1
1. Composite filter
2. LC ladder filter
3. Microwave filter
Composite filter
2
m=0.6 m=0.6 m
derived
m<0.6
constant
k
T
x
2
1
x
2
1
Matching
section
Matching
section
Highf
cutoff
Sharp
cutoff
Z
iT
Z
iT
Z
iT
Z
o
Z
o
m<0.6 for mderived section is to place the pole near the cutoff frequency(
c
)
o
Z Z Z Z Z = +
2 1 2 1
' 4 / ' 1 ' '
iT
Z Z Z Z Z = +
2 1 2 1
' 4 / ' 1 / ' '
For 1/2 x matching network , we choose the Z
1
and Z
2
of the circuit so that
Image method
D C
B A
Z
i1
Z
i2
I
1
I
2
+
V
1

+
V
2

Z
in1
Z
in2
2 2 1
2 2 1
DI CV I
BI AV V
+ =
+ =
Lets say we have image impedance for the network Z
i1
and Z
i2
Where
Z
i1
= input impedance at port 1 when port 2 is terminated with Z
i2
Z
i2
= input impedance at port 2 when port 1 is terminated with Z
i1
Then
3
@
Where Z
i2
= V
2
/ I
2
and V
1
=  Z
i1
I
1
ABCD for T and x network
4
Z
1
/2 Z
1
/2
Z
2
Z
1
2Z
2
2Z
2
Tnetwork xnetwork
+ +
+
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
4
1
2
1
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
+
+ +
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
4 2
1
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Image impedance in T and x network
5
Z
1
/2 Z
1
/2
Z
2
Z
1
2Z
2
2Z
2
Tnetwork xnetwork
2 1 2 1
4 / 1 Z Z Z Z Z
iT
+ =
) )
2
2
2
1 2 1 2 1
4 / / 2 / 1 Z Z Z Z Z Z e + + + =
iT i
Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z / 4 / 1 /
2 1 2 1 2 1
= + =
x
) )
2
2
2
1 2 1 2 1
4 / / 2 / 1 Z Z Z Z Z Z e + + + =
Image impedance
Image impedance
Propagation constant
Propagation constant
Substitute ABCD in terms of Z
1
and Z
2
Substitute ABCD in terms of Z
1
and Z
2
Composite filter
6
m=0.6 m=0.6 m
derived
m<0.6
constant
k
T
x
2
1
x
2
1
Matching
section
Matching
section
Highf
cutoff
Sharp
cutoff
Z
iT
Z
iT
Z
iT
Z
o
Z
o
Constantk section for Lowpass filter
using Tnetwork
7
L/2
C
L/2
4
1 4 / 1
2
2 1 2 1
LC
C
L
Z Z Z Z Z
iT
= + =
L j Z =
1
C j Z / 1
2
=
If we define a cutoff frequency
LC
c
2
=
And nominal characteristic impedance
C
L
Z
o
=
Then
c
o iT
Z Z
2
2
1
=
Z
i T
= Z
o
when =0
continue
8
Propagation constant (from page 11), we have
) ) 1
2 2
1 4 / / 2 / 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 2 1 2 1
+ = + + + =
c c c
Z Z Z Z Z Z e
Mag
c ,
passband
stopband
Constantk section for Lowpass filter
using xnetwork
9
L j Z =
1
C j Z / 1
2
=
'
+
'
'
+
'
= =
2
2
2
2
2
2 1
1 1
/
c
o
c
o
o
iT i
Z
Z
Z
Z Z Z Z
x
) ) 1
2 2
1 4 / / 2 / 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 2 1 2 1
