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Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto

Chairman & Founder

Pakistan Peoples Party

PERSONAL DETAILS: Name: Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Date of Birth: January 5, 1928 Place of Birth: Larkana District, Sindh, Pakistan Father's Name: Sir Shahnawaz Khan Bhutto Mother's Name: Lady Khursheed Begum Mother Tongue: Sindhi

MARRIAGE: Married at Karachi to Ms Nusrat Ispahani September 8, 1951. CHILDREN: 1. Benazir Bhutto 2. Murtaza Bhutto 3. Sanam Bhutto 4. Shahnawaz Bhutto

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto completed his early education from Bombay's Cathedral High School. In 1947, he joined the University of Southern California, and later the University of California at Berkeley in June 1949. After completing his degree with honors in Political Science at Berkeley in June 1950, he was admitted to Oxford. He was called to Bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1953. On his return to Pakistan, Bhutto started practicing Law at Dingomal's. He bacame Lecturer of Sindh Muslim Law College in 1954.

Political Life:
In 1958, he joined President Iskander Mirza's Cabinet as Commerce Minister. Minister for Information and National Reconstruction in 1959 during the rule of Ayub Khan. Minister for Fuel, Power and Natural Resources 1960 again in Ayubs reign. As Minister of Fuel, Power and Natural Resources, he signed a path breaking agreement for exploration of oil and gas with Russia in 1960. He set up a Gas and Mineral Development Corporation in 1961 and Pakistan's first refinery in 1962 at Karachi. He was the youngest Minister in Ayub Khans Cabinet. In 1963, he took over the post of Foreign Minister from Muhammad Ali Bogra. Resigned from the Federal Cabinet as Foreign Minister in June, 1966.

Pakistan Peoples Party:

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto launched Pakistan Peoples Party after leaving Ayub's Cabinet. The PPP was launched at its founding convention held in Lahore on November 30 - December 01, 1967. At the same meeting, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was elected as its Chairman. Among the express goals for which the party was formed were the establishment of an "egalitarian democracy" and the "application of socialistic ideas to realize economic and social justice". A more immediate task was to struggle against the hated dictatorship of Ayub Khan,who was at the height of his power when the PPP was formed. Basic principles of PPP enshrined: Islam is our Faith Democracy is our politics Socialism is our Economy All Power to the People The Party also promised the elimination of feudalism in accordance with the established principles of socialism to protect and advance the interests of peasantry.

Pakistan Peoples Party Contd:

Immediately after its formation, the PPP spread its message among the workers, peasants and students throughout Pakistan, who greeted it enthusiastically. While it was still in this process, a mass uprising broke out against Ayub Khans dictatorship and the PPP quickly moved to play a leading role in this movement. After Ayub resigned in March 1969, an interim military government took over and announced elections for December 1970. The PPP contested these elections on the slogans of "ROTI, KAPRA AUR MAKAN" (bread, clothing and shelter) and "all power to the people."

Elections 1970:
The masses responded heavily to it in the polls, where PPP won 81 of 138 seats allocated to West Pakistan in the National Assembly (a total of 300 seats were contested for in both wings of the country ), coming in as the second largest party after East Pakistan - based Awami League. At the provincial level, it won majority in Sindh and Punjab legislatures. There were not enough means and time to organize and carry the message of PPP to East Pakistan. The PPP, therefore, confined its election activities to West Pakistan and fielded its candidates in that wing.


Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto after winning the elections of December, 1970.

President/Prime Minister of Pakistan:

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto assumed the role of both president and chief martial law administrator on 20 December, 1971. He was possibly the first civilian martial law administrator in world history. The breakdown of East Pakistan and the loss of War against india had shocked the Pakistani Public as well as the army. In these circumstances it was very hard for Bhutto to rule over the country hence he took some steps in order to establish himself to power.

Controlling the army:

Although he was not a military man, Bhutto was Chief Martial Law Administrator in a country under military rule. He was determined to limit the powers of the army so that it would not intervene to thwart his policies. Unless he did so, PPP would have a free hand to make changes. Control was established by: 1. Removing the most important army leaders. Amongst these were the head of the Air Force, Air Marshal Rahim Khan and the Commander-inchief of Army General Gul Khan.

Controlling the army contd.

