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By Anchu Komal Nyni Sneha & Zahra

It is a systematic learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviors to enhance the performance of the employees
According to Edwin B. Flippo; Training is the act of increasing knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. According to Michael Armstrong; Training is the systematic development of the knowledge , skills and attitudes required by an individual to perform adequately a given task or job.

Need of Training
Training is given mainly on four basic grounds:
 New candidates who join an organization are given training. This training familiarizes them with the organizational mission, vision, rules and regulations and the working conditions  The existing employees are trained to refresh and enhance their skills and knowledge  If any updates & amendments take place in technology, training is given to cope up with those changes. For instance, purchasing a new equipment, changes in technique of production, computer-implantment. The employees are trained about use of new equipments and work methods  When promotion and career growth becomes important, Training is given so that employees are prepared to share the responsibilities of the higher level job

Rationale of Training
The primary motive/fundamental reason of any training is to improve the skills and knowledge of the individual whereby their attitudes and behavior is refurbished and molded in such a way that it enhances and elevates the individual s as performance! well as the organization's

Systematic Approach to Training

It is a 4 step model:
What kind of training is needed? Planning & Implementing using experienced trainers Evaluation to check the effectiveness

Determining training needs..

Objectives of Training
The primary objective of training is to ensure the availability of skilled and willing workforce in the organization It includes the following: To develop the competencies of people and improve their performance effectiveness To enable people grow in the enterprise so that they can meet future HR needs easily To minimize the learning period of people initiating new jobs as result of fresh appointments; transfer/ promotion

Apart from those, these are the 4 core categories:
Individual Organizational



Significance of Training
Direct increase in quality, speed, output & overall productivity Inculcates and promotes team spirit Helps employees work more efficiently & effectively (precision in handling machines, tools etc which reduces wastage) It helps in introducing & adopting latest technology in order to absorb change Improves the overall organization climate & culture, leads to OD Helps in achieving higher employee satisfaction which further triggers higher motivation levels & improves morale Increases employee commitment (loyalty) to work Contributes to fewer mistakes, greater job satisfaction, lower absenteeism & labor turnover Facilitates a congenial & cordial employer-employee relation It helps in introducing & adopting latest technology in order to absorb change. Enables employees to secure promotions easily, they can also realize their career goals comfortably A company giving adequate training to their employees gain public image & reputation which further helps in attracting new skilled, talented young candidates

Identification of Training Needs

Training needs arise when there is a gap between present and desired levels of knowledge, skills and performance of an employee. Problem areas that should be resolved through training should be identified. Training needs can be identified through 3 types of analysis.

Training Need Assessment

Training Need Assessment

Organizational analysis

Person analysis

Task & Role analysis

Identification of Training Needs

Training needs arise when there is a gap between present and desired levels of knowledge, skills and performance of an employee. Problem areas that should be resolved through training should be identified. Training needs can be identified through 3 types of analysis.

Organizational Analysis
1. 2.
3. 4.

Its Purpose is to determine where the training emphasis should be placed within the organization. It consist of the following elements: Analysis of objectives: short term & long term Resource utilization analysis: human, physical & financial Environmental scanning: social, economical, political, technological (PEST) Organizational climate analysis: turnover & absenteeism ratio

Task & Role Analysis

Analysis of Jobs to identify: 1. Job contents and tasks 2. Methods to be used 3. Skills, knowledge, aptitude required. 4. Operations & conditions of job 5. Performance standards required for employees.

Personnel Analysis
Analysis of persons to be trained and the changes required in the knowledge, skills and aptitudes of an employee are determined. Decide on who are poor performers, their capability of being trained, their specific areas of training needed and will it improve their performance or not.