+ = + + + =
c c c
Z Z Z Z Z Z e
Z
i x
= Z
o
when =0
Propagation constant is the same as Tnetwork
C/2
L
C/2
Constantk section for highpass filter
using Tnetwork
10
LC C
L
Z Z Z Z Z
iT
2
2 1 2 1
4
1
1 4 / 1
= + =
C j Z / 1
1
=
L j Z =
2
If we define a cutoff frequency
LC
c
2
1
=
And nominal characteristic impedance
C
L
Z
o
=
Then
2
2
1
c
o iT
Z Z =
Z
i T
= Z
o
when =
2C
L
2C
Constantk section for highpass filter
using xnetwork
11
C j Z / 1
1
=
L j Z =
2
'
+
'
'
+
'
= =
2
2
2
2
2
2 1
1 1
/
c
c
o
c
o
o
iT i
Z
Z
Z
Z Z Z Z
x
) ) 1
2 2
1 4 / / 2 / 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 2 1 2 1
+ = + + + =
c c c
Z Z Z Z Z Z e
Z
i x
= Z
o
when =
Propagation constant is the same for both T and xnetwork
2L
C
2L
Composite filter
12
m=0.6 m=0.6 m
derived
m<0.6
constant
k
T
x
2
1
x
2
1
Matching
section
Matching
section
Highf
cutoff
Sharp
cutoff
Z
iT
Z
iT
Z
iT
Z
o
Z
o
mderived filter Tsection
13
Z
1
/2 Z
1
/2
Z
2
Z'
1
/2 Z'
1
/2
Z'
2
mZ
1
/2 mZ
1
/2
Z
2
/m
1
2
4
1
Z
m
m
Constantk section suffers from very slow attenuation rate and nonconstant
image impedance . Thus we replace Z
1
and Z
2
to Z
1
and Z
2
respectively.
Lets Z
1
= m Z
1
and Z
2
to obtain the same Z
iT
as in constantk section.
4
'
4
'
' '
4
2
1
2
2 1
2
1
2 1
2
1
2 1
Z m
Z mZ
Z
Z Z
Z
Z Z Z
iT
+ = + = + =
4
'
4
2
1
2
2 1
2
1
2 1
Z m
Z mZ
Z
Z Z + = +
Solving for Z
2
, we have
)
m
Z m
m
Z
Z
4
1
'
2
1
2
2
2
+ =
Low pass mderived Tsection
14
L
m
m
4
1
2
mC
mL/2
mL/2
L j Z =
1
C j Z / 1
2
=
For constantk
section
Lm j Z =
1
'
)
L j
m
m
Cm j
Z
4
1 1
'
2
2
+ = and
) )
2
2
2
1 2 1 2 1
' 4 / ' ' / ' ' 2 / ' 1 Z Z Z Z Z Z e + + + =
) )
)
) )
2
2
2
2
2
1
/ 1 1
/ 2
4 / 1 / 1 '
'
c
c
m
m
m m L j Cm j
Lm j
Z
Z
=
+
=
)
) )
2
2
2
2
1
/ 1 1
/ 1
' 4
'
1
c
c
m
Z
Z
= +
Propagation constant
LC
c
2
1
= where
continue
15
)
)
2
2
2
1
/ 1
/ 1
' 4
'
1
op
c
Z
Z
= +
)
)
2
2
2
1
/ 1
/ 2
'
'
op
c
m
Z
Z
=
If we restrict 0 < m < 1 and
2
1 m
c
op
'
+
'
'
+
'
+ =
2
2
2
2
2
2
/ 1
/ 1
/ 1
/ 2
/ 1
/ 2
1
op
c
op
c
op
c
m m
e
Then
When <
c
, e
C j m Z / '
1
=
)
C m j
m
m
L j
Z
4
1
'
2
2
+ =
and
) )
2
2
2
1 2 1 2 1
' 4 / ' ' / ' ' 2 / ' 1 Z Z Z Z Z Z e + + + =
) )
)
) )
2 2
2
2
2
1
/ 1 1
/ 2
4 / 1 /
/
'
'
c
c
m
m
C m j m m L j
C j m
Z
Z
=
+
=
)
) )
2
2
2
2
1
/ 1 1
/ 1
' 4
'
1
c
c
m
Z
Z
= +
Propagation constant
LC
c
2
1
= where
continue
18
)
)
2
2
2
1
/ 1
/ 1
' 4
'
1
op
c
Z
Z
= +
)
)
2
2
2
1
/ 1
/ 2
'
'
op
c
m
Z
Z
=
If we restrict 0 < m < 1 and
c op
m
2
1 =
Thus, both equation reduces to
