaves the reporting range. Means a cell in the active set is not good enough according to the best cell.

1C: Replace event. A CPICH signal from a monitor set is better than one in the active set.
1D: Event of changing the best serving cell. 1F: Event that measurement results of the cells in the active set are lower than an absolute

threshold.

Inter-frequency Measurement Events


2B event: The quality of the serving cell is lower than an absolute threshold value and the quality of another inter-frequency neighbor cell is higher another threshold value. - Handover based on Coverage. than

2C event: The quality of the inter-frequency neighbor cell is higher than

an

absolute threshold value. - Handover based on Non-Coverage (e.g. Load) 2D event: The quality of the serving cell is lower than an absolute threshold value.

It is used to start the compress mode.


2F event: The quality of the serving cell is higher than an absolute threshold value. It is used to stop the compress mode.

Inter-RAT Measurement Events


3A event: The quality of the currently used frequency is lower than an absolute threshold value, but the quality in a GSM cell is higher than another absolute threshold value. - Handover based on Coverage 3C event: The quality in a GSM cell is higher than an absolute threshold value. - Handover based on NonCoverage (e.g. Load) 2D event: The quality of the currently used frequency is lower than an absolute threshold value. It is used to start the compress mode. 2F event: The quality of the currently used frequency is higher than another absolute threshold value. It is used to stop the compress mode.

Replace cell 1 by the cell 2

Event 1A
(Reporting 1A event)

(Add new radio link)

Event 1B

(Reporting 1B event) (Del old radio link)

Event 3A, 3C

UE

Node B

SRNC

CN 1. Relocation Required 2. Prepare Handover

MSC

BSC

3. Handover Request 4. Handover Request Ack

6. Relocation Command 7. DCCH : Handover from UTRAN Command

5. Prepare Handover Response

8. Handover Detect 9. Handover Complete 10. Handover Complete

12. Iu Release Command 13. Iu Release Complete

11. Send End Signal Request 14. Send End Signal Response

Need to use power control.


Solve the near-far effect Ensure the uplink/downlink quality by adjusting the transmit power Overcoming slow fading and fast fading

Decrease interference, and improve system quality and capacity

Types of power control.

Open loop power control Uplink open loop power control (reverse) Downlink open loop power control (forward)

Closed loop power control Uplink inner-loop power control Downlink inner-loop power control

Uplink outer-loop power control


Downlink outer-loop power control

Open loop power control

BCH: CPICH power UL interference level

RACH

The UE measures received power of the CPICH and calculates initial uplink transmit power

Principle

Assume that path loss for Uplink and Downlink between the transmitter and
the receiver are the same, and the UE or RNC determines the transmit power according to the received power. Basic functions Overcome fading and path loss Disadvantage

Asymmetry between power of the uplink signal and downlink signal is not
considered, so power control is not very accurate. Applications scenarios

Uplink: applied on PRACH and DPCCH


Downlink: applied on DPCCH

Method for setting downlink DPCCH initial power


P=(Ec/Io)Req - CPICH_Ec/Io + PCPICH

Notes:
(Ec/Io)Req: the Ec/Io required to ensure the UE can receive this dedicated channel CPICH_Ec/Io: PCPICH Ec/Io measured by UE, and It is reported to the UTRAN on RACH. PCPICH: the PCPICH transmit power.

Closed loop inner loop power control

Measure SIRs of the received signals and compare them

1500Hz

Inner loop

Send TPC bits Set SIRtar NodeB Purpose of inner loop power control: Make the measured SIR converge to the given SIRtar as soon as possible. UE

Each UE has a control loop.

Closed loop outer loop power control

BLER measurement SIR measurement and comparing

Comparing

Outer loop BLER target setting SIR target setting

Inner loop

Sent TPC

RNC

NodeB

UE

Thank You.