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Contents

1
1. Composite filter
2. LC ladder filter
3. Microwave filter
Composite filter
2
m=0.6 m=0.6 m-
derived
m<0.6
constant
k
T
x
2
1
x
2
1
Matching
section
Matching
section
High-f
cutoff
Sharp
cutoff
Z
iT
Z
iT
Z
iT
Z
o
Z
o
m<0.6 for m-derived section is to place the pole near the cutoff frequency(
c
)
o
Z Z Z Z Z = +
2 1 2 1
' 4 / ' 1 ' '
iT
Z Z Z Z Z = +
2 1 2 1
' 4 / ' 1 / ' '
For 1/2 x matching network , we choose the Z
1
and Z
2
of the circuit so that
Image method

D C
B A
Z
i1
Z
i2
I
1
I
2
+
V
1
-
+
V
2
-
Z
in1
Z
in2
2 2 1
2 2 1
DI CV I
BI AV V
+ =
+ =
Lets say we have image impedance for the network Z
i1
and Z
i2
Where
Z
i1
= input impedance at port 1 when port 2 is terminated with Z
i2
Z
i2
= input impedance at port 2 when port 1 is terminated with Z
i1
Then
3
@
Where Z
i2
= V
2
/ I
2
and V
1
= - Z
i1
I
1
ABCD for T and x network
4
Z
1
/2 Z
1
/2
Z
2
Z
1
2Z
2
2Z
2
T-network x-network

+ +
+
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
4
1
2
1
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z

+
+ +
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
4 2
1
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Image impedance in T and x network
5
Z
1
/2 Z
1
/2
Z
2
Z
1
2Z
2
2Z
2
T-network x-network
2 1 2 1
4 / 1 Z Z Z Z Z
iT
+ =
) )
2
2
2
1 2 1 2 1
4 / / 2 / 1 Z Z Z Z Z Z e + + + =

iT i
Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z / 4 / 1 /
2 1 2 1 2 1
= + =
x
) )
2
2
2
1 2 1 2 1
4 / / 2 / 1 Z Z Z Z Z Z e + + + =

Image impedance
Image impedance
Propagation constant
Propagation constant
Substitute ABCD in terms of Z
1
and Z
2
Substitute ABCD in terms of Z
1
and Z
2
Composite filter
6
m=0.6 m=0.6 m-
derived
m<0.6
constant
k
T
x
2
1
x
2
1
Matching
section
Matching
section
High-f
cutoff
Sharp
cutoff
Z
iT
Z
iT
Z
iT
Z
o
Z
o
Constant-k section for Low-pass filter
using T-network
7
L/2
C
L/2
4
1 4 / 1
2
2 1 2 1
LC
C
L
Z Z Z Z Z
iT

= + =
L j Z =
1
C j Z / 1
2
=
If we define a cutoff frequency
LC
c
2
=
And nominal characteristic impedance
C
L
Z
o
=
Then
c
o iT
Z Z
2
2
1

=
Z
i T
= Z
o
when =0
continue
8
Propagation constant (from page 11), we have
) ) 1
2 2
1 4 / / 2 / 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 2 1 2 1
+ = + + + =
c c c
Z Z Z Z Z Z e

Two regions can be considered


<
c
: passband of filter --> Z
it
become real and is imaginary (= j )
since
2
/
c
2
-1<1
>
c
: stopband of filter_--> Z
it
become imaginary and is real (= )
since
2
/
c
2
-1<1

Mag

c ,

passband
stopband
Constant-k section for Low-pass filter
using x-network
9
L j Z =
1
C j Z / 1
2
=

'
+

'

'
+

'

= =
2
2
2
2
2
2 1
1 1
/
c
o
c
o
o
iT i
Z
Z
Z
Z Z Z Z

x
) ) 1
2 2
1 4 / / 2 / 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 2 1 2 1
+ = + + + =
c c c
Z Z Z Z Z Z e

Z
i x
= Z
o
when =0
Propagation constant is the same as T-network
C/2
L
C/2
Constant-k section for high-pass filter
using T-network
10
LC C
L
Z Z Z Z Z
iT
2
2 1 2 1
4
1
1 4 / 1

= + =
C j Z / 1
1
=
L j Z =
2
If we define a cutoff frequency
LC
c
2
1
=
And nominal characteristic impedance
C
L
Z
o
=
Then
2
2
1

c
o iT
Z Z =
Z
i T
= Z
o
when =

2C
L
2C
Constant-k section for high-pass filter
using x-network
11
C j Z / 1
1
=
L j Z =
2

'
+

'

'
+

'