Data Sources used in Training Need Assessment

Organizational Analysis Organizational goals & objectives Personnel inventories Skills inventories Climate analysis Efficiency index Exit interview MBO Customer satisfaction survey Task Analysis Job analysis Job description Job specification Performance standard Work sampling Performance objectives Asking questions about job (interviews) Person Analysis Performance appraisals Personal profile Assessment centers Questionnaire Tests Training audit Rating scales Diaries Role play

Benefits of Training
Training benefits both the employer as well as the employee Benefits to the Organization: Better quality of work Higher productivity Cost reduction High morale Reduced supervision Less learning period Personal growth Fewer accidents Brings loyalty

Benefits to the Employees: Self confidence Safety Higher earning Promotion Adaptability New skills Personal growth

Methods of Training








On-theOn-the-Job Training

On-the-job training (OJT) refers to new or inexperienced employees learning through observing peers or managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behavior.

Coaching refers to the activity of a coach in developing the abilities of coaches or clients. Coaching methods includes both theoretical and practical sections. Motivational speeches are done theoretically, workshop, seminars come under practical methods.

Job Instruction Training

Step by step structured training method in which a trainer : 1. Prepares a trainee with an overview of the job its purpose, and the results desired, 2. Demonstrates the task or the skill to the trainee, 3. Allows the trainee to mimic the demonstration on his or her own 4. Employee does the job independently 5. Follows up to provide feedback and help

Job Rotation
Job rotation is an approach to management development where an individual is moved through a schedule of designed to give him or her a breadth of exposure to the entire operation. Job rotation is also practiced to allow qualified employees to gain more insights into the processes of a company, and also to reduce boredom and increase job satisfaction & skill enhancement through job variation.

Tailor-made course content with use of REAL company situations/examples It is usually less expensive than off-job training Learning will take place using the equipment which will be actually used Trainees acclimatise more rapidly

Possibility of poor instruction and insufficient time

Trainee may be exposed to bad work practices A large amount of spoiled work and scrap material may be produced Valuable equipment may be damaged Training takes place under production conditions that are stressful, i.e. noisy, busy, confusing and exposing the trainee to comments by other workers

Off-the-Job Training
Off the job training involves employees taking training courses away from their place of work. This is often also referred to as "formal training". Off the job training courses might be run by the business' s training department or by external providers. Use of specialist trainers and accommodation Employee can focus on the training - and not be distracted by work

Vestibule Training
Vestibule training is a type of instruction using a vestibule, a small area away from the actual worksite, consisting of training equipment exactly duplicating the materials and equipment used on the job. The purpose of vestibule training is to reproduce an actual work setting and place it under the trainer's control to allow for immediate and constructive feedback. Training vestibules are useful because they allow trainees to practice while avoiding personal injury and damage to expensive equipment without affecting production.

Training is basically incomplete without lecture. When the trainer begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda, processes, or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture method Main Features of Lecture Method:

Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings Less expensive Can be reached large number of people at once Knowledge building exercise Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivity

Role Plays
Trainees act out characters assigned to them. Information regarding the situation is provided to the trainees. Focus on interpersonal responses. Outcomes depend on the emotional (and subjective) reactions of the other trainees. The more meaningful the exercise, the higher the level of participant focus and intensity.

Programmed Instructions
This method involves a sequence of steps that are often set up through the central panel of an electronic computer as guides in the performance of desired operation or series of operations. This method involves breaking information down into meaningful units and then arranging these in a proper way to form a logical and sequential learning. The programme involves presenting questions, facts or problems to trainees to utilize the information given and the trainee instantly receive feedback on the basis of the accuracy of his answers.

A specialist instructor enables delivery of high quality training. Wider range of facilities and equipment are available. The trainee can learn the job in planned stages. It is free from the pressures and distractions of company life. It is easier to calculate the cost of off-job training because it is more self-contained


Can result in transfer of learning difficulties when a trainee changes from training equipment to production equipment. No training can be entirely offjob as some aspects of the task can only be learned by doing them in the normal production setting, with its own customs and network of personal relationships. Can be more expensive for carrying out the training

Training Program

Steps in the Training Process

1. Organizational objectives

2. Assessment of Training needs 3. Establishment of Training goals 4. Devising training programme 5. Organizing &Implementation of training programme 6. Evaluation of results

Designing and Implementing training program

Training policy
Selecting and Motivating the target group

Responsibility for training

Preparing the trainers

Developing training package


Performance tryout

Follow up

Essentials of Good Training

(i) Training programme should be designed so as to achieve the predetermined objectives, goals and needs of the organisation. It should be less expensive. (ii) Training programme should be leopardess for all, in the organisation and not for a particular group. (iii) Training programme should pre-planed and well organised taking in view, the objectives of training programme. For this purpose the whole task should be divided in various sub-activities an such sub-activities should be arranged in a systematic order. (iv) Training programme should be designed according to size, nature and financial position of the concern. A small scale enterprise cannot afford much to the training programme.