)
)
)
)
)
)
'
+
'
'
+
'
+ =
2
2
2
2
2
2
/ 1
/ 1
/ 1
/ 2
/ 1
/ 2
1
op
c
op
c
op
c
m m
e
Then
When <
op
, e
becomes infinity
which implies infinity attenuation. When
> >
op
, e
is becoming
negative and the wave will be propagted.
Thus
op
<
c
continue
19
op
c
Mderived section seem to be resonated at =
op
due to serial LC circuit.
By combining the mderived section and the constantk will form composite
filter which will act as proper highpass filter.
mderived filter xsection
20
mZ
1
m
Z
2
2
m
Z
2
2
)
m
Z m
4
1 2
1
2
)
m
Z m
4
1 2
1
2
)
)
2
2 2
1 2 1
2 1
/ 1
4 / 1
/ ' '
c o
iT i
Z
m Z Z Z
Z Z Z Z
x
+
= =
1 1
' mZ Z =
)
m
Z m
m
Z
Z
4
1
'
2
1
2
2
2
+ =
Note that
The image impedance is
Low pass mderived xsection
21
mL
2
mC
2
mC
)
m
L m
4
1 2
2
)
m
L m
4
1 2
2
L j Z =
1
C j Z / 1
2
=
For constantk
section
2
2 1
/
o
Z C L Z Z = =
)
2 2 2 2 2
1
/ 4
c o
Z L Z = =
Then
and
Therefore, the image impedance reduces to
) )
)
o
c
c
i
Z
m
Z
2
2 2
/ 1
/ 1 1
x
=
The best result for m is 0.6which give a good constant Z
ix
This type of
mderived section can be used at input and output of the filter to provide
constant impedance matching to or from Z
o
.
Composite filter
22
m=0.6 m=0.6 m
derived
m<0.6
constant
k
T
x
2
1
x
2
1
Matching
section
Matching
section
Highf
cutoff
Sharp
cutoff
Z
iT
Z
iT
Z
iT
Z
o
Z
o
Matching between constantk and mderived
23
x i iT
Z Z {
The image impedance Z
iT
does not match Z
ix
,
I.e
The matching can be done by using half x section as shown below and the
image impedance should be Z
i1
= Z
iT
and Z
i2
=Z
ix
Z'
1
/ 2
2Z'
2
Z
i2
=Z
ix
Z
i1
=Z
iT
+
1
' 2
1
2
'
' 4
'
1
2
1
2
1
Z
Z
Z
Z
1 2 1 2 1
' 4 / ' 1 ' '
i iT
Z Z Z Z Z Z = + =
2 2 1 2 1
' 4 / ' 1 / ' '
i i
Z Z Z Z Z Z = + =
x
It can be shown that
1 1
' mZ Z =
)
m
Z m
m
Z
Z
4
1
'
2
1
2
2
2
+ =
Note that
Example #1
24
Design a lowpass composite filter with cutoff frequency of 2GHz and
impedance of 75; . Place the infinite attenuation pole at 2.05GHz, and plot
the frequency response from 0 to 4GHz.
Solution
For high f cutoff constant k T  section
C
L/2 L/2
LC
c
2
=
C
L
Z
o
=
L
C
c
1 2
2
'
+
'
2
o
Z
L
C =
2
o
CZ L = or
C
L
c
1 2
2
'
+
'
Rearrange for
c
and substituting, we have
nH Z L
c o
94 . 11 ) 10 2 2 /( ) 75 2 ( / 2
9
=    = = x
pF Z C
c o
122 . 2 ) 10 2 75 /( 2 / 2
9
=   = = x
continue
25
c op
m
2
1 =
) ) 2195 . 0 10 05 . 2 / 10 2 1 / 1
2
9 9
2
=   = =
op c
m
For mderived T section sharp cutoff
nH
nH mL
31 . 1
2
94 . 11 2195 . 0
2
=