= =
2
2
2
2
2
2 1
1 1
/
c
c
o
c
o
o
iT i
Z
Z
Z
Z Z Z Z

x
) ) 1
2 2
1 4 / / 2 / 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 2 1 2 1
+ = + + + =

c c c
Z Z Z Z Z Z e
Z
i x
= Z
o
when =
Propagation constant is the same for both T and x-network

2L
C
2L
Composite filter
12
m=0.6 m=0.6 m-
derived
m<0.6
constant
k
T
x
2
1
x
2
1
Matching
section
Matching
section
High-f
cutoff
Sharp
cutoff
Z
iT
Z
iT
Z
iT
Z
o
Z
o
m-derived filter T-section
13
Z
1
/2 Z
1
/2
Z
2
Z'
1
/2 Z'
1
/2
Z'
2
mZ
1
/2 mZ
1
/2
Z
2
/m
1
2
4
1
Z
m
m
Constant-k section suffers from very slow attenuation rate and non-constant
image impedance . Thus we replace Z
1
and Z
2
to Z
1
and Z
2
respectively.
Lets Z
1
= m Z
1
and Z
2
to obtain the same Z
iT
as in constant-k section.
4
'
4
'
' '
4
2
1
2
2 1
2
1
2 1
2
1
2 1
Z m
Z mZ
Z
Z Z
Z
Z Z Z
iT
+ = + = + =
4
'
4
2
1
2
2 1
2
1
2 1
Z m
Z mZ
Z
Z Z + = +
Solving for Z
2
, we have
)
m
Z m
m
Z
Z
4
1
'
2
1
2
2
2

+ =
Low -pass m-derived T-section
14
L
m
m
4
1
2

mC
mL/2
mL/2
L j Z =
1
C j Z / 1
2
=
For constant-k
section
Lm j Z =
1
'
)
L j
m
m
Cm j
Z
4
1 1
'
2
2

+ = and
) )
2
2
2
1 2 1 2 1
' 4 / ' ' / ' ' 2 / ' 1 Z Z Z Z Z Z e + + + =

) )
)
) )
2
2
2
2
2
1
/ 1 1
/ 2
4 / 1 / 1 '
'
c
c
m
m
m m L j Cm j
Lm j
Z
Z


=
+
=
)
) )
2
2
2
2
1
/ 1 1
/ 1
' 4
'
1
c
c
m
Z
Z


= +
Propagation constant
LC
c
2
1
= where
continue
15
)
)
2
2
2
1
/ 1
/ 1
' 4
'
1
op
c
Z
Z

= +
)
)
2
2
2
1
/ 1
/ 2
'
'
op
c
m
Z
Z

=
If we restrict 0 < m < 1 and
2
1 m
c
op

Thus, both equation reduces to


)
)
)
)
)
)

'
+

'

'
+

'

+ =
2
2
2
2
2
2
/ 1
/ 1
/ 1
/ 2
/ 1
/ 2
1
op
c
op
c
op
c
m m
e





Then
When <
c
, e

is imaginary. Then the wave is propagated in the


network. When
c
< <
op
, e

is positive and the wave will be attenuated.
When =
op
, e

becomes infinity which implies infinity attenuation.


When >
op
, then e

become positif but decreasing.,which meant
decreasing in attenuation.
Comparison between m-derived section
and constant-k section
16
Typical attenuation
0
5
10
15
0 2 4
c
a
t
t
e
n
u
a
t
i
o
n
m-derived
const-k
composite
op
M-derived section attenuates rapidly but after >
op
, the attenuation
reduces back . By combining the m-derived section and the constant-k will
form so called composite filter.This is because the image impedances are
nonconstant.
High -pass m-derived T-section
17
2C/m
L/m
2C/m
C
m
m
2
1
4

C j m Z / '
1
=
)
C m j
m
m
L j
Z

4
1
'
2
2

+ =
and
) )
2
2
2
1 2 1 2 1
' 4 / ' ' / ' ' 2 / ' 1 Z Z Z Z Z Z e + + + =

) )
)
) )
2 2
2
2
2
1
/ 1 1
/ 2
4 / 1 /
/
'
'


c
c
m
m
C m j m m L j
C j m
Z
Z

=
+
=
)
) )
2
2
2
2
1
/ 1 1
/ 1
' 4
'
1


c
c
m
Z
Z

= +
Propagation constant
LC
c
2
1
= where
continue
18
)
)
2
2
2
1
/ 1
/ 1
' 4
'
1


op
c
Z
Z

= +
)
)
2
2
2
1
/ 1
/ 2
'
'


op
c
m
Z
Z

=
If we restrict 0 < m < 1 and
c op
m
2
1 =
Thus, both equation reduces to
)
)
)
)
)
)

