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NINA ALLYZA BT KEPOL

SH. MAIZURA KASMAWATI SY. HAMZAH

NORHIDAYAH BT MOHD AMIN
SITI NOR AMIRA BT MOHMAD NOOR

~To write vector.
~To find magnitude of vector
and unit vector.
~To do operation on vector.
~To explain the concept of
vector.
Vectors Representative
Vectors may be represented by using directed line
segments or arrows.
The tail of the arrow is called the initial
point of
the vector and the head of the arrow is
the terminal point.
a
,
a

~
a
a
,
,
The magnitude of a vector is represented by its
length and its direction is given by the
direction of the arrow.
MAGNITUDE OF
VECTOR
The magnitude of = ai + bj
is v,

2 2
b a v + =
Example
Find the magnitude of v = 3i + 4j .
Magnitude of a vector
~
v
Equal Vectors
Two vectors are equal if they have the same
magnitude and the same direction
If a is any nonzero vector, then a , the negative
of a is defined to be the vector having the same
magnitude as a but oppositely directed.
Negatives Vectors
a
-a
a
a
Two vector are equal if and only if they have the
same magnitude and direction. For example, in a
parallelogram ABCD below,
AB=DC and AD=BC but AB CD and BCDA
B
D
C
A
Using the figure below, write each combination
of vectors as a single vector.

a) AC + CD b) DB + CB c) AC + CB
d) AD + DC + CB
A D

B
C
b) DC
c) AB
d) AB
A zero vector, denoted , is a vector
of length 0, and thus has all
components equal to zero. It is the
group of vectors. It has magnitude
zero and does not have specific
direction.
If , and ,
prove that the points and
are collinear and find the ratio
OA 6 = a
OB
3 = a OC 4 = + a b
, A B C
: AB BC
To determine the ratio of , the
vectors and have to be found.
Using subtraction of vectors,

..(1)
: AB BC
AB
BC
AB OB OA =
3 6 = b a
3( 2 ) AB = b a

..(2)

BC OC OB =
(4 ) 3 = + a b b
4 2 = a b
2(2 ) BC = a b
From (1) and (2), and

respectively.

Thus, ,where is parallel to

and
1
2
3
AB = b a
1
2
2
BC = a b
1
3 2
AB CB
1
=
AB
BC
1 1
3 2
AB CB =
As the lines and are parallel and have a
common point , therefore and are collinear,
that is, they lie on the same straight line.

From , the ratio is obtained.
AB BC
B
, A B
C
: 3: 2 AB BC =
1 1
3 2
AB BC =
When we multiply a vector by a scalar ,
then is a vector which direction depends upon the
sign of . If is positive, the direction of is the
same as that of vector .

Multiplication of a vector by a scalar
v

v

v
v

v
2v
2v
If a and b are any two vectors, then the sum a + b is the
vector determined as follows :
Position the vector b so that its initial point coincides with
the terminal point of a. The vector a + b is represented by
the arrow from the initial point of a to the terminal point
of b.
b
a
a+b
A
B
b a AB + =
= resultant vector
If u = , v = , express in
term of and

a) u + v

i
j
2 i j 2 + i j
a) u + v

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 + + = + + + i j i j i i j j
=3 i j
~Subtracting a vector is the same as

~ The difference of the vectors p and
q is the sum of p and q.

~p q = p + (q)
If u = 4i+5j
and v = i+3j

Find AB
AB + BO = AO
AB = AO + (-BO)
AB = u + (-v)
AB = (4i+5j) + [-(i+3j)]
AB = (4-1)i + (5-3)j
AB = 3i + 2j
The scalar product(dot product) of two vectors
and is denoted by and defined as

a.b = |a||b| cos

Where is the angle between and
which converge to a point or diverge from a
point.

b a

-
a

u
u
a

u
a
b
Note:
is an obtuse angle
u
Let OA = a and OB =
b

AB = OA + OB
AB = -a + b
AB = b - a
Use this:
a . a = ( a(
2
( ) ( )
2 2 2
(AB) = ( ) + ( ) - 2( )( ) cos
b-a . b-a = a.a + b.b 2 a b cos
b.b b.a b.a + a.a = a.a + b.b 2 a b cos
2 b.a = 2 a b cos
a.b = a b cos
OA OB OA OB u
u
u
u
u

~ a . a = ( a(
2
~ a . b = b . A
~ a . (b + c) = a . b + a . C
~ m (a . b) = (ma) . b = (a . b)m
~

( ) ( - = - - = a b )c a b c) a b c
~Evaluate

a)

) 4 3 ( ) 2 (
~ ~
~
~
k i j i + -
solution
a)
( )
( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
6
4 0 0 1 3 2
4 3 2
~ ~
~
~
=
+ + =
+ -
|
.
|

\
|
k i j i
~Vectors are generally oriented on a coordinate system,
the most popular of which is the two-dimensional
Cartesian plane
~The Cartesian plane has a horizontal axis which is
labeled x and a vertical axis labeled y

OC, OA, OB are position vector that start from
origin
~ Some advanced applications of vectorsusing a three-
dimensional space, in which the axes are x, y, and z
Example 1
Find vector
OA
OA = OB + BA
OA = (3i) + (4j)
OA = 3i + 4j

= OA OB AB

AB
( )
~
~
3 2 j i+ =
( )
~
~
4 j i
Find the vector

AB

Find vector for the following
question. Express in term of i
and j.

PQ

= OP OQ PQ

PQ
( )
~
~
5 4 j i+ =
( )
~
~
2 j i+
u cos b a b a

= -
Where is the angle between
and which converge to a
point or diverge from a point.
u
a

u
a

EXAMPLE
Find the angle between
and
~
~
3 j i v =

~
~
6 4 j i u + =

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
~
~
~
~
6 4 1 3
6 4 3
cos
cos
+ - +
|
.
|

\
|
+ -
|
.
|

\
|

=
-
=
= -
j i j i
u v
u v
u v u v

u
u
( ) ( )

13 . 142
130
9
cos
130
9
520
18
52 10
6 1 4 3
1
= |
.
|

\
|
=

=
+
=

u thus
Laws of multiplication of vector by a number.

I. 1 a = a , 0 a = 0 , m 0 = 0 , ( 1 ) a = a .

II. m a = a m , | m a | = | m | | a | .

III. m ( n a ) = ( m n ) a . ( Associative of
multiplication by a number).

IV. ( m + n ) a = m a + n a ,
m ( a + b ) = m a + m b .
(Distributive of multiplication by a
number ).

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See you again
Good luck for exam