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UNIT I MEASUREMENTS BASICS

BY Jayesh Barve

An Introduction to Measurement and Evaluation

Jayesh Barve Associate Professor Mechanical Engineering Department

Practice, Practice, Practice Focus Challenge

Course Objectives
Students will be able to: organize and describe data using descriptive and simple inferential statistics for research and evaluation in physical education, sport, and exercise science. apply measurement theory, i.e., reliability, validity, objectivity, and sensitivity to the subdisciplines of physical education, sport, and exercise science. appreciate the need for testing and evaluation, and good assessment practices in physical education and kinesiology. apply culturally sensitive tools and a sense of social justice in all measurement and evaluation practices. recognize the varying needs of individuals in movement and the need to develop effective measurement and evaluation tools for special settings.

Course Requirements Examination 1 and Examination 2, 40 points The first two exams will be held in class during Thursday, June 14 afternoon session and Thursday, June 28 afternoon session, as scheduled on the course calendar. Exams will consist of multiple choice, short answer, and essay type questions. Essay questions will test mathematical computations. Both tests will be open card (to be explained in class) and calculators will be allowed. Examination 3, 25 points The final exam will be given in the morning of the final Thursday, June 12. It will be a comprehensive examination consisting of essay questions. Thursday afternoon attendance after the final exam on the last day of class is required.

Group Project, 20 points Each student will be assigned to a small group. This group assignment requires the design of a question to be tested, and a process for data collection and analysis. The design, procedure, analysis, and interpretation of data will culminate in a PowerPoint presentation to the class by all groups during class on Monday afternoon, July 10, 2007. Group Project Evaluation, 5 points Each student is required to submit an assessment and a grade (A+ through F) for each group member. These grades and evaluations will be accumulated to provide 5% of the final grade. Quality of Class Participation, 10 points Students are expected to participate in all aspects of class discussions, including participation in homework review of previously taught concepts. Homework will be given almost every night of class. Students are expected to complete all homework assignments. Homework assignments will include computer analyses and will be collected on occasion for the assignment of this portion of the grade.

Measurement
Measurement means a characteristic is defined and an instrument is selected to measure it, e.g., height can be measured with a tape measure, weight can be measured with a weight scale. Name some other things that we measure inside and outside of our field of kinesiology.

Evaluation
Evaluation means that you gather information to draw conclusions and make new predictions.

Places where measurement and evaluation are used:

Research Education Business Sports Medicine Health and Rehabilitation

Reasons for Measurement and Evaluation

Motivation Accountability Equipment Placement Diagnosis Evaluation of learning Prediction Program Evaluation

Standards of Measurement and Evaluation-Measurement Theory

Reliability Validity Objectivity Sensitivity

Descriptive Statistics

Ways of Describing Data


Continuous scores - have a potentially infinite number of values, since they can be measured with varying degrees of accuracy. Discrete scores - are limited to a specific number of values and are usually not expressed as fractions.
Baumgartner & Jackson

Levels of Measurement
Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Highest level Lowest level

Nominal (categorical) scores - when a score places people or things into a category these are called nominal scores. Nominal scores cannot be ranked or ordered along any dimension. The categories must be exhaustive and mutually exclusive.

Ordinal scores - means people or things are rank ordered along some dimension. No common unit of measurement exists between rankings in a system of ordinal scores. Comparisons cannot be made across different group rankings.

Interval scores - These scores have a common unit of measurement between adjacent points. No true zero point exists on the interval scale.

Ratio scores - These scores have a common unit of measurement between adjacent scores. Ratio scores have a true zero point.

You are making a measurement when you Check you weight Read your watch Take your temperature Weigh a cantaloupe What kinds of measurements did you make today?

When we measure, we use a measuring tool to compare some dimension of an object to a standard.

Some Tools for Measurement

Stating a Measurement
In every measurement there is a

jNumber
followed by a

j Unit from measuring device

Mechanical Measurements
Act of measurementthe quantitative comparison between a predefined standard and a measurand to produce a measured result Measurand : physical parameter or variable to be measured Standard: basis for comparison of quantitative value to measurand.