'
+

'

'
+

'

+ =
2
2
2
2
2
2
/ 1
/ 1
/ 1
/ 2
/ 1
/ 2
1





op
c
op
c
op
c
m m
e
Then
When <
op
, e

is positive. Then the wave is gradually attenuated in


the networ as function of frequency. When =
op
, e

becomes infinity
which implies infinity attenuation. When

> >
op
, e

is becoming
negative and the wave will be propagted.
Thus
op
<
c
continue
19


op
c
M-derived section seem to be resonated at =
op
due to serial LC circuit.
By combining the m-derived section and the constant-k will form composite
filter which will act as proper highpass filter.
m-derived filter x-section
20
mZ
1
m
Z
2
2
m
Z
2
2
)
m
Z m
4
1 2
1
2
)
m
Z m
4
1 2
1
2

)
)
2
2 2
1 2 1
2 1
/ 1
4 / 1
/ ' '
c o
iT i
Z
m Z Z Z
Z Z Z Z

x

+
= =
1 1
' mZ Z =
)
m
Z m
m
Z
Z
4
1
'
2
1
2
2
2

+ =
Note that
The image impedance is
Low -pass m-derived x-section
21
mL
2
mC
2
mC
)
m
L m
4
1 2
2

)
m
L m
4
1 2
2

L j Z =
1
C j Z / 1
2
=
For constant-k
section
2
2 1
/
o
Z C L Z Z = =
)
2 2 2 2 2
1
/ 4
c o
Z L Z = =
Then
and
Therefore, the image impedance reduces to
) )
)
o
c
c
i
Z
m
Z
2
2 2
/ 1
/ 1 1


x


=
The best result for m is 0.6which give a good constant Z
ix
This type of
m-derived section can be used at input and output of the filter to provide
constant impedance matching to or from Z
o
.
Composite filter
22
m=0.6 m=0.6 m-
derived
m<0.6
constant
k
T
x
2
1
x
2
1
Matching
section
Matching
section
High-f
cutoff
Sharp
cutoff
Z
iT
Z
iT
Z
iT
Z
o
Z
o
Matching between constant-k and m-derived
23
x i iT
Z Z {
The image impedance Z
iT
does not match Z
ix
,
I.e
The matching can be done by using half- x section as shown below and the
image impedance should be Z
i1
= Z
iT
and Z
i2
=Z
ix
Z'
1
/ 2
2Z'
2
Z
i2
=Z
ix
Z
i1
=Z
iT

+
1
' 2
1
2
'
' 4
'
1
2
1
2
1
Z
Z
Z
Z
1 2 1 2 1
' 4 / ' 1 ' '
i iT
Z Z Z Z Z Z = + =
2 2 1 2 1
' 4 / ' 1 / ' '
i i
Z Z Z Z Z Z = + =
x
It can be shown that
1 1
' mZ Z =
)
m
Z m
m
Z
Z
4
1
'
2
1
2
2
2

+ =
Note that
Example #1
24
Design a low-pass composite filter with cutoff frequency of 2GHz and
impedance of 75; . Place the infinite attenuation pole at 2.05GHz, and plot
the frequency response from 0 to 4GHz.
Solution
For high f- cutoff constant -k T - section
C
L/2 L/2
LC
c
2
=
C
L
Z
o
=
L
C
c
1 2
2

'
+

'

2
o
Z
L
C =
2
o
CZ L = or
C
L
c
1 2
2

'
+

'

Rearrange for
c
and substituting, we have
nH Z L
c o
94 . 11 ) 10 2 2 /( ) 75 2 ( / 2
9
= - - - = = x
pF Z C
c o
122 . 2 ) 10 2 75 /( 2 / 2
9
= - - = = x
continue
25
c op
m
2
1 =
) ) 2195 . 0 10 05 . 2 / 10 2 1 / 1
2
9 9
2
= - - = =
op c
m
For m-derived T section sharp cutoff
nH
nH mL
31 . 1
2
94 . 11 2195 . 0
2
=
-
=
pF pF mC 4658 . 0 122 . 2 2195 . 0 = - =
nH nH L
m
m
94 . 12 94 . 11
2195 . 0 4
2195 . 0 1
4
1
2 2
=
-