(vi) The programme must be conducted by senior and experienced officer of the concern. In large scale enterprises, training is conducted by the training director who is in-charge of the training section under personnel department. Such training director is well trained and experienced in the art training. (vii) Theoretical and practical aspects of training must be given due considerations while preparing a training programme. (viii) It should be designed in such a fashion as to incorporate the recent trends developed in the industrial field. Psychological researches may guide the conducting of a programme. The main purpose of the training programme should be to enable the employee to pick-up the work as soon as he completes the training. (ix) Training programme should be designed taking in view the interests of both employer and the employees. Their group interests should not be suffered. (x) It is not essential to follow a single method of training for all employees. The purpose of training is to develop the men and not the methods, therefore, more than one method maybe followed side by side for different groups. (xi) The main purpose of the training programme should be to motivate the workers to learn something to improve is job performance

Principles of Training
Clear objectives Training policy Motivation Reinforcement Organized material Learning period Preparing the instructor Feedback Practice Appropriate techniques

Evaluation helps determining the results of training & development program Need for evaluation To determine the accomplishment of specific training objective To determine the Cost effectiveness To determine the Program failure To determine the Correcting performance deficiencies Any Change in trainee capabilities are due to training & not due to any other condition

Importance of Training Evaluation

Improved quality of training activities Improved ability of the trainers to relate inputs to outputs Better discrimination of training activities between those that are worthy of support and those that should be dropped Better integration of training offered and on-the job development Better co-operation between trainers and line-managers in the development of staff Evidence of the contribution that training and development are adding value to the organization

Profile & career development charts

Questionnaires Evaluation techniques feedback Cost benefits analysis

Psychological tests


Outcome Measures- acc to hablin:

Reactiontrainee satisfaction Learningacquisition of skills & knowledge

Behaviorimproveme nt in external behavior in job

Resultsbusiness results achieved by trainees

Hence training plays a very significant role in enhancing the skills and knowledge of the employees and when carried out systematically helps in the attainment of the desired objectives thereby increasing the public image of the company

Case Study - SIEMENS

For a business to be competitive, it is important that it has the right number of people with the right skills in the right jobs.
Identifying Training Needs
audit it's current staff numbers & skills

Workforce Planning

Helps to Identify Gaps

Types of Training Imparted at Siemens

3 Development Programmes for Entry-level Talent : those beginning their career with Siemens after education
1) Apprenticeship: combination of off-the-job college training & on-the-job work experience) 2) The Siemens Commercial Academy: launched in 2005, the programme enables students to rotate around various financial & commercial placements including Accounting, HR, Procurement & Corporate areas.. 3) Siemens Graduate Programmes: The Company recruits graduates into 3 core areas of business: -- Engineering -- IT -- Business Each graduate has a discussion with his/her Line Manager when they start, to decide on their individual T&D plan..

The usual..
On-the-job training at place of work Off-the-job training takes place away from the work place



Shadowing; Mentoring; Coaching; Job Rotation

Courses Presentations Qualifications

Development @ Siemens
The costs of recruiting staff are High. It is far more cost effective to keep good staff. 2005, Siemens Graduate Development Programme -- It s a 2 year programme -- Consists of 9 modules incl., team work, customer focus, project management, communication skills, & business writing -- The programme is hosted at numerous different Siemens sites

To measure effectiveness of T&D

The Company use, Performance Management Process (appraisal system) -- Employee & their Line Manager agree objectives at the beginning of placement & progress is monitored formally & informally throughout the placement -- Reviews are done by the Mangers annually & discussed with the employees (feedback is provided) -- Simultaneously, new objectives for the next year are also set