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# SOURCES OF HARMONICS

OUTLINE
Power System Harmonics? Nonlinear Loads Producing Harmonic Conclusions References

## What are Power System Harmonics?

Harmonic: a mathematical definition, generally used when talking about Integral orders of Fundamental frequencies. Power system harmonics:Currents or voltages with frequencies that are integer multiples (h=0,1,2,N) of the fundamental power frequency. Harmonics are integral multiples of some fundamental frequency that, when added together, result in a distorted waveform.

sin(5x) f(x) = sin(x) f(x) = 5 The resulting wave shows a strong departure from the smooth waves comprising it:

## f(x) = sin(x) + sin(5x) 5

In fact, any function may be constructed from a sine wave and some number of its harmonics:

## Where do they come from?

The power company typically supplies a reasonably smooth sinusoidal waveform but nonlinear devices will draw distorted waveforms which are comprised of harmonics of the source. Nonlinear devices that do not follow the superposition rule.

Source of harmonics
Converters, Devices which includes semiconductor elements, Generators, Motors, Transformers, Lightening equipment working by gas discharge principle, Photovoltaic systems, Computers, Electronic ballasts, Uninterruptable power supplies, Switching power supplies, Welding machines, Control circuits, Frequency converters, Static VAr compensators, Arc furnaces, HVDC transmission systems, Electrical Communication systems

Transformers
The magnetization characteristic of a transformers core is non-linear and will produce harmonics as it is saturated.

## Normal Excitation Characteristics

At no-load the primary of a transformer is practically balanced by the back e.m.f because the effect of the winding resistance and leakage reactance is negligible at low currents.

## Determination of the Current Wave shape

The magnetizing current harmonics often rise to their maximum levels in the early hours of the morning, in example, when the system is lightly loaded and the voltage is high.

Symmetrical Overexcitation
If a transformer running with this peak operating magnetic flux density is subjected to a magnetic flux density of, 1.9-2.0 T, which will produce considerable saturation. The symmetrical magnetizing current associated with a single transformer core saturation is ignored, and if it is assumed that all triplen harmonics are absorbed, then the harmonics being generated are of orders 5,7,11,13,17,19,i.e. those of orders 6k , where k is an integer.

## Inrush Current Harmonics

If a transformer is switched off it can be left with a residual flux density in the core of magnitude + Br or Br (or under some circumstances zero). When the transformer is reenergized the flux density illustrated in figure can reach peak levels of 2 max B .

Arcing Devices
The voltage-current characteristics of electric arcs are highly non-linear. Following arc ignition the voltage decreases due to the short-circuit current, the value of which is only limited by the power system impedance. The main harmonic sources in this category are the electric arc furnace and discharge type lighting with magnetic ballasts.

Arc Furnaces
Both odd and even harmonics are produced. Arc furnace loads are harsh loads on the supply system, with attendant problems of phase unbalance, flicker, harmonics, impact loading, and possible resonance. Arc furnaces may range from small units of a few ton capacity, power rating 23 MVA, to larger units having 400-ton capacity and power requirement of 100 MVA. The harmonics produced by electric arc furnaces are not definitely predicted due to variation of the arc feed material. The arc current is highly nonlinear, and reveals a continuous spectrum of harmonic frequencies of both integer and noninteger order.

Discharge-Type Lighting
Discharge lighting is highly nonlinear and gives rise to considerable odd-ordered harmonic currents. This effect is illustrated in figures below, which shows the current waveform and harmonic spectrum of a high-efficiency lamp. This effect is particularly important in the case of fluorescent lamps, given the large concentration of this type of lighting. Additional magnetic ballasts are needed to limit the current to within the capability of the fluorescent tube and stabilize the arc. These type of lamps shows nonlinear voltage-current characteristics because of their negative resistance property.

These type of lamps shows nonlinear voltage-current characteristics because of their negative resistance property.

Single-Phase Rectification
Many commercial and domestic appliances require direct current for their operation. The single phase diode rectifier (as seen below) has become a popular power source for these appliances because of its reduced cost and relatively low sensitivity to supply voltage variations under normal operating conditions.

Modern appliances use the switch-mode power supply concept, whereby the input rectifier is directly connected to the a.c. source as in figure above; however, in this case the rectified voltage is converted back to a.c. at a very high frequency and then rectified again. This process provides a very compact design and efficient operation, tolerating large variations in input voltage. Personal computers and most office appliances as well as electronic balast of modern fluorescent lighting systems are now of this type. Typical examples of single-phase distorting appliances are tv recievers, personal computers and microwave ovens.

## Rotating Machine Harmonics

Rotating machines produce harmonic due to the field distribution of salient poles, the magnetic permeance is related with slots and the saturation of the main circuit. As a result of small asymmetries on the machine stator or rotor slots or slight irregularities in the winding patterns of a three phase winding of a rotating machine, harmonic currents can develop. These harmonics induce an electromotive force (emf) on the stator windings at a frequency equal to the ratio of speed/wavelength. The resultant distribution of magneto motive forces (mmfs) in the machine produces harmonics that are a function of speed. Additional harmonic currents can be created upon magnetic core saturation. The harmonics produced by a synchronous generator will not be taken into consideration if the generators power rating is smaller than 1000 kVA

## Voltage Harmonics Produced by Synchronous Machines

If the magnetic flux of the field system is distributed perfectly sinusoidal around the air gap, the e.m.f. generated in each full-pitched armature coil is sinvolts per turn. Where is the total flux per pole and f is frequency related to speed and pole pairs. However the flux is never exactly distributed in this way, particularly in salient pole machines. Figure below shows the mmf and the flux distribution in one phase of a fully-pitched poly-phase winding with one slot per pole per phase on the assumption of a constant air gap and in the absence of iron saturation