2. Appointing his own leaders for example, General Tikka Khan was placed in charge of the army in a new post named, Chief of army staff. 3. Setting up the Federal Security Force (FSF) from October 1972, a government controlled military force set up to assist the police force. FSF was made to function as an internal security agency to lessen the government's dependence on the army in case of civil disobedience.

The Simla Agreement:

On the diplomatic front, Bhutto attempted to get the captured soldiers back from Indian prisoner of war camps. The prisoners were returned under the terms of an agreement at Simla on July 1972 with the Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi (Daughter of Jwaharlal Neru, the first Prime Minister of India). The agreement is known as Simla agreement in history. The Simla Agreement was a relatively simple document as the terms merely stated the Pakistani prisoners of war would be returned. In exchange, however, Pakistan had to agree that , in future, the Kashmir problem would be discussed directly with india and not at international forums such as United Nations.


Bhutto felt this was a price worth paying, and given the circumstances, few in Pakistan could criticize him for accepting these terms. Importantly for Bhutto, he had not given up the claim that Pakistan spoke for Kashmir because it was rightly part of Pakistan. What he had done, however, was. 1. Reduced his dependence on the army by making further fighting with India less likely. 2. Improved his governments international reputation, by being seen as willing to negotiate to maintain peace. 3. Increased his popularity in Pakistan by bringing home the prisoners of war.

Bhutto and Indira Gandhi shaking hand on the occassion of Simla Agreement, 1972.

Bhutto and Atomic Plan:

Pakistan Steps up Nuclear Program - Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto then decides that his country must respond to this grave and serious threat by making its own nuclear weapons. He steps up Pakistans nuclear research efforts in a quest to build a bomb, a quest that will be successful by the mid-1980s. After Indias first successful nuclear test on May 18, 1974, Pakistani nuclear scientist A. Q. Khan, at this time working in a centrifuge production facility in the Netherlands, begins to approach Pakistani government representatives to offer help with Pakistans nuclear program. First he approaches a pair of Pakistani military scientists who are in the Netherlands on business. He tells them he wants to help Pakistans nuclear program, but they discourage him, saying it would be hard for him to find a job in Pakistan. Undaunted, Khan then writes to Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. He sets out his experience and encourages Bhutto to make a nuclear bomb using uranium, rather than plutonium, the method Pakistan is currently trying to adopt. Pakistan will examine Khans idea and find it a good one.

The 1973 Constitution:

Bhutto came to power under the martial law and was determined to return Pakistan to parliamentary democracy. In April 1972 martial law was lifted and a new Assembly was called, reflecting the voting in the 1970 elections, in which the PP had gained an overwhelming majority. A committee was setup with representative from different parties in the Assembly to draw up a new constitution. It took the constitutional committee eight months before it submitted its report on 10 April 1973 and it received unanimous support in the Assembly, the draft constitution was passed by the Assembly by 135 votes in favor, with three abstentions. On 14 August 1973, the new Constitution , which relied heavily on the principles of the 1956 constitution, became law according to the new constitution Bhutto was elected prime minister by National Assembly on 12 August and Chaudhri Fazal Elahi was elected as President.

The constitutions main features were:

1. Pakistan shall be federal republic with a parliamentary system of government. The prime minister shall be the head of government , elected from the majority party. 2. The special position of Islam as the state religion shell be emphasized and both the prime minister and president are required to Muslims. 3. Pakistan Shall be declared an Islamic Republic. 4. A bill to amend the constitution shall need two thirds majority in the lower house and a majority in the upper house. 5. All fundamental human rights shall be guaranteed but the stipulation was added that it was subject to reasonable restrictions imposed by law. 6. The Supreme Court and High Courts shall be given power to enforce fundamental rights. 7. The president shall act in accordance with the binding advice of the prime minister, and all orders of the president shall be countersigned by the prime minister. 8. The senate, or upper house, shall be elected mostly from provincial governments and so, for the first time, the interests of the provinces shall be safeguarded at the centre. The Senate shall not be dissolved even in emergencies. 9. In case of emergencies, the federal government can pass legislation on anything and can even suspend fundamental freedoms. 10. Urdu shall be the official language of Pakistan, with English to be retained for the next 15 years. 11. Pakistan shall be federal state, so residuary powers shall rest with the provinces not the central governments.

