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Operational Amplifier

The term Operational Amplifier ( Op Amp ) was originally the name of a circuit used for carrying out mathematical operations, such as summation, integration etc. More recently it is used for many functions besides mathematical operations. An essential feature of Op Amp is that it is a direct coupled amplifier with high voltage gain.

The integrated Op Amp has gained wide acceptance as a versatile predictable and economic system building block. It offers all the advantages of monolithic ICs: small size, high reliability, reduced cost and temperature tracking.
S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

Op Amp Architecture
A majority of commercially available Op Amps employ four-stage structure as shown below:

The first stage is a differential amplifier with a double-ended output : this provides high input resistance, high gain for difference signals, and rejection of signals common to both terminals.
S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

Op Amp Architecture

The second stage is single output differential amplifier that provides more gain. The third stage is an emitter follower, a buffer to provide low output resistance and isolation of the amplifier from the load. The last stage is combination of level shifter and a driver stage. The level shifting corrects for any dc offsets that have been introduced by the bias network. The driver is a power amplifier to provide larger output current with a low output resistance.
S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

Differential Amplifier ( Diff Amp )

A differential amplifier amplifies the difference of two input signals, vi1 and vi2 . For an ideal DIFF AMP., v0 = Ad ( vi1 vi2), where Ad is the voltage gain of the DIFF. AMP. However, for a practical DIFF. AMP. v0 = Ad vd + Ac vc where vd = ( vi1 vi2 ) = difference signal, and vc = (vi1 + vi2) / 2 = average or common mode signal, Ad = difference mode gain and Ac = common mode gain
S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

General Features of an Ideal Op Amp

An Op Amp has two input terminals and one output terminal and a gain of at least 105.

V0 = - Av ( Vn Vp ) = - Av Vi ;

Vi = Vn - Vp
S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

Pin configuration of 8 pin IC 741 Op Amp Vn p inverting input, [ Pin no. 2 ] Vp p non-inverting input, [ Pin no. 3 ] Vo p Output [ Pin no. 6 ] + VCC p + ve supply voltage [ Pin no. 7 ] VCC p - ve supply voltage [ Pin no. 4 ] Pin nos. 1, 5 [ offset null ], Pin no.-8 [ no connection ] Characteristics of an ideal Op Amp i. Input resistance, Ri = w ii. Output resistance, R0 = 0 iii. Open loop voltage gain, Av = w iv. Bandwidth, B.W = w v. CMRR, V=w vi. Perfect balance, i.e. V0 = 0, if Vn = Vp vii.Characteristics are stable against temperature variations
S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

A practical Op Amp has very high differential gain ( say 80 dB ), very high input impedance ( ~ 2 M;), very low output resistance ( ~ 10 ;), very wide bandwidth ( 0 100 kHz, say ) and large CMRR ( ~ 80 dB ). Op Amp integrated circuit (IC) chips of different capabilities are available. The IC Q741 is most inexpensive, widely used Op Amp chip. Number of components packed in a silicon chip ( ~ 1 mm x 1 mm) transistors ~ 15, resistors ~ 15 and diodes ~ 6.

S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

The slew rate is the maximum rate of change of output voltage ( dv0/dt ) of an Op Amp, when the input voltage level is instantaneously changed from a large value to a small value. The higher the slew rate, the faster the Op Amp. The slew rate of Q741 Op Amp is 0.5 V/Qsec at unity gain. A high speed Op Amp may have slew rate as high as 1500 V / Qsec.

Common Mode Rejection Ration ( CMRR ) CMRR is defined as: CMRR = V = Ad /Ac , If V >> 1, v0 } Ad vd A good Op Amp should have a large value of CMRR ( say,> 60 dB )
S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

Virtual Ground Concept of an Ideal Op Amp

The infinite gain property will mean that for a finite V0, the input voltage between the positive and negative terminals is zero. Infinite input resistance ( Ri ) will mean that none of the input terminals draw any current, i.e In=0 and Ip=0. Zero output resistance will mean that any current can be taken from the output without disturbing V0.
S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur


Virtual Ground Concept of an Ideal Op Amp

The equivalent circuit shows the condition that Vi=0. The simultaneous requirement that the Op amp does not draw any current at any of its input ports is indicated by stipulating Ii = 0. Thus, in spite of a short circuit at its input ports, the Op Amp does not draw any current at the input. So at the input to the amplifier, there exists a virtual ground or short circuit. The term virtual is used to imply that, though Vi = 0, no current actually flows into this short circuit.
S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

Op Amp Applications
Op Amp is the basic building block of analog ( or linear) signal processing circuits, such as inverting and non-inverting amplifiers, voltage follower, summing and difference amplifiers, filters, differentiators, integrators, analog computers a circuit for solving 3rd order differential equation. 1. Inverting Amplifier Rf provides a feedback path from output to inverting input ( negative feedback ).