=
pF pF mC 4658 . 0 122 . 2 2195 . 0 =  =
nH nH L
m
m
94 . 12 94 . 11
2195 . 0 4
2195 . 0 1
4
1
2 2
=

L
m
m
4
1
2
mC
mL/2
mL/2
continue
26
For matching section
mL/2
mC/2
mC/2
)
m
L
m
2
1
2
)
m
L m
2
1
2
mL/2
Z
iT
Z
o
Z
o
m=0.6
nH
nH mL
582 . 3
2
94 . 11 6 . 0
2
=

=
pF
pF mC
6365 . 0
2
122 . 2 6 . 0
2
=

=
nH nH L
m
m
368 . 6 94 . 11
6 . 0 2
6 . 0 1
2
1
2 2
=

continue
27
3.582nH
5.97nH 1.31nH
6.368nH
0.6365pF
2.122pF
12.94nH
0.4658pF
3.582nH
6.368nH
0.6365pF
1.31nH 5.97nH
Can be added
together
Can be added
together
Can be added
together
A full circuit of the filter
Simplified circuit
12.94nH
9.552nH
6.368nH
7.28nH 4.892nH
0.6365pF 0.6365pF 0.4658pF
2.122pF
6.368nH
continue
29
Freq response of lowpass filter
60
40
20
0
0 1 2 3 4
Frequency (GHz)
S
1
1
Pole due to
m=0.2195
section
Pole due to
m=0.6
section
Nsection LC ladder circuit
(lowpass filter prototypes)
30
g
o
=G
o
g
1
g
2
g
3
g
4
g
n+1
g
o
=R
o
g
1
g
2
g
3
g
4
g
n+1
Prototype beginning with serial element
Prototype beginning with shunt element
Type of responses for nsection prototype filter
31
Maximally flat or Butterworth
Equal ripple or Chebyshev
Elliptic function
Linear phase
Maximally flat
Equal ripple Elliptic Linear phase
Maximally flat or Butterworth filter
32
)
1
2
2
1
'
+
'
'
+
'
+ =
n
c
C H
=
n
k
g
k
2
1 2
sin 2
x
g
0
= g
n+1
= 1
)
)
c
A
n
/ log 2
1 10 log
1 10
10 /
10
= c o
k
k
Z
g
C
=
c
k o
k
g Z
L
=
where
C=1 for 3dB cutoff point
n= order of filter
c
= cutoff frequency
No of order (or no of elements)
Where A is the attenuation at
l
point and
1
>
c
Prototype elements
k= 1,2,3.n
Series element
Shunt element
Series R=Z
o
Shunt G=1/Z
o
Example #2
33
Calculate the inductance and capacitance values for a maximallyflat low
pass filter that has a 3dB bandwidth of 400MHz. The filter is to be
connected to 50 ohm source and load impedance.The filter must has a high
attenuation of 20 dB at 1 GHz.
)
)
c
A
n
/ log 2
1 10 log
1 10
10 /
10
=
)
1
3 2
1 2
sin 2
1
=
=
x
g
g
0
= g
3+1
= 1
First , determine the number of elements
Solution
)
)
51 . 2
400 / 1000 log 2
1 10 log
10
10 / 20
10
>
=
c
Thus choose an integer value , I.e n=3
Prototype values
)
2
3 2
1 2 2
sin 2
2
=


=
x
g
)
1
3 2
1 3 2
sin 2
3
=


=
x
g
continue
34
nH
g Z
L L
c
o
9 . 19
10 400 2
1 50
6
1
1 3
=
  

= = =
x
pF
Z
g
C
c o
9 . 15
10 400 2 50
2
6
2
2
=
   
= =
x
15.9pF
19.9nH
50 ohm
50 ohm
19.9nH
or
35
nH
g Z
L
c
o
8 . 39
10 400 2
2 50
6
2
2
=
  