Standards organizations
SASO Saudi Arabian Standards organization ISOInternational Organization for Standardization OthersASME, NFPA, ASTM, etc.

Reliability of Measurements
Measurements must be reliable to be useful Incorrect information is more damaging than no information There is no perfect measurement Accuracy of measurements Precision of measurements Uncertainty of measurements Do not accept data without questioning the source and uncertainty of the measurements

Fundamentals Methods of Measurements


There are two basic methods of measurement: Direct comparison: with a primary or secondary standard Indirect comparisonconversion of measurand input into an analogous form which can be processed and presented as known function of input - A transducer is required to convert the measurand into another form

Sensors
Use of a mercury thermometer to measure temperature Use of a radar signal to measure velocity Use of a strain gage to measure the strain in a material Transducers frequently convert mechanical measurements into electrical responses (voltage, amperage or resistance)

Generalized Measurement System


Sensor or transducer stage to detect measurand and Convert input to a form suitable for processing e.g. : - Temp. to voltage - Force to distance Signal conditioning stage to modify the transduced signal e.g. : Amplification, Attenuation, Filtering, Encoding Terminating readout stage to present desired output (Analog or Digital form)

Generalized Measurement System

Types of Input Signals


Static Dynamic (Time dependence) - Steady periodic, complex periodic - Nonperiodic: nearly periodic or transient - Single pulse. - Random Analog or digital: - Analog; continuous signal, - Digital; distinct values, step changes.

Calibration
Calibration involves the determination of the relationship between the input and output of a measurement system Eliminate Bias error The proving of a measurement systems capability to quantify the input accurately Calibration is accomplished by applying known magnitudes of the input and observing the measurement system output The indirect measuring system must be calibrated.

CALIBRATION
Once a measurement device is selected, it must be calibrated
Calibration Comparison of instruments reading to a calibration standard Calibration standard created from a measurement
Inherent error

Basic issue is how do we know that what we record has any relation to what we wish to measure?

Calibration using Primary or/and Secondary Standards


Known input signal and find the output. - To establish the correct output scale. - To find instrument reliability. - To eliminate bias error (systematic error) For linear relation o/p I/p needs single point calibration. For non-linear relation needs multi-point calibrations. Static calibration vs Dynamic calibration

Primary Standards For Comparison and Calibration


SI System: Meter Kg -- Sec. Kelvin volt
Mole Ampere Radian LENGTH (meter): Distance traveled by light in vacuum during 1/299792458 of a sec. MASS (Kg.): International prototype (alloy of platinum and iridium) kept near Paris. TIME (Sec.): Duration of 9192631770 periods of the radiation emitted between two excitation levels of Cesium-133 TEMPERATURE (Kelvin): K = oC + 273

Dimensional Analysis
Data presented in dimensionless form. Reducing No of experimental variables. No of variables - No of dims.= No of groups Use pi method or by inspection Basic dimensions: M L T (kg,m,sec,ok) Saving(time&$)(10 tests vs- 104 tests for F= fn (L,V, ,
))

Force coef. F/ v2L2 = fn (Reynolds number vL/ ) Helping in exp. Planning, insight, and similitude.

Uncertainty of Measurements
Measurement error = Measured result - True value The true value of a measurand is Unknown ( Error is unknown ) The potential value of error can be estimated (uncertainty) Two types of error: - Systematic errors (bias) and Random errors ( Statistics to estimate random errors)

SOURCE OF ERRORS

BIAS AND RANDOM ERRORS

Measurement errors

Bias and Random Errors

Resistive Displacement Sensor

Capacitive Displacement Sensor


C= Capacitance,
o & r =Permittivity

of air and Dielectric

Linear Variable differential Transformer ( LVDT )

Linear Variable differential Transformer ( LVDT )


Primary coil voltage: VS sin( t) Secondary coil induced emf: V1=k1sin( t+ ) and V2=k2sin( t+ ) k1 and k2 proportional to the position of the coil When the coil is in the central position, k1=k2 VOUT = V1-V2 = 0 When the coil is is displaced , k1 k2 VOUT=(k1-k2)sin( t+ )

Wheatstone Bridge

Strain Gage [Gage Factor = (R/R)/(L/L)