Restrictions: PRESIDENT

Male, Muslim, age over 40, must sign all the orders from P.M

Islamic Committee advice only on legislation

Powers: Emergency Powers ,

can issue presidential orders, appoints chief justice who oversees the judiciary system. Restrictions: Male, Muslim elected from majority party in NA.

CABINET Power: Could advice



Senate: Members from provincial assembly, equal members form 4 provinces.

Could only advice cannot take any action.


each province elected by adults.

Political events under Bhutto:

In the National Assembly, the Pakistan Peoples Party had a commanding majority since the 1970. Under the terms of the new parliamentary system and constitution, Bhutto assumed the role of Prime Minister. The largely ceremonial role of president was filled by Chaudhri Fazal Elahi. Although the PPP was the largest party in the National Assembly, it was dominant in the Sindh and Punjab Provincial Assemblies, only two of the four Pakistani Provinces. In the Baluchistan and NWFP Assemblies , the National Awami Party (NAP) and the Jamiat-ul-Ulema-i-Islam (JUI) coalition held the majority of seats. On 27 April, 1972 the PPP and the NAP/JUI coalition signed an agreement. This stated that:
1. This stipulated that the National Assembly would not appoint

governors to different provinces without the approval of the concerned provinces and provincial assemblies concerned.
2. It also promised that the NAP/JUI coalition could run their provinces

with a free hand as long as they supported the PPP in the National Assembly.

Political events under Bhutto Contd:

The agreement lasted until February 1973 when the governors of Baluchistan and the NWFP were removed and the Baloch Provincial government was dismissed. As a result, the NWFP government resigned in protest, with the well publicized provincial accord having lasted less than a year. With the Balochis trying to resist the actions of the central government, by May 1973, a full scale military operation had started in Baluchistan. 3. The next blow to the 1973 constitution, which the PPP has itself helped to frame, came in 1974. In April, a constitutional amendment meant an effective limitation of press freedom, and allowed the government to ban partied felt by it to be against the sovereignty and integrity of the country. 4. In 1975 laws were passed allowing the security forces to detain suspect indefinitely and took away the right of bail for those held by the FSF. This organization became increasingly active, breaking up opposition rallies and intimidating political opponents. On the orders of Bhutto, one of the founding members of the PPP, J.A. Rahim was seriously beaten by FSF. The FSF used to break up opposition rallies, to

Reforms of Bhtto:
Bhutto was now able to concentrate on putting into practice the promise of Food, Shelter and Clothing, which he had promised his supporters in the campaign for the 1970 elections. These were basic needs, but for many people in Pakistan they were not being met. So the government had to make reforms that would raise food production, create more jobs and provide a better welfare system. During its Government from Dec. 20, 1971 to July 5,1977, the PPP government made significant reforms that did much to improve the life of Pakistan's impoverished masses. The reforms which Bhutto introduced were: 1. Industrial Reforms 2. Agricultural Reforms 3. Educational Reforms 4. Health and Social Reforms 5. Administrative Reforms

Industrial Reforms:
Bhutto wanted to promote economic growth and bring inflation down from its unacceptably high level of 25%. A major part of its economic policy was the introduction of a program of nationalization. The sugar, cotton, vegetable oil and rice industries, together with the banking and insurance sectors were taken under government control. In all, 70 major industrial units were placed under the control of a Federal Ministry of Production. These changes were designed to help the government:
1. Control industrial output and channel investment into industrialization.
2. Raise the workers living and working standards, including the provision of cheap housing. 3. Allow the workers to set up unions.

4. Even out the inequalities that had collected most of the industrial wealth into few hands. Twenty industrial houses owned 80% of Pakistan largest industry.
5. Create wealth to help fund other government reforms. 6. Raise the popularity of the PPP with the urban population, which was an important sector of the PPP support.

Bhutto discussing to nationalize the industries.

Problems with Industrial Reforms:

However, the nationalization policy faced many difficulties:
1. Pakistans education was not yet producing sufficiently educated workers to

take managerial positions in the industries under the Federal Ministry of Production. Capable factory owners were replaced by civil servants with little knowledge of commerce.
2. The Federal Ministry had a huge job to do, co-ordinating nationalization across the country. The system often got bogged down in bureaucratic muddle.

3. The changes took place at a time when the world was going through a recession. The newly nationalized industries faced declining demand for their goods, in keeping with reduced demand across the world. Private companies would have forced to close; Pakistan's nationalized industries continued to operate.

