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APPROCHES IN COUNSELLING

APPROCHES IN COUNSELLING

Psychoanalytical approach Behavioral approach Humanistic approach Cognitive behavioral approach Eclectic approach

PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROCH
Gain more dramatic insight into how their defenses & resistances work Focused on the influence of the past experiences Analyzing the root cause of behavior & feelings by exploring the unconscious mind & the conscious minds relation to it

CONTINUED.
The unconscious experiences have a powerful impact on our daily functioning

Ego defense mechanisms as a way of explaining behavior

BASIC TECHNIQUES
Free association Interpretation Dream analysis Resistance Transference

FREE ASSOCIATION
Basic tool for uncovering repressed or unconscious material

In which the patient was asked to say whatever come to mind

INTERPRETATION
Analysis of free association, dreams, resistances & transference feelings Explain underlying meaning of behavior Designed to accelerate the therapeutic process of uncovering unconscious material

DREAM ANALYSIS
Essential procedure for uncovering unconscious material Freud saw dream as the royal road to the unconscious Dreams express unconscious needs, conflicts, wishes, fears & repressed experiences

RESISTANCE
Individuals reluctance to bring into conscious awareness threatening unconscious material that has been previously repressed

Free association, an uncensored & uninhibited flow of ideas produced by the client that offers clues about the persons unconscious conflict

TRANSFERENCE
Clients project attitudes & feeling that they have had for a parent or others close to them onto the therapist

Start by bring positive, which helps the analysis since the clients works to please him

ADVANTAGES
Spends great deal of time on exploring the clients past uses free association

Raise the unconscious content of the mind to consciousness Providing client with more control over his or her life

DISADVANTAGES
It is a very time intensive therapy Sometimes involving several sessions a week for several years It is more expensive

BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
People behave in the way that their environment has taught them to behave Eg :Through rewards & punishments modeling Attempts to change the way the environment reinforces particular behavior Works at applying learning principles to help people to learn new behavior

TECHNIQUES
Systematic desensitization Aversion therapy

Behavior modification programs

SYSTEMATIC DESENSITISATION
Effectively overcome phobias & other anxiety disorders Relaxation

Constructing hierarchy Pairing relaxation with the situations in hierarchy

AVERSION THERAPY
Aversive stimulus is applied when undesirable behavior occurs

Attempt to eliminate the undesirable behavior

BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION PROGRAMS


Reinforcement Contingency contract Modeling Behavior rehearsal Feedback Cognitive restructuring Problem solving

CONTINUED. These approaches try to increase positive behavior & decrease negative behavior by using reinforcement & punishment in the most effective ways based on learning principles

ADVANTAGES
Successful medicine in treating some people with mental health condition Relatively short compared with other types of talking treatments Highly structured in nature Provide in a number of different formats other than talking therapies

DISADVANTAGES
It may not be suitable for people who have more complex mental health needs, or learning difficulties Therapy only addresses current problems & focuses on very specific issues It does not address the possible underlying causes of mental health conditions, such as an unhappy childhood

HUMANISTIC APPROACH
Opportunity to explore creativity, personal growth & self development It provides the client with a deeper understanding of who they are ? Offering a non judgmental, supportive & understanding service in a safe & confidential environment

TYPES OF HUMANISTIC APPROACH


Person centered or client centered centered therapy Gestalt therapy Transactional analysis Existential psychotherapy

PERSON CENTERED OR CLIENT CENTERED THERAPY


A relationship b/w the clients & therapists must exist Therapist accepts the clients unconditionally without judgment, disapproved or approval Empathetic understanding of the clients internal frame of reference

ADVANTAGES
To expand clients' self-insight through the major forms which includes specific philosophies To stress to clients that they have natural motivational tendencies toward growth, health, and fulfillment Therapist helping each patient realize their potential.

DISADVANTAGES

Deals with hard to define concepts and thus results are hard to measure

GESTALT THERAPY
Focuses on the whole of an individuals experience, their thoughts, feelings & actions Promoting self awareness is the main objective Improving the ability to support ones emotional feelings are also important

ADVANTAGES
Patients are encouraged to become aware of immediate needs, meet them, and let them recede into the background Emphasizes medium to large groups It is practiced in individual, couples, and family therapies, as well as in therapy with children.

DISADVANTADES
Focus too much on individual's happiness and growth at the expense of other goals. Focus too much on feelings and not enough on thought and decision making. Not effective with more disturbed individuals.

TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS
It involves an individuals growth & development Three ego states parent, adult & child Ego states are useful for analyzing unconscious scripts Identify what goes wrong in communication

EXISTENTIAL PSYCHOTHERAPY
Operates on the beliefs that inner conflicts within a person is due to that individuals confrontation with the gives of existence It emphasis is on the choices to be made in the present & future Relate the unfulfilled needs & potential Individual to redirect their energy to best fulfill their needs & reach their potential

COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL APPROACH


CBT aims to solve problems concerning dysfunctional emotions, behaviors and cognitions through a goal-oriented, systematic procedure It involves learning how to identify & replace distorted thoughts & beliefs Therapy centers on the belief that our thoughts are influenced by how we feel

APPROCHES IN CBT
Cognitive therapy Rational emotive behavior therapy Multimodal therapy

ECLECTIC APPROACH
To provide the best mixture of ideas & techniques for each client

Strategies & methods from several approaches applied selectively to clients

ADVANTAGES
Does not restrict ideas only one perspective Allows new ideas to be generated Provides a fuller understanding of behavior as it considers all relevant factors and how they might combine

DISADVANTAGES
May lead to confusion because there are too many views expressed

The different approaches are very different from each other it is difficult to combine them to make one new theory