& Youngs Modulus = (P/A) / (L/L)

Viscosity Measurements

Fluid Viscosity

Flow Rate Measurements

Pitot Tube Traverse Points

Flow Instrumentation
Orifice, venturi tube, flow tube, flow nozzles. Pitot tubes, elbow-tap meters, target meters. Rotameter and Nutating disk
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Obstruction Flow Meter

Miscellaneous Flow Meters


Turbine, vortex shedding flow meters. Mass meters include Coriolis and thermal types. Hot-Wire Anemometer: Electrically heated, fine platinum wire immersed in flow Wire is cooled as flow is increased Measure either change in wire resistance or heating current to determine flow Electromagnetic Flow meter:Electromotive force induced in fluid as it flows through magnetic field and measured with electrodes which is proportional to flow rate Ultrasonic Flow equipment: Uses Doppler frequency shift of ultrasonic signals reflected off discontinuities in fluid Laser Doppler Anemometer which employ Doppler effect and Hetrodyning of two signals

Flow Meters
Vortex magnetic Turbine

Coriolis mass flow meter

Flow velocity measurement

Rotameter

MEASUREMENT STAGES
Primary Sensing (Strain gage, thermometer)
Retrieves energy from the measured system Produces some form of output

Variable conversion
Changes data from one physical form to another
Elongation to resistance, temperature to volume change

Variable manipulation
Performs mathematical operation on data
Amplifier, filter

MEASUREMENT STAGES
Data transmission
Gets data between measurement elements
Wire, speedometer cable, satellite downlink system

Data storage/playback
Stores data for later retrieval
Hard drive, RAM

Data presentation
Indicators, alarms, analog recording, digital recording

Optical Pyrometer

Thermocouple

Thermocouples in Series and in Parallel

THERMOCOUPLE TIME CONSTANT


The conservation of energy:

m cp dT / dt = h A (To T)
m : mass of thermocouple junction, h : heat transfer coefficient , T : junction temperature , Cp: specific heat of thermocouple junction A : surface area of thermocouple To : environs temperature

=T To / Ti - To
Ti = initial measurement junction temperature, then the solution is

= e (-t /

where we have defined the time constant for this process as

= m cp /h A

Hot Wire

Kings Law

Laser Doppler Anemometer

Strain Gage

Periodic Wave and its Spectrum

Time Domain & Freq. Domain

frequency spectrum examples

Square and Hanning window functions

Periodic Signals

Sine Wave Digitising

Periodic Wave and its Spectrum

Square Wave and its Spectrum

Analog and Digital Signals

Analog RC Filtering

Bias (systematic) and Random (precise) Errors

Errors in Measuring a Variable

Propagation of Errors

Combination of Errors

Dimensional Analysis
Data presented in dimensionless form. Reducing No of experimental variables. No of variables - No of dims.= No of groups Use pi method or by inspection Basic dimensions: M L T (kg,m,sec,ok) Saving(time&$)(10 tests vs- 104 tests for F= fn (L,V, ,
))

Force coef. F/ v2L2 = fn (Reynolds number vL/ ) Helping in exp. Planning, insight, and similitude.

Application of Mech. Measurements


Monitoring and operation of process.
Control of a process (accurate control fn measurement acc.) Experimentation:
- Testing and performance operation - Verification of properties or theory - Information needed for analysis e.g. Checking or evaluation of: Oil viscosity variation with temp. Pump performance curve piping head loss Lift and drag of new airfoil shape.etc.

Objectives of Mechanical Measurements


Measurement of physical variables: Force vector (N), Velocity vector (m/sec.), T(oC), P (Pascal), Frequency (Hz=cycle/sec).. Measurement of Mechanical Parameters: Re= vd/ , Mach No.= v/c, PD=0.5 V2 Accurate and Reliable Measurements: Real value vs Measured value

Calibration using Primary or/and Secondary Standards


Known input signal and find the output. - To establish the correct output scale. - To find instrument reliability. - To eliminate bias error (systematic error) For linear relation o/p I/p needs single point calibration. For non-linear relation needs multi-point calibrations. Static calibration vs Dynamic calibration