= =
x
pF
Z
g
C C
c o
95 . 7
10 400 2 50
1
6
1
1 3
=
   
= = =
x
7.95pF
39.8nH
50 ohm
50 ohm
7.95pF
Equiripple filter
36
)
1
2
1
'
+
'
'
+
'
+ =
c
n o
C F H
c
= cutoff frequency
F
o
=constant related to passband ripple
Chebyshev polinomial
Where Lr is the ripple attenuation in passband
(x) (x)C C x (x) C
n n n 2 1
2 =
x (x) C =
1
c n
e i ) ( C = = . 1 1
1 = (x) C
o
Continue
37
Prototype elements
'
+
'
=
372 . 17
coth ln
4
1
1
Lr
F
)
=
+
even n for F
odd n for
g
n
1
2
1
coth
1
c
k k
k k
k
b b
a a
g
1
1
=
2
1
1
F
a
g =
where
'
+
'
=
n
F
F
1
2
2
sinh
)
n k
n
k
a
k
,.... 2 , 1
2
1
sin 2 =
=
x
n k
n
k
F b
k
,.... 2 , 1
2
sin
2 2
2
=
'
+
'
+ =
x
c
k o
k
g Z
L
=
c o
k
k
Z
g
C
=
Series element
Shunt element
Example #3
38
Design a 3 section Chebyshev lowpass filter that has a ripple of 0.05dB
and cutoff frequency of 1 GHz.
From the formula given we have
g
2
= 1.1132
g
1
= g
3
= 0.8794
F
1
=1.4626 F
2
= 1.1371
a
1
=1.0 a
2
=2.0
b
1
=2.043
nH L L 7
10 2
8794 . 0 50
9
3 1
=


= =
x
pF C 543 . 3
10 2 50
1132 . 1
9
2
=
 
=
x
3.543pF
7nH
50 ohm
50 ohm 7nH
Transformation from lowpass to highpass
39
Series inductor L
k
must be replaced by capacitor C
k
Shunts capacitor C
k
must be replaced by inductor L
k
c k
o
k
g
Z
L
=
c k o
k
g Z
C
1
=
c
c
g
o
=R
o
g
1
g
2
g
3
g
4
g
n+1
Transformation from lowpass to bandpass
40
Thus , series inductor L
k
must be replaced by serial L
sk
and C
sk
o
k
sk
L
L
;
=
k o
sk
L
C
;
=
'
+
'
o
o c
1
where
o
1 2
= ;
2 1
=
o
and
sk
sk k
o
k
o
k
o
o
C
j
L j L j L j L j jX
'
'
1 1 1
=
;
;
=
'
+
'
;
=
Now we consider the series inductor
k o k
g Z L =
Impedance= series
normalized
continue
41
Shunts capacitor C
k
must be replaced by parallel L
pk
and C
pk
k o
pk
C
L
;
=
o
k
pk
C
C
;
=
pk
pk k
o
k
o
k
o
o
k
L
j
C j C j C j C j jB
'
'
1 1 1
=
;
;
=
'
+
'
;
=
Now we consider the shunt capacitor
o
k
k
Z
g
C =
Admittance= parallel
Transformation from lowpass to bandstop
42
Thus , series inductor L
k
must be replaced by parallel L
pk
and C
skp
o
k
pk
L
L
;
=
k o
pk
L
C
;
=
1
1
1
'
+
'
o
o c
where
o
1 2
= ;
2 1
=
o
and
pk
pk
k
o
k o
o
o k k
L
j
C j
L
j
L
j
L
j
X
j
'
'
1 1 1 1
=
;
;
=
'
+
'
;
=
Now we consider the series inductor convert to admittance
k o k
g Z L =
admittance = parallel
Continue
43
Shunts capacitor C
k
must be replaced by parallel L
pk
and C
pk
k o
sk
C
L
;
=
1
o
k
pk
C
C
;
=
sk
sk
k
o
k o
o
o k k
C
j
L j
C
j
C
j
C
j
B
j
'
'
1 1 1 1
=
;
;
=
'
+
'
;
=
Now we consider the shunt capacitor > convert to impedance
o
k
k
Z
g
C =
Example #4
44
Design a bandpass filter having a 0.5 dB ripple response, with N=3. The
center frequency is 1GHz, the bandwidth is 10%, and the impedance is 50;.
Solution
From table 8.4 Pozar pg 452.
g
o
=1 , g
1
=1.5963, g
2
=1.0967, g
3
= 1.5963, g
4
= 1.000
Lets first and third elements are equivalent to series inductance and g
1
=g
3
, thus
nH
g Z
L L
o
o
s s
127
10 2 1 . 0
5963 . 1 50
9
1
3 1
=
 

