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Viral and Bacterial

Genetics

0.5 µm
Size

Virus

• Eukaryotic cells –
Bacterium ~100 microns
Animal
cell
• Prokaryotic cells –
~1 micron
• Viruses –
~0.25 microns

Animal cell nucleus


0.25 µm
14.1
RNA
Viral Structure Membranous
Capsomere DNA envelope
RNA Membranous Head
of capsid Capsomere
DNA envelope Capsid Tail
Head DNA
Capsid sheath
RNA DNA
RNATail
fiber

Glycoprotein Glycoprotein

Glycoprotein Glycoprotein
18 × 250 mm 70–90 nm (diameter) 80–200 nm (diameter) 80 × 225 nm

20 nm 50 nm 50 nm 50 nm
(a) Tobacco mosaic virus (b) Adenoviruses (c) Influenza viruses (d) Bacteriophage T4
Viral Reproduction

• Viruses can not


reproduce on their
own
• A host cell is needed
to copy a virus
• Host recognition
– Protein interaction at
the cell membrane

14.2
Lytic vs. Lysogenic Cycles
• Lytic Cycle
– Results in lysis or destruction of the host
cell
• Lysogenic Cycle
– Viral genes are inserted into the host
genome
– The cell divides passing the viral genes to
new cells
– Eventually new viruses are made and
14.3 released
Retroviruses (HIV)

• Contain RNA
– RNA is transcribed to DNA by the enzyme
reverse transcriptase
– Reverse transcriptase is error prone and
causes mutation
– HIV uses a lysogenic cycle of reproduction
initially
14.4
HIV
1
The virus fuses with the
cell’s plasma membrane.
HIV
White blood cell 2 Reverse transcriptase
synthesizes DNA strand.

HOST CELL
Reverse 3
Reverse transcriptase
transcriptase
Viral RNA synthesizes a second DNA strand
RNA-DNA
4
0.25 µm
hybrid The new DNA is
HIV entering a cell incorporated into the cell’s
DNA DNA.

NUCLEUS
Chromosomal Provirus 5
DNA Genes are transcribed
RNA genome and serve as mRNAs for
for the next translation into viral
viral generation mRNA proteins.

6 The viral proteins


include capsid proteins and
reverse transcriptase

14.4 Capsids are


7 Vesicles transport the
8 proteins from the ER to
assembled around the cell’s plasma
New HIV leaving a cell 9 viral genomes.
New viruses bud membrane.
off from the host cell.
Viroids and Prions

• Viroids
– Free RNA fragments that can insert
themselves into a genome

• Prions
– Misfolded proteins that
cause neurologic disease 14.5
• Prokaryotic cells have a variety of
shapes
– The three most common of which are
spheres (cocci), rods (bacilli), and spirals

Figure 27.2a–c
1 µm 2 µm 5 µm
(a) Spherical (cocci) (b) Rod-shaped (bacilli) (c) Spiral
Cell Surface Structures
• One of the most important features of
nearly all prokaryotic cells
– Is their cell wall, which maintains cell
shape, provides physical protection, and
prevents the cell from bursting in a
hypotonic environment

14.6
• Using a technique called the Gram stain
– Scientists can classify many bacterial
species into two groups based on cell wall
composition, Gram-positive and Gram-
negative
Lipopolysaccharide

Outer
Peptidoglycan membrane
Cell wall Cell wall
layer Peptidoglycan
layer
Plasma membrane
Plasma membrane

Protein Protein

Gram- Gram-
positive negative
bacteria bacteria

20 µm

(a) Gram-positive. Gram-positive bacteria have (b) Gram-negative. Gram-negative bacteria have less
a cell wall with a large amount of peptidoglycan peptidoglycan, and it is located in a layer between the
that traps the violet dye in the cytoplasm. The plasma membrane and an outer membrane. The
alcohol rinse does not remove the violet dye, violet dye is easily rinsed from the cytoplasm, and the
which masks the added red dye. cell appears pink or red after the red dye is added.
14.6
• The cell wall of many prokaryotes
– Is covered by a capsule, a sticky layer of
polysaccharide or protein

200 nm

Capsule

Figure 27.4
• Some prokaryotes have fimbriae
– Which allow them to stick to their
substrate or other individuals in a colony

Fimbriae

200 nm
Figure 27.5
Motility
• Most motile bacteria propel themselves by
flagella

Flagellum

Filament

50 nm

Cell wall Hook

Basal apparatus

Plasma
membrane
Bacterial DNA
• Chromosomal DNA is circular and found condensed
in an area of the cytoplasm
• Plasmid DNA is a small circular piece of DNA
containing only a few genes

14.8
Bacteria Transfer DNA Easily

• Transformation is the alteration of a bacterial


cell’s genotype by the uptake of naked, foreign DNA
from the surrounding environment.
• Transduction occurs when a phage carries
bacterial genes from one host cell to another as a
result of aberrations in the phage reproductive cycle.
• Conjugation transfers genetic material between
two bacterial cells that are temporarily joined.

14.7
Bacterial Transfer Drawings
Regulation of metabolic
pathways
(a) Regulation of enzyme (b) Regulation of enzyme
activity production
Precursor
Feedback
inhibition Enzyme 1 Gene 1

Enzyme 2 Gene 2 Regulation


of gene
expression
Enzyme 3 Gene 3


Enzyme 4 Gene 4


Enzyme 5 Gene 5

Tryptophan
14.10
Turning on the operon

14.9
The lac operon:
regulated synthesis of enzymes

14.9