Primary Standards For Comparison and Calibration


SI System: Meter Kg -- Sec. Kelvin volt
Mole Ampere Radian LENGTH (meter): Distance traveled by light in vacuum during 1/299792458 of a sec. MASS (Kg.): International prototype (alloy of platinum and iridium) kept near Paris. TIME (Sec.): Duration of 9192631770 periods of the radiation emitted between two excitation levels of Cesium-133 TEMPERATURE (Kelvin): K = oC + 273

Measuring System Stages

FLOWMETER SELECTION
Flowmeter element Orifice Wedge Venturi tube Flow nozzle Pitot tube Elbow meter Target meter Variable area Positive Displacement Turbine Vortex Electromagnetic Ultrasonic (Doppler) Ultrasonic(Travel Time) Mass (Coriolis) Mass (Thermal) Weir (V-notch) Flume (Parshall) Recommended Service Clean, dirty liquids; some slurries Slurries and Viscous liquids Clean, dirty and viscous liquids; Clean and dirty liquids Clean liquids Clean, dirty liquids; some slurries Clean, dirty viscous liquids; Clean, dirty viscous liquids Clean, viscous liquids Clean, viscous liquids CLean, dirty liquids Clean, dirty viscous conductive liquids& slurries Dirty, viscous liquids and slurries Clean, viscous liquids Clean, dirty viscous liquids; some slurries Clean, dirty viscous liquids; some slurries Clean, dirty liquids Clean, dirty liquids Range 4 to 1 3 to 1 4 to 1 4 to 1 3 to 1 3 to 1 10 to 1 10 to 1 10 to 1 20 to 1 10 to 1 40 to 1 10 to 1 20 to 1 10 to 1 10 to 1 100 to 1 50 to 1 Pressure loss Medium Low tomedium Low Medium Very low Very low Medium Medium High High Medium None None None Low Low Very low Very low Typical Accuracy, % 2 to 4 of full scale 0.5 to 2 of full scale 1 of full scale 1 to 2 of full scale 3 to 5 of full scale 5 to 10 of full scale 1 to 5 of full scale 1 to 10 of full scale 0.5 of rate 0.25 of rate 1 of rate 0.5 of rate 5 of full scale 1 to 5 of full scale 0.4 of rate 1 of full scale 2 to 5 of full scale 2 to 5 of full scale L (Dia.) 10 to 30 10 to 30 5 to 20 10 to 30 20 to 30 30 10 to 30 None None 5 to 10 10 to 20 5 5 to 30 5 to 30 None None None None Cost Low High Medium Medium Low Low Medium Low Medium High High High High High High High Medium Medium

UNCERTAINTY IN PLANING
During the design of the experiment Identify all possible sources of error: Experiment set up: facility effects, environmental effects, human , .. Measurement system: velocity, temperature,... Estimate possible severity of each source Discuss with advisor. For those that are considered important, identify strategies. Experimental design and/or test protocols (e.g. repeat tests) Plan for quantitative analysis of reduced data Quantitative analysis relies on math model of the system Often good for measurement systems: pitot probe, strain gauge,...

UNCERTAINTY STAGES
During the experiment
Execute experiment with replications Record notes in lab notebook Check for mistakes and Bias errors

During data reduction


Calculate error bars for measurements Check for outlier points

During data interpretation/reporting


Consider errors when interpreting data 1st order &Nth order
Assure findings are beyond uncertainty of experiment

Display error bars in way that aids in understanding findings

Dynamic Performance

Sampling and Aliasing error

Resolution of an A/D Converter

Experimental Design and Analysis


Simple Comparative Experiment. One Factor: t-Test (2-levels or treatments)

F Tests

Least Significant Difference

Factorial Design

Measurement Basics

Jayesh Barve
Mechanical Engineering Department

Books to be Referred 1. Measurement and Control by Nakra & Chowdhry 2. Measurement and Control by D.S.Kumar 3. Measurement and Control by Backwith and Buck 4. Measurement and Control by Swahney

Some Tools for Measurement

Measurement in Chemistry
In chemistry we

jdo experiments jmeasure quantities juse numbers to report measurements

Applications of Mechanical Measurements

Why Measurement

Measurement System generally consists of Four Stages