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System and its types

Submitted by: Amneet kaur MBA(05)

Loughborough University, 2004

Defination of system
System (from Latin systma, in turn from Greek systma, "whole compounded of several parts or members, system", literary "composition"[1]) is a set of interacting or interdependent components forming an integrated whole.

Loughborough University, 2004

A system is a set of elements (often called 'components' instead) and relationships which are different from relationships of the set or its elements to other elements or sets.

Loughborough University, 2004

Fields that study the general properties of systems include systems theory, cybernetics, dynamical systems, thermodynamics and complex systems. They investigate the abstract properties of systems' matter and organization, looking for concepts and principles that are independent of domain, substance, type, or temporal scale. Most systems share common characteristics, including:
Loughborough University, 2004

Systems have structure, defined by components/elements and their composition; Systems have behavior, which involves inputs, processing and outputs of material, energy, information, or data; Systems have interconnectivity: the various parts of a system have functional as well as structural relationships to each other. Systems may have some functions or groups of functions
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Types of Systems
There are a number of ways in which we may define types of systems.

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System Property
Complexity
Simple systems include those such as a chair which integrate several nonmoving parts together A closed system is one in which there is no interaction between the system and its environment. The state of some systems demonstrate the property of equilibrium or steady-state. Some systems adapt to changes in their environments. Systems may exist for a substantial period of time. In some systems the changes between system states are discrete, i.e., at defined intervals. In a deterministic system the behaviour of the system is predictable in every detail Complex systems are those such as social systems that are made up of a multitude of parts and relationships An open system is one in which there are interactions between the system and its environment. The state of other systems fluctuate rapidly. Such systems are described as dynamic systems. Other systems fail to adapt to changes in their environment. Other systems exist only for a short period of time. In other systems change is continuous throughout some period.

Openness

Stability
Adaptive/ Non-adaptive
Permanence Discrete/ Continuous Deterministic/ Stochastic
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In a stochastic system behaviour is affected by random inputs

Control
Open systems normally adapt to changes in their external environments.
Hence, the discipline of ecology utilises the concept of open systems to explain the adaptations that animals and plants makes to changes in the physical environment.

Control is the mechanism that implements adaptation in most systems. Systems generally exhibit some form of control which enables the system to adapt to changes in its environment.
Loughborough University, 2004

Performance
Control is normally exercised in terms of some defined measures of performance. A monitoring subsystem may only work effectively if there are defined levels of performance for the system. Such performance levels will be defined by higher level systems. In terms of a physical system such as a thermostat such a performance measure will be defined in terms of a temperature level. There are three main types of performance measures: efficacy or utility, efficiency and effectiveness.

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Efficacy
Efficacy (utility) is a measure of the extent to which a system achieves its intended transformation.

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Efficiency
Efficiency is a measure of the extent to which the system achieves its intended transformation with the minimum use of resources.

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Effectiveness
A measure of the extent to which the system contributes to the purposes of a higher-level system of which it may be a sub-system.

Loughborough University, 2004