Despite these problems, Bhuttos industrial reforms did gave some success and inflation fell to just 6% in 1976. economic growth also began to increase.

Agricultural Reforms:
Bhuttos government passed two major reforms, intending to introduce a new ceiling on ownership of land and security of tenancy.
1. Land Ownership 2. Security of Tenure

Land Ownership:
Under Ayub, the ceiling on land ownership had been 500acres of irrigated land and 1000 acres of barren land. Bhutto believed that improved technology and better farming methods such as the use of tractors, pesticides and tube wells for irrigations had raised production. So landowners could maintain their income on smaller, more productive, areas of land. He therefore cut the ceiling to 250 acres of irrigated land and 500 acres of barren land. The surplus land could be sold to the smaller peasant farmers to make better profits. Lands would also be available to allow many people to own their farms for the first time. Unfortunately, Bhutto reforms were undermined by the cunning of big landowners. Many of them had anticipate Bhuttos reforms (which they had actually feared would be much harsher) and had transferred some of their land holding to members of the extended family. Other transferred land to trusted tenants and then leased it back on long term leases. Even where such measures had not been carried out, there remained the power of personal

Security of Tenure:
Bhutto wanted to give tenants security of tenure of the land they farmed. He introduced a measure giving tenants the first right of purchase of land farmed by them. This meant that landowners could not sell land to a third party who might then evict the tenants to make improvements on their lands as they knew they would not be evicted. Once again, however, the landowners undermined the impact of the reform. In advance of the introduction of the measure, there was mass eviction of tenants from farms to prevent them receiving security of tenure. Bhuttos government also under-estimated the influence of the landowner did not want to sell to a tenant, it was extremely difficult for the tenant to stand up to the landowners, to raise finance to buy the land, and, if necessary, find the funds to fight a legal case. It was also true that many landowners used their social position to persuade revenue officers to record land as owner-cultivated when actually it was in the hands of tenants.

Educational Reforms:
The government was concerned about education. Only about half of all children were attending school and the official literacy rate was just 25%. Article 37 of the 1973 constitution stated that it was the duty of the state to provide free and compulsory education. Bhutto introduced reforms to put this into effect. 1. Nationalized almost all private sector schools and college. This was intended to remove the discrepancies between private and state education and was very much in keeping with the socialist measures in industry and agriculture. 2. Built more schools to provide free primary education for all.

The reforms could not be implemented overnight and, in the first few years were bound to face difficulties. The main problems were: 1. Only 13% of the budget was allocated to primary schools and so implementation was difficult. 2. Education takes time, it is not possible to change the curriculum, train teachers and provide the necessary equipments in a short time. Consequently even after 5 years the literacy rate has not increase by 1% 3. Many people in rural areas did not see the need for education or literacy. Even when education was provided free many poor people could not afford the loss of earnings they faced if they sent a child to school instead of sending it out to work.

Health and Social Reforms:

Pakistan has poor health care facilities and it had one of the highest infant mortality rate in the world. Life expectancy was also very low. In August ,1972 Bhutto launched a health scheme, designed to correct these anomalies.
1. The central plank of the reforms was the introduction of Rural Health Centers (RHCs) and Basic Health Units (BHUs) in urban areas to provide more widespread health care. The plan was to set up 1 RHC for every 60,000 people and BHU for every 20,000 people. 2. Training colleges for doctors and nurses were expected to admit students on

merit. Once qualified, doctors had to work the first year wherever the government placed them. So that instead of working only in big cities they could be assigned a post in any small town or village.
3. The sale of medicines under brand names was also banned. This practice, common in the West, allows drug companies to sell new medicines under a

patented name and stops other companies manufacturing the drug under its medical name. This measure reduced the cost of medicines dramatically. Medicines were made available without prescription. They could be bought at any pharmacy.

Outcomes of the Health and Social Reforms:

The reforms did improve medical services in Pakistan, but there was always a shortage of doctors and nurses. (Pakistan had fewer of both in 1977 than in 1970). The removal of brand names from medicines also saw a fall in the income of chemists and many international drug companies closed down their operations in Pakistan, as they could not make profit a profit meanwhile local companied stepped in to fill the gap with standard and often dangerous substitutes.