L
m
m
4
1
2

mC
mL/2
mL/2
continue
26
For matching section
mL/2
mC/2
mC/2
)
m
L
m
2
1
2

)
m
L m
2
1
2

mL/2
Z
iT
Z
o
Z
o
m=0.6
nH
nH mL
582 . 3
2
94 . 11 6 . 0
2
=
-
=
pF
pF mC
6365 . 0
2
122 . 2 6 . 0
2
=
-
=
nH nH L
m
m
368 . 6 94 . 11
6 . 0 2
6 . 0 1
2
1
2 2
=
-

continue
27
3.582nH
5.97nH 1.31nH
6.368nH
0.6365pF
2.122pF
12.94nH
0.4658pF
3.582nH
6.368nH
0.6365pF
1.31nH 5.97nH
Can be added
together
Can be added
together
Can be added
together
A full circuit of the filter
Simplified circuit
12.94nH
9.552nH
6.368nH
7.28nH 4.892nH
0.6365pF 0.6365pF 0.4658pF
2.122pF
6.368nH
continue
29
Freq response of low-pass filter
-60
-40
-20
0
0 1 2 3 4
Frequency (GHz)
S
1
1
Pole due to
m=0.2195
section
Pole due to
m=0.6
section
N-section LC ladder circuit
(low-pass filter prototypes)
30
g
o
=G
o
g
1
g
2
g
3
g
4
g
n+1
g
o
=R
o
g
1
g
2
g
3
g
4
g
n+1
Prototype beginning with serial element
Prototype beginning with shunt element
Type of responses for n-section prototype filter
31
Maximally flat or Butterworth
Equal ripple or Chebyshev
Elliptic function
Linear phase
Maximally flat
Equal ripple Elliptic Linear phase
Maximally flat or Butterworth filter
32
)
1
2
2
1

'
+

'

'
+

'

+ =
n
c
C H

For low -pass power ratio response


)


=
n
k
g
k
2
1 2
sin 2
x
g
0
= g
n+1
= 1
)
)
c
A
n
/ log 2
1 10 log
1 10
10 /
10

= c o
k
k
Z
g
C

=
c
k o
k
g Z
L

=
where
C=1 for -3dB cutoff point
n= order of filter

c
= cutoff frequency
No of order (or no of elements)
Where A is the attenuation at
l
point and
1
>
c
Prototype elements
k= 1,2,3.n
Series element
Shunt element
Series R=Z
o
Shunt G=1/Z
o
Example #2
33
Calculate the inductance and capacitance values for a maximally-flat low-
pass filter that has a 3dB bandwidth of 400MHz. The filter is to be
connected to 50 ohm source and load impedance.The filter must has a high
attenuation of 20 dB at 1 GHz.
)
)
c
A
n
/ log 2
1 10 log
1 10
10 /
10

=
)
1
3 2
1 2
sin 2
1
=

=
x
g
g
0
= g
3+1
= 1
First , determine the number of elements
Solution
)
)
51 . 2
400 / 1000 log 2
1 10 log
10
10 / 20
10
>

=
c
Thus choose an integer value , I.e n=3
Prototype values
)
2
3 2
1 2 2
sin 2
2
=

-
-
=
x
g
)
1
3 2
1 3 2
sin 2
3
=

-
-
=
x
g
continue
34
nH
g Z
L L
c
o
9 . 19
10 400 2
1 50
6
1
1 3
=
- - -
-
= = =
x

pF
Z
g
C
c o
9 . 15
10 400 2 50
2
6
2
2
=
- - - -
= =
x

15.9pF
19.9nH
50 ohm
50 ohm
19.9nH
or
35
nH
g Z
L
c
o
8 . 39
10 400 2
2 50
6
2
2
=
- - -
-
= =
x

pF
Z
g
C C
c o
95 . 7
10 400 2 50
1
6
1
1 3
=
- - - -
= = =
x

7.95pF
39.8nH
50 ohm
50 ohm
7.95pF
Equi-ripple filter
36
)
1
2
1

'
+

'

'
+

'

+ =
c
n o
C F H

For low -pass power ratio response


1 10
10 /
=
Lr
o
F
where
C
n
(x)=Chebyshev polinomial for n order
and argument of x
n= order of filter

c
= cutoff frequency
F
o
=constant related to passband ripple
Chebyshev polinomial
Where Lr is the ripple attenuation in pass-band
(x) (x)-C C x (x) C
n- n- n 2 1
2 =
x (x) C =
1
c n
e i ) ( C = = . 1 1
1 = (x) C
o
Continue
37
Prototype elements

'
+

'

=
372 . 17
coth ln
4
1
1
Lr
F
)

=
+
even n for F
odd n for
g
n
1
2
1
coth
1
c
k k
k k
k
b b
a a
g
1
1

=
2
1
1
F
a
g =
where

'
+

'