=
;
= =
x
pF
g Z
C C
o o
s s
199 . 0
5963 . 1 50 10 2
1 . 0
9
1
3 1
=
  
=
;
= =
x
k o k
g Z L =
continue
45
Second element is equivalent to parallel capacitance, thus
nH
g
Z
L
o
o
p
726 . 0
0967 . 1 10 2
50 1 . 0
9
2
2
=
 

=
;
=
x
pF
Z
g
C
o o
p
91 . 34
10 2 1 . 0 50
0967 . 1
9
2
2
=
  
=
;
=
x
o
k
k
Z
g
C =
50;
127nH 0.199pF
0.726nH 34.91pF
127nH 0.199pF
50;
Implementation in microstripline
46
Equivalent circuit
A short transmission line can be equated to T and x circuit of lumped circuit.
Thus from ABCD parameter( refer to Fooks and Zakareviius Microwave
Engineering using microstrip circuits pg 3134), we have
jL=jZ
o
sin(d)
jC/2=jY
o
tan(d)/2
jC/2=jY
o
tan(d/2)
jL/2=jZ
o
tan(d/2) jL/2=jZ
o
tan(d/2)
jC=jY
o
sin(d)
Model for series inductor
with fringing capacitors
Model for shunt capacitor
with fringing inductors
47
d
Z
o
L
Z
oL
Z
o
'
+
'
=
d
oC
fC
d Z
L
tan
'
+
'
=
d oL
fL
d
Z
C
tan
1
xmodel with C as fringing
capacitance
1model with L as fringing
inductance
Z
oL
should be high impedance
Z
oC
should be low
impedance
d
Z
o
Z
oC
C Z
o
'
+
'
=
oL
d
Z
L
d
x
1
sin
2
)
oC
d
CZ d
x
1
sin
2
=
Example #5
48
From example #3, we have the solution for lowpass Chebyshev of ripple
0.5dB at 1GHz, Design a filter using in microstrip on FR4 (I
r
=4.5 h=1.5mm)
nH L L 7
3 1
= = pF C 543 . 3
2
=
Lets choose Z
oL
=100; and Z
oC
=20 ;.
mm
Z
L
d
oL
d
25 . 10
100
10 7 10 2
sin
2
1414 . 0
sin
2
9 9
1 1
3 , 1
=
'
+
'
  
=
'
+
'
x
x
cm
f
c
r
d
14 . 14
5 . 4 10
10 3
9
8
=

= =
I
pF
d
Z
C
d oL
fL
369 . 0
1414 . 0
01025 . 0
tan
10 2 100
1
tan
1
9
=
'
+
'

 
=
'
+
'
x
x
x
nH
d Z
L
d
oC
fC
75 . 0
1414 . 0
01038 .
tan
10 2
20
tan
9
=
'
+
'


=
'
+
'
x
x
x
pF C 543 . 3
2
=
The new values for L
1
=L
3
= 7nH0.75nH= 6.25nH and C
2
=3.543pF0.369pF=3.174pF
Thus the corrected value for d
1
,d
2
and d
3
are
mm d 08 . 9
100
10 25 . 6 10 2
sin
2
1414 . 0
9 9
1
3 , 1
=
'
+
'
  