Administrative Reforms:
One of the main targets for reform during the PPP regime was the bureaucracy. Bhutto claimed that the Civil Services of Pakistan (CSP) was legacy on Indian Civil Service and needed modernization. Bhutto felt that the CSP was corrupt, inefficient and full of unnecessary rules and regulations. A lateral system of entry was introduced under which people could be appointed to the civil service at various grades, even the more senior ones. He reorganized the Civil Service into smaller number of levels and unified pay scales. This removed some of the old, unnecessary distinctions between types of civil servant. He also reformed entry requirements so that people could join at any level, even the more senior ones, without having to work their way up. He said that this would enable the CSP to recruit high quality staff, but his opponents complained that all he was doing was setting up a system of patronage where he could reward his followers with posts in the civil service.

Elections 1977 and Political Situation:

In 1977 Bhutto called a general election. He was confident that his governments record and the lack of effective opposition would result in an easy PP victory. However, once the election was called, nine of the various opposition parties combined to form the Pakistan National Alliance (PNA). There were two issues which united the opposition in election campaign. They all wanted to end the rule of Bhutto and the PPP and they were united in their desire to rule Pakistan according to Islamic law. The PNA began to attract big audiences at its election rallies and was clearly gaining support. Bhuttos supporters were forced to act and PNA rallies became subject s to attack from gangs of armed thugs. The government introduced a law limiting a public gatherings to just five people. This was to stop public demonstrations of support for the PNA. The results of the election showed a landslide victory for the PPP. Of the 200 seats contested it won 154,against the PNAs 38. There was an immediate outcry of protest from the PNA, which accused the government of rigging the results and demanded new elections under fair and neutral administration. On the predictable refusal of this demand by Bhutto a mass protest was launched by PNA and the situation became violent and dangerous, with the mass rotting in many towns and cities. There was doubt that the government did interfere with the vote, and on one occasion the results for one constituency were announced on television before the count had even started! Some historians believe such vote rigging was a serious error because the PPP was likely to have won the elections

Step to downfall:
Bhutto refused to agree to fresh elections and the PNA organized mass protests against the government. Soon there was rioting in many towns and cities and the Federal Security Force could not stop the unrest. Bhutto was forced to negotiate with PNA. He offered fresh elections in some of disputed constituencies. At the same time, he also began to turn to army. Martial Law was declared in major cities of Pakistan but with little effect. The PNA leadership was arrested and by June it was estimated that up to 300 people had been killed and 10,000 arrested since the March elections.

Bhutto tried desperately to take sting from the religious oppositions by playing the religious card. He announced the complete banning of alcohol, gambling, and all other anti-Islamic activities. These moves only encouraged the opposition to believe that Bhutto was succumbing to their pressure. Facing widespread civil disobedience, Bhutto lost control of army as well. On the night of 5 July 1977, Pakistan Army arrested Bhutto and took all the major political leaders into custody in a move named OPERATION FAIRPLAY. On 7 July 1977, the chief of army staff, General Zia-ul-Haq, declared that the constitution was suspended and the martial law was in force. For the third time in less than 20 years the Pakistan Army had declared martial law.

Bhutto being arrested after 1977 elections.

The Death of Bhutto:

There could not have been a more unlikely military dictator than Zia-ulHaq. Zia had been specially chosen by Bhutto for the chief of army staff post. Zias appointment had been controversial, as he was junior to several other generals and had no distinguished service record. As the next 11 years to prove, however, people underestimated Zia to their own detriment. Zias most immediate dilemma was how to handle Bhuttos case. He released Bhutto from arrest at the end of July, but when he made it plain that he intended to rearrest on 3 September. Along with three others he was accused of murdering a political opponent by sending FSF to kill him. The trial, which took nearly 2 years, resulted in Bhutto being found guilty and sentenced to death. As president (He had replaced Fazal Elahi in September in 1978) Zia had the power to commute the sentence to life imprisonment. Bhutto, however, refused to plead to Zia for his life. Many others at home and abroad did so but Zia was unmoved. Bhutto was hanged on 4 April 1979.

Local Newspaper published the death of Bhutto.

1. History of Pakistan Nigel Kelly 2. Tareekh-E- Pakistan Mohammad Ali Chiragh 3. Pakistan Studies Farooq Bajwa 4. Trek to Pakistan Ahmad Saeed & Khawaja Mansoor

5. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Pakistan Rafi Raza

1. 2. 3. 4.