=
n
F
F
1
2
2
sinh
)
n k
n
k
a
k
,.... 2 , 1
2
1
sin 2 =


=
x
n k
n
k
F b
k
,.... 2 , 1
2
sin
2 2
2
=

'
+

'

+ =
x
c
k o
k
g Z
L

=
c o
k
k
Z
g
C

=
Series element
Shunt element
Example #3
38
Design a 3 section Chebyshev low-pass filter that has a ripple of 0.05dB
and cutoff frequency of 1 GHz.
From the formula given we have
g
2
= 1.1132
g
1
= g
3
= 0.8794
F
1
=1.4626 F
2
= 1.1371
a
1
=1.0 a
2
=2.0
b
1
=2.043
nH L L 7
10 2
8794 . 0 50
9
3 1
=
-
-
= =
x
pF C 543 . 3
10 2 50
1132 . 1
9
2
=
- -
=
x
3.543pF
7nH
50 ohm
50 ohm 7nH
Transformation from low-pass to high-pass
39
Series inductor L
k
must be replaced by capacitor C
k
Shunts capacitor C
k
must be replaced by inductor L
k
c k
o
k
g
Z
L

=
c k o
k
g Z
C

1
=

c
c

g
o
=R
o
g
1
g
2
g
3
g
4
g
n+1
Transformation from low-pass to band-pass
40
Thus , series inductor L
k
must be replaced by serial L
sk
and C
sk
o
k
sk
L
L
;
=
k o
sk
L
C

;
=

'
+

'

o
o c
1
where
o


1 2

= ;
2 1
=
o
and
sk
sk k
o
k
o
k
o
o
C
j
L j L j L j L j jX
'
'
1 1 1

=
;

;
=

'
+

'

;
=
Now we consider the series inductor
k o k
g Z L =
Impedance= series
normalized
continue
41
Shunts capacitor C
k
must be replaced by parallel L
pk
and C
pk
k o
pk
C
L

;
=
o
k
pk
C
C
;
=
pk
pk k
o
k
o
k
o
o
k
L
j
C j C j C j C j jB
'
'
1 1 1

=
;

;
=

'
+

'

;
=
Now we consider the shunt capacitor
o
k
k
Z
g
C =
Admittance= parallel
Transformation from low-pass to band-stop
42
Thus , series inductor L
k
must be replaced by parallel L
pk
and C
skp
o
k
pk
L
L

;
=
k o
pk
L
C
;
=

1
1
1

'
+

'

o
o c
where
o


1 2

= ;
2 1
=
o
and
pk
pk
k
o
k o
o
o k k
L
j
C j
L
j
L
j
L
j
X
j
'
'
1 1 1 1

=
;

;
=

'
+

'

;
=
Now we consider the series inductor --convert to admittance
k o k
g Z L =
admittance = parallel
Continue
43
Shunts capacitor C
k
must be replaced by parallel L
pk
and C
pk
k o
sk
C
L
;
=
1
o
k
pk
C
C

;
=
sk
sk
k
o
k o
o
o k k
C
j
L j
C
j
C
j
C
j
B
j
'
'
1 1 1 1

=
;

;
=

'
+

'

;
=
Now we consider the shunt capacitor --> convert to impedance
o
k
k
Z
g
C =
Example #4
44
Design a band-pass filter having a 0.5 dB ripple response, with N=3. The
center frequency is 1GHz, the bandwidth is 10%, and the impedance is 50;.
Solution
From table 8.4 Pozar pg 452.
g
o
=1 , g
1
=1.5963, g
2
=1.0967, g
3
= 1.5963, g
4
= 1.000
Lets first and third elements are equivalent to series inductance and g
1
=g
3
, thus
nH
g Z
L L
o
o
s s
127
10 2 1 . 0
5963 . 1 50
9
1
3 1
=
- -
-
=
;
= =
x
pF
g Z
C C
o o
s s
199 . 0
5963 . 1 50 10 2
1 . 0
9
1
3 1
=
- - -
=
;
= =
x
k o k
g Z L =
continue
45
Second element is equivalent to parallel capacitance, thus
nH
g
Z
L
o
o
p
726 . 0
0967 . 1 10 2
50 1 . 0
9
2
2
=
- -
-
=
;
=
x