=
x
x
) mm d 22 . 9 20 10 17 . 3 10 2 sin
2
1414 . 0
12 9 1
2
=     =
x
x
More may be needed to obtain sufficiently stable solutions
50
mm mm h
Z
w
r oL
31 . 0 5 . 1 57 . 1
5 . 4 100
377
57 . 1
377
100
=
'
+
'
'
+
'
=
I
mm mm h
Z
w
r oL
97 . 10 5 . 1 57 . 1
5 . 4 20
377
57 . 1
377
20
=
'
+
'
'
+
'
=
I
'
+
'
=
57 . 1
377
h
w
Z
r
o
I
Now we calculate the microstrip width using this formula
(approximation)
mm mm h
Z
w
r oL
97 . 2 5 . 1 57 . 1
5 . 4 50
377
57 . 1
377
50
=
'
+
'
'
+
'
=
I
10.97mm
2.97mm
0.31mm
9.08mm
9.22mm
9.08mm
2.97mm
0.31mm
Implementation using stub
51
Richards transformation
N tan jL L j jX
L
= = N tan jC C j jB
c
= =
At cutoff unity frequency,we have =1. Then
1 tan = N
8
= N
L
C
jX
L
jB
c
/8
S.C
O.C
Z
o
=L
Z
o
=1/C
jX
L
jB
c
/8
The length of the stub will be
the same with length equal to
/8. The Z
o
will be difference
with short circuit for L and
open circuit for C.These lines
are called commensurate lines.
Kuroda identity
52
It is difficult to implement a series stub in microstripline.
Using Kuroda identity, we would be able to transform S.C
series stub to O.C shunt stub
d
d
d
d
S.C series
stub
O.C shunt
stub
Z
1
Z
2
/n
2
n
2
=1+Z
2
/Z
1
Z
1
/n
2
Z
2
d=/8
Example #6
53
Design a lowpass filter for fabrication using micro strip lines .The
specification: cutoff frequency of 1GHz , third order, impedance 50 ;, and a
3 dB equalripple characteristic.
Protype Chebyshev lowpass filter element values are
g
1
=g
3
= 3.3487 = L
1
= L
3
, g
2
= 0.7117 = C
2
, g
4
=1=R
L
1
1
3.3487
0.7117
3.3487
Using Richards transform we have
Z
oL
= L=3.3487 Z
oc
=1/ C=1/0.7117=1.405 and
1
/8
1
/8
/8
/8
/8
Z
oc
=1.405
Z
oL
=3.3487 Z
oL
=3.3487
Z
o
Z
o
Using Kuroda identity to convert S.C series stub to O.C shunt stub.
299 . 1
3487 . 3
1
1 1
1
2
2
= + = + =
Z
Z
n
3487 . 3
1
1
2
=
Z
Z
3487 . 3 /
2
1
= =
oL
Z n Z
1 /
2
2
= =
o
Z n Z
thus
We have
and
Substitute again, we have
35 . 4 3487 . 3 299 . 1
2
1
=  = =
oL
Z n Z
299 . 1 299 . 1 1
2
2
=  = = n Z Z
o
and
54
d
d d
S.C series
stub
O.C shunt
stub
Z
1
Z
2
/n
2
=Z
o
n
2
=1+Z
2
/Z
1
Z
1
/n
2
=Z
oL
Z
2
50;
217.5;
64.9;
70.3;
/8
64.9;
/8
/8
217.5;
50;
55
/8
/8
/8
/8
/8
Z
o
=50;
Z
2
=4.35x50
=217.5;
Z
1
=1.299x50
=64.9;
Zoc=1.405x50
=70.3;
Z
L
=50;
Z
1
=1.299x50
=64.9;
Z
2
=4.35x50
=217.5;
Bandpass filter from /2 parallel coupled lines
56
Input
/2 resonator
/2 resonator
Output
J'
01
+x/2
rad
J'
23
+x/2
rad
J'
12
+x/2
rad
/4
/4 /4
Microstrip
layout
Equivalent
admittance
inverter
Equivalent
LC resonator
Required admittance inverter parameters
57
2
1
1 0
01
2
'
;
=
g g
J
x
1 ,... 2 , 1
1
2
'
1
1 ,
= 
;
=
+
+
n k for
g g
J
k k
k k
x
tions of no n
g g
J
n n
n n
sec .
2
'
2
1
1
1 ,
=
;
=
+
+
x
o
1 2
= ;
The normalized admittance inverter is given by
? A
2
1 , 1 , 1 ,
' ' 1 ,
+ + +
+ + =
k k k k o k k oe
J J Z Z
? A
2
1 , 1 , 1 , ,
' ' 1
+ + +
+ =
k k k k o k k oo
J J Z Z
o k k k k
Z J J
1 , 1 ,
'
+ +
= where
where
A
B
C
D
E
Example #7
58
Design a coupled line bandpass filter with n=3 and a 0.5dB equiripple
response on substrate er=10 and h=1mm. The center frequency is 2 GHz, the
bandwidth is 10% and Zo=50;.
We have g
0
=1 , g
1
=1.5963, g
2
=1.0967, g
3
=1.5963, g
4
= 1 and ;=0.1
3137 . 0
5963 . 1 1 2
1 . 0
2
'
2
1
2
1
1 0
01
=
 