S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

Inverting Amplifier
Note that I = If + Id Now, v0 = - Av vd As Av p E, @vd p 0 Hence the inverting input of Op Amp is practically ground point. Again, Id = vd /Ri = 0 ( as Ri p E ) Thus the two input terminals of an Op Amp offer a virtual shortcircuit or ground. @ I = If = I Across a practical or real short-circuit voltage is zero, but current in the real short circuit can not be zero. Since across the inverting and non-inverting input terminals of a good Op Amp (near ideal), voltage is zero as well as input current is zero, we may assume a virtual short circuit is present between the two input terminals. Hence from the equivalent circuit Vs = I R1 and v0 = - I Rf @ AV = v0/vs = - Rf /R1
S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

2. Non-inverting Amplifier
The circuit diagram of a non-inverting amplifier shows that the resistance Rf is connected between the output and negative input terminal and a resistance R1 is connected between ve input and ground. Input signal vs is connected at the +ve terminal. RL is load resistance.

From the equivalent circuit, vs = v1 and v1 = R1 v0 /(R1 + Rf) @ Av = v0 /vs = (R1 + Rf) / R1 = 1 + Rf /R1
S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

2.Non-inverting Amplifier

Here, Av is +ve and this amplifier is known as non-inverting amplifier. If Rf = 0, Av = 1, even if Rp E, This amplifier is known as voltage follower/ unity gain amplifier.

3. Voltage Follower

S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

3. Voltage Follower

Av is governed by only two resistors R1 and Rf and is independent of source resistance and load resistance. This is valid so long as ideal Op Amp assumptions are valid. The output impedance is zero and hence the output can be loaded independent of the gain. Input and Output Impedances For inverting amplifier, the input impedance as seen by the source ( vs ) is Zi = R1 For non-inverting amplifier p Zi = E ( ideal Op Amp ) = very high ( for practical Op Amp)
S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur


4. Summing Amplifier
Op Amp can be used to add two or more signals as shown below: below:

Id = v1/R1 + v2/R2 +v3/R3 + v0/Rf = 0

Or, Or,

v0 = - Rf [v1/R1 + v2/R2 +v3/R3] v0 = - Rf/R [v1 + v2 +v3 ] { if R1 = R2 = R3 = R }

Thus, v0 = [v1 + v2 +v3 ] { if Rf = R }

This is summing operation.

S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

Difference Amplifier

The difference of the two signals v1 and v2 is amplified. The inverting gain ( Rf /R1) is less than the non-inverting gain ( 1+ Rf/R1) For subtracting v1 and v2, it is essential, therefore, to make the gains of the two inputs equal. The non-inverting input is thus reduced in amplitude by the R2, R3 network.
S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

Linear superposition theorem is used to calculate v0. Initially v01 is calculated assuming only v1 is present and then v02 is calculated assuming only v2 is present. Overall output v0 is obtained by adding v01 and v02. Considering v1 only, v01 = v1 ( - Rf/R1) Considering v2 only, v02 = [v2R3/(R2 +R3)] ( 1 + Rf/R1) Thus, v0 = v01+v02 = -v1Rf/R1 +[v2 R3/(R2+R3)] ( 1+ Rf/R1) v0 = Rf/R1 [ -v1 + v2 ( 1 + R1/Rf) ( 1 + R2/R3)-1 ] Now, if R1/Rf = R2/R3 then, v0 = Rf/R1 [ v2 v1 ]

Thus we obtain the difference ( v2 - v1 ) at the output multiplied by a factor of Rf/R1. The source impedances of v1 and v2 are included in R1 and R2 respectively.
S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur


Q( t ) I V0 ( t ) !  Idt ! C C Vi ( t ) Again I ! R I Vi ( t )dt @V0 ( t ) !  RC

S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur



v 0 ( t ) !  RI Now , I !C dv i ( t ) dt dv i ( t ) dt
S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

@ v 0 ( t ) !  RC

Bridge Amplifier

Other Applications  Active filters LP, HP, BP, BR  Comparators  Current to voltage converter  Analog signal processing  Analog computers