pF
Z
g
C
o o
p
91 . 34
10 2 1 . 0 50
0967 . 1
9
2
2
=
- - -
=
;
=
x
o
k
k
Z
g
C =
50;
127nH 0.199pF
0.726nH 34.91pF
127nH 0.199pF
50;
Implementation in microstripline
46
Equivalent circuit
A short transmission line can be equated to T and x circuit of lumped circuit.
Thus from ABCD parameter( refer to Fooks and Zakareviius Microwave
Engineering using microstrip circuits pg 31-34), we have
jL=jZ
o
sin(d)
jC/2=jY
o
tan(d)/2
jC/2=jY
o
tan(d/2)
jL/2=jZ
o
tan(d/2) jL/2=jZ
o
tan(d/2)
jC=jY
o
sin(d)
Model for series inductor
with fringing capacitors
Model for shunt capacitor
with fringing inductors
47
d
Z
o
L
Z
oL
Z
o

'
+

'

=
d
oC
fC
d Z
L

tan

'
+

'

=
d oL
fL
d
Z
C

tan
1
x-model with C as fringing
capacitance
1-model with L as fringing
inductance
Z
oL
should be high impedance
Z
oC
should be low
impedance
d
Z
o
Z
oC
C Z
o

'
+

'

=

oL
d
Z
L
d

x

1
sin
2
)
oC
d
CZ d
x

1
sin
2

=
Example #5
48
From example #3, we have the solution for low-pass Chebyshev of ripple
0.5dB at 1GHz, Design a filter using in microstrip on FR4 (I
r
=4.5 h=1.5mm)
nH L L 7
3 1
= = pF C 543 . 3
2
=
Lets choose Z
oL
=100; and Z
oC
=20 ;.
mm
Z
L
d
oL
d
25 . 10
100
10 7 10 2
sin
2
1414 . 0
sin
2
9 9
1 1
3 , 1
=

'
+

'

- - -
=

'
+

'


x
x

cm
f
c
r
d
14 . 14
5 . 4 10
10 3
9
8
=
-
= =
I

pF
d
Z
C
d oL
fL
369 . 0
1414 . 0
01025 . 0
tan
10 2 100
1
tan
1
9
=

'
+

'

-
- -
=

'
+

'

x
x
x

Note: For more accurate


calculate for difference Z
o
continue
49
) ) mm CZ d
oC
d
38 . 10 20 10 543 . 3 10 2 sin
2
1414 . 0
sin
2
12 9 1 1
2
= - - - - = =

x
x

nH
d Z
L
d
oC
fC
75 . 0
1414 . 0
01038 .
tan
10 2
20
tan
9
=

'
+

'

-
-
=

'
+

'

x
x
x

pF C 543 . 3
2
=
The new values for L
1
=L
3
= 7nH-0.75nH= 6.25nH and C
2
=3.543pF-0.369pF=3.174pF
Thus the corrected value for d
1
,d
2
and d
3
are
mm d 08 . 9
100
10 25 . 6 10 2
sin
2
1414 . 0
9 9
1
3 , 1
=

'
+

'

- - -
=

x
x
) mm d 22 . 9 20 10 17 . 3 10 2 sin
2
1414 . 0
12 9 1
2
= - - - - =

x
x
More may be needed to obtain sufficiently stable solutions
50
mm mm h
Z
w
r oL
31 . 0 5 . 1 57 . 1
5 . 4 100
377
57 . 1
377
100
=
'
+

'

'
+

'

=
I
mm mm h
Z
w
r oL
97 . 10 5 . 1 57 . 1
5 . 4 20
377
57 . 1
377
20
=
'
+

'

'
+

'

=
I

'
+

'

=
57 . 1
377
h
w
Z
r
o
I
Now we calculate the microstrip width using this formula
(approximation)
mm mm h
Z
w
r oL
97 . 2 5 . 1 57 . 1
5 . 4 50
377
57 . 1
377
50
=
'
+

'

'
+

'

=
I
10.97mm
2.97mm
0.31mm
9.08mm
9.22mm
9.08mm
2.97mm
0.31mm
Implementation using stub
51
Richards transformation
N tan jL L j jX
L
= = N tan jC C j jB
c
= =
At cutoff unity frequency,we have =1. Then
1 tan = N
8