=
;
=
x x
g g
J
? A ; = + + = = 61 . 70 3137 . 0 3137 . 0 1 50 , ,
2
4 , 3 1 , 0 oe oe
Z Z
? A ; = + = = 24 . 39 3137 . 0 3137 . 0 1 50
2
4 , 3 , 1 , 0 , oo oo
Z Z
3137 . 0
1 5963 . 1 2
1 . 0
2
'
2
1
2
1
4 3
4 , 3
=
 

=
;
=
x x
g g
J
A
C
D
E
59
1187 . 0
0967 . 1 5963 . 1
1
2
1 . 0 1
2
'
2 1
2 , 1
=



= 
;
=
x x
g g
J
1187 . 0
5963 . 1 0967 . 1
1
2
1 . 0 1
2
'
3 2
3 , 2
=



= 
;
=
x x
g g
J
B
B
? A ; = + + = = 64 . 56 1187 . 0 1187 . 0 1 50 , ,
2
3 , 2 2 , 1 oe oe
Z Z
? A ; = + = = 77 . 44 1187 . 0 1187 . 0 1 50
2
3 , 2 , 2 , 1 , oo oo
Z Z
D
E
Using the graph Fig 7.30 in Pozar pg388 we would be able to determine the
required s/h and w/h of microstripline with I
r
=10. For others use other means.
m
f
r
r
01767 . 0
10 10 2 4
10 3
2
10 3
4 /
9
8 8
=
 

=

=
I
/
4
/
4
/
4
Note that: It is difficult to
impliment on microstripline
or stripline for characteristic
> 150;
Capacitive coupled resonator bandpass filter
63
Z
o
Z
o
Z
o
Z
o
....
B
2
B
1
U
2
U
1
B
n+1
Z
o
U
n
2
1
1 0
01
2
'
;
=
g g
J
x
1 ,... 2 , 1
1
2
'
1
1 ,
= 
;
=
+
+
n k for
g g
J
k k
k k
x
tions of no n
g g
J
n n
n n
sec .
2
'
2
1
1
1 ,
=
;
=
+
+
x
o
1 2
= ; where
)
2
1
i o
i
i
J Z
J
B
=
) ? A ) ? A
1
1 1
2 tan
2
1
2 tan
2
1
+
+ + =
i o i o i
B Z B Z x U
i=1,2,3.n
Example #9
64
Design a bandpass filter using capacitive coupled resonators , with a
0.5dB equalripple passband characteristic . The center frequency is 2GHz,
the bandwidth is 10%, and the impedance 50W. At least 20dB attenuation is
required at 2.2GHz.
First , determine the order of filter, thus calculate
91 . 1
2 . 2
2
2
2 . 2
1 . 0
1 1
=
'
+
'
'
+
'
o
o
91 . 0 1 91 . 1 1 = =
c