Sie sind auf Seite 1von 12

Epidemiology:

 Study of the occurrence and


distribution of health conditions such
as disease, death, deformities, or
disabilities of human populations
 Nurse measures frequency and
distribution of health conditions using
VITAL STATISTICAL INDICES
 Used to analyze different factors that
contribute to disease development
Epidemiology rests on two important
concepts:

1. Multiple Causation Theory


2. Levels of prevention of health
problems
Multiple Causation Theory
“ Disease development does not rest
on a single cause.”

 Thereare 3 models to explain the


theory:
1. The Wheel
2. The Web
3. The Ecologic Triad (most helpful to
the nurse)
The Ecologic Triad

AGENT
ENVIRONMENT -Any element, substance or
-sum total of all external force, animate or inanimate,
conditions and influences: presence or absence of
Physical, Biological, which may serve as stimulus
Socio-economic to initiate/ perpetuate a disease
process.

HOST
-any organism that harbors and
nourishes another organism
-characteristics of host will affect
its susceptibility or resistance
 The three elements of the triad
interact with one another in an
attempt to maintain an equilibrium.
 Any major change in any one of the
factors may bring about a
disturbance in the equilibrium
provoking the appearance of a health
problem.
Levels of Prevention of Health
Problems
“Promoting health and preventing
health problems make up most of the
nurse’s activity in the community.
Prevention refers to identification of
potential problems and further
eradication or minimization of
disability in a population-at-risk to a
NEGATIVE EXPOSURE FACTOR.
1. Primary Prevention
 Directed to the healthy population
 Prevention of emergence of risk
factors
 Interventions before agent enters
host
 Aims to strengthen host resistance,
inactivate the agent, interrupt the
chain
 Health promotion activities: provision
of proper nutrition, safe water supply
and waste disposal system, vector
2. Secondary Prevention
 Aims to identify and treat existing
health problems at the earliest
possible time
 Interventions: screening, case-
finding, disease surveillance, prompt
and appropriate treatment
 Disease prevention: health teaching
on risk factors and health risk
behaviors that contribute to
development of disease
3. Tertiary Prevention
 Limitsdisability progression
 Nurse attempts to reduce magnitude
or severity of the residual effects
“in explaining the interrelationship of
factors that bring about community
health problems, epidemiological
approach is being used, specifically
DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY.”
Descriptive Epidemiology
 Aims to describe the occurrence of health
conditions in the community in terms of
person, place and time characteristics.
 Various aspects involved in descriptive
epidemiology include:
1. Observation and recording of existing
patterns of occurrence of health conditions
2. Description of the condition as to
person, place and time characteristics
3. Analysis of the general pattern of
occurrence