= N
L
C
jX
L
jB
c
/8
S.C
O.C
Z
o
=L
Z
o
=1/C
jX
L
jB
c
/8
The length of the stub will be
the same with length equal to
/8. The Z
o
will be difference
with short circuit for L and
open circuit for C.These lines
are called commensurate lines.
Kuroda identity
52
It is difficult to implement a series stub in microstripline.
Using Kuroda identity, we would be able to transform S.C
series stub to O.C shunt stub
d
d
d
d
S.C series
stub
O.C shunt
stub
Z
1
Z
2
/n
2
n
2
=1+Z
2
/Z
1
Z
1
/n
2
Z
2
d=/8
Example #6
53
Design a low-pass filter for fabrication using micro strip lines .The
specification: cutoff frequency of 1GHz , third order, impedance 50 ;, and a
3 dB equal-ripple characteristic.
Protype Chebyshev low-pass filter element values are
g
1
=g
3
= 3.3487 = L
1
= L
3
, g
2
= 0.7117 = C
2
, g
4
=1=R
L
1
1
3.3487
0.7117
3.3487
Using Richards transform we have
Z
oL
= L=3.3487 Z
oc
=1/ C=1/0.7117=1.405 and
1
/8
1
/8
/8
/8
/8
Z
oc
=1.405
Z
oL
=3.3487 Z
oL
=3.3487
Z
o
Z
o
Using Kuroda identity to convert S.C series stub to O.C shunt stub.
299 . 1
3487 . 3
1
1 1
1
2
2
= + = + =
Z
Z
n
3487 . 3
1
1
2
=
Z
Z
3487 . 3 /
2
1
= =
oL
Z n Z
1 /
2
2
= =
o
Z n Z
thus
We have
and
Substitute again, we have
35 . 4 3487 . 3 299 . 1
2
1
= - = =
oL
Z n Z
299 . 1 299 . 1 1
2
2
= - = = n Z Z
o
and
54
d
d d
S.C series
stub
O.C shunt
stub
Z
1
Z
2
/n
2
=Z
o
n
2
=1+Z
2
/Z
1
Z
1
/n
2
=Z
oL
Z
2
50;
217.5;
64.9;
70.3;
/8
64.9;
/8
/8
217.5;
50;
55
/8
/8
/8
/8
/8
Z
o
=50;
Z
2
=4.35x50
=217.5;
Z
1
=1.299x50
=64.9;
Zoc=1.405x50
=70.3;
Z
L
=50;
Z
1
=1.299x50
=64.9;
Z
2
=4.35x50
=217.5;
Band-pass filter from /2 parallel coupled lines
56
Input
/2 resonator
/2 resonator
Output
J'
01
+x/2
rad
J'
23
+x/2
rad
J'
12
+x/2
rad
/4
/4 /4
Microstrip
layout
Equivalent
admittance
inverter
Equivalent
LC resonator
Required admittance inverter parameters
57
2
1
1 0
01
2
'

;
=
g g
J
x
1 ,... 2 , 1
1
2
'
1
1 ,
= -
;
=
+
+
n k for
g g
J
k k
k k
x
tions of no n
g g
J
n n
n n
sec .
2
'
2
1
1
1 ,
=

;
=
+
+
x
o


1 2

= ;
The normalized admittance inverter is given by
? A
2
1 , 1 , 1 ,
' ' 1 ,
+ + +
+ + =
k k k k o k k oe
J J Z Z
? A
2
1 , 1 , 1 , ,
' ' 1
+ + +
+ =
k k k k o k k oo
J J Z Z
o k k k k
Z J J
1 , 1 ,
'
+ +
= where
where
A
B
C
D
E
Example #7
58
Design a coupled line bandpass filter with n=3 and a 0.5dB equi-ripple
response on substrate er=10 and h=1mm. The center frequency is 2 GHz, the
bandwidth is 10% and Zo=50;.
We have g
0
=1 , g
1
=1.5963, g
2
=1.0967, g
3
=1.5963, g
4
= 1 and ;=0.1
3137 . 0
5963 . 1 1 2
1 . 0
2
'
2
1
2
1
1 0
01
=

- -
-
=

;
=
x x
g g
J
? A ; = + + = = 61 . 70 3137 . 0 3137 . 0 1 50 , ,
2
4 , 3 1 , 0 oe oe
Z Z
? A ; = + = = 24 . 39 3137 . 0 3137 . 0 1 50
2
4 , 3 , 1 , 0 , oo oo
Z Z
3137 . 0
1 5963 . 1 2
1 . 0
2
'
2
1
2
1
4 3
4 , 3
=

