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# Phase Changes

Standard
• PS 3.7 - Explain the process of phase
change in terms of temperature, heat
transfer, and particle arrangement
Temperature
• Temperature - the term used to
describe the average kinetic energy of
the particles in a substance
• Kinetic energy is the type of energy
associated with motion
• The faster particles are moving at
higher temperatures
Phase Change - What does it have
to do with The Kinetic Theory?
• Phase change is due to changing the
movement (energy) of the particles
Freezing/Melting Point
• The freezing or melting point is the
temperature where a phase change occurs
between a liquid and a solid.
• If heat is being added at this temperature
attractions between particles will break
and a solid will melt
• If heat is being taken away attractions will
form between particles and a liquid will
freeze.
Boiling Point
• Boiling Point is the temperature where a
liquid is changing to a gas throughout
the liquid.
• Boiling occurs when the bubbles of
the vapor are formed
What affect does adding energy have?

## • When energy is added to a substance,

the energy of the particles of the
substance increases.
• Evidence of this would be that the
temperature of the substance
increases or a phase changes
energy to a solid have?
• When heat is added to a solid the particles
move faster and the temperature will
increase until the temperature of the solid
reaches its melting point
• When the temperature of the solid is equal
to the melting point and more heat is
added the temperature will not change.
• The extra heat is used to break the
attractions to change from a solid phase
to the liquid phase
energy to a liquid have?
• When heat is added to a liquid the particles
move faster and the temperature will increase
until the liquid reaches its boiling point
• When the temperature of a liquid is equal to the
boiling point and more heat is added to the
substance the temperature will not change
• The extra heat will be used to break the
attraction between the molecules of that liquid
and change the phase to a gas.
• When a substance boils it forms bubbles of the
gas
Temperature vs. Time Graph
Temperature vs. Time Graph
• The line of the graph has a positive slope
until a phase change occurs
• At the melting point or boiling point the
temperature does not change as more heat
is added over time. The slope of the line will
be flat during the time that time phase is
changing
• After the phase change the slope of the line
becomes positive again
Can liquids evaporate at any
temperature?
• Liquids may evaporate at any
temperature
• This is because some of the molecules
at the surface are moving fast enough
to escape the attraction of the other
molecules
Can something go
from a solid to a gas?
• Sublimation is the process where
solids change directly to gases
• Sublimation may occur in some
substances, such as dry ice (solid
carbon dioxide) because the melting
point and boiling point are almost the
same