- -
-
=

;
=
x x
g g
J
A
C
D
E
59
1187 . 0
0967 . 1 5963 . 1
1
2
1 . 0 1
2
'
2 1
2 , 1
=
-
-
-
= -
;
=
x x
g g
J
1187 . 0
5963 . 1 0967 . 1
1
2
1 . 0 1
2
'
3 2
3 , 2
=
-
-
-
= -
;
=
x x
g g
J
B
B
? A ; = + + = = 64 . 56 1187 . 0 1187 . 0 1 50 , ,
2
3 , 2 2 , 1 oe oe
Z Z
? A ; = + = = 77 . 44 1187 . 0 1187 . 0 1 50
2
3 , 2 , 2 , 1 , oo oo
Z Z
D
E
Using the graph Fig 7.30 in Pozar pg388 we would be able to determine the
required s/h and w/h of microstripline with I
r
=10. For others use other means.
m
f
r
r
01767 . 0
10 10 2 4
10 3
2
10 3
4 /
9
8 8
=
- -
-
=
-
=
I

The required resonator


60
Thus we have
For sections 1 and 4 s/h=0.45 --> s=0.45mm and w/h=0.7--> w=0.7mm
For sections 2 and 3 s/h=1.3 --> s=1.3mm and w/h=0.95--> w=0.95mm
50;
50;
0.7mm
0.45mm
0.95mm
1.3mm
0.95mm
1.3mm
0.45mm
0.7mm
17.67mm
17.67mm
17.67mm
17.67mm
Band-pass and band-stop filter using quarter-wave stubs
61
n
o
on
g
Z
Z
4
;
=
x
n
o
on
g
Z
Z
;
=
x
4
Band-pass
Band-stop
....
Z
01
Z
02
Z
on-1
Z
on
Z
o
Z
o
Z
o
Z
o
Z
o
/4
/4 /4
/4
/4
/4
....
Z
01
Z
02
Z
on-1
Z
on
Z
o
Z
o
Z
o
Z
o
Z
o
/4
/4 /4
/4
/4
/4
Example #8
62
Design a band-stop filter using three quarter-wave open-circuit stubs . The
center frequency is 2GHz , the bandwidth is 15%, and the impedance is 50W.
Use an equi-ripple response, with a 0.5dB ripple level.
We have g
0
=1 , g
1
=1.5963, g
2
=1.0967, g
3
=1.5963, g
4
= 1 and ;=0.1
n
o
on
g
Z
Z note
;
=
x
4
:
; =
- -
-
= = 9 . 265
5963 . 1 15 . 0
50 4
03 1
x
Z Z
o
; =
- -
-
= 387
0967 . 1 15 . 0
50 4
2
x
o
Z
50 ;
/4
2
6
5
.
9
;
3
8
7
;
2
6
5
.
9
; /4

/
4

/
4

/
4
Note that: It is difficult to
impliment on microstripline
or stripline for characteristic
> 150;
Capacitive coupled resonator band-pass filter
63
Z
o
Z
o
Z
o
Z
o
....
B
2
B
1
U
2
U
1
B
n+1
Z
o
U
n
2
1
1 0
01
2
'

;
=
g g
J
x
1 ,... 2 , 1
1
2
'
1
1 ,
= -
;
=
+
+
n k for
g g
J
k k
k k
x
tions of no n
g g
J
n n
n n
sec .
2
'
2
1
1
1 ,
=

;
=
+
+
x
o


1 2

= ; where
)
2
1
i o
i
i
J Z
J
B

=
) ? A ) ? A
1
1 1
2 tan
2
1
2 tan
2
1
+

+ + =
i o i o i
B Z B Z x U
i=1,2,3.n
Example #9
64
Design a band-pass filter using capacitive coupled resonators , with a
0.5dB equal-ripple pass-band characteristic . The center frequency is 2GHz,
the bandwidth is 10%, and the impedance 50W. At least 20dB attenuation is
required at 2.2GHz.
First , determine the order of filter, thus calculate
91 . 1
2 . 2
2
2
2 . 2
1 . 0
1 1
=

'
+

'

'
+

'

o
o
91 . 0 1 91 . 1 1 = =
c

From Pozar ,Fig 8.27 pg 453 , we have N=3


prototype
n g
n
Z
o
J
n
B
n
C
n
U
n
1 1.5963 0.3137 6.96x10
-3
0.554pF 155.8
o
2 1.0967 0.1187 2.41x10
-3
0.192pF 166.5
o
3 1.0967 0.1187 2.41x10
-3
0.192pF 155.8
o
4 1.0000 0.3137 6.96x10
-3
0.554pF -
Other shapes of microstripline filter
65
Rectangular resonator filter
U type filter
/4
In
Out
/4
In
Out
Interdigital filter
/2
in
out
Wiggly coupled line
N
1
N
2
66
N
1
= x/2
N
2
= x/4
The design is similar to conventional edge coupled line but the layout is
modified to reduce space.
N
1
Modified Wiggly coupled line to improve 2nd and 3rd harmonic rejection. /8
stubs are added.