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What is Motivation ?

Taken from the Latin word “movere”….

It is a psychological act which attracts

the workers to do more.

A process that accounts for an

individual’s intensity, direction &
persistence of effort in order to attain a
Theories of Motivation
• - Hierarchy of Needs Theory(Maslow’s
• - Two-Factor Theory(Herzberg’s
• - Theory X and Theory Y(McGregor’s
• - Theory Z(Quchi’s Theory)
Hierarchy of Needs Theory

(Maslow’s Theory)
Abraham Maslow’s “Theory
Self actualisation needs
(it describes the desire to live up to one’s full

•be enthusiastic and supportive

•encourage projects and plans

•be positive about the future

•promote optimism

•teach workers how to learn

Self-esteem needs
(it describes the need for self-esteem and the
respect of others)
• encourage independence

• praise appropriately whenever possible

• welcome ideas

• treat workers with dignity

• celebrate good work by workers

Social Needs
(it describe the desire for love, friendship, and
• show you care

• promote interaction between workers

• promote a cohesive class climate

• use team building exercises

Safety needs
(it describes keeping oneself free from harm)
• maintain confidentiality/privacy as

• treat workers fairly

• observe and chart accurate information

• give workers a clear structure to work

• follow safety rules when necessary

Physiological needs
(it describe the ones required for survival)

• provide adequate breaks

• ensure comfort

• arrange seats according to need

• be alert to heating and ventilation

Two-Factor Theory

(Herzberg’s Theory)
Contrasting Views of
Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction

Satisfacti Dissatisfacti
on on

Satisfacti No
on satisfaction
No Dissatisfacti
dissatisfaction on
Theory X and Theory Y

(McGregor’s Theory)
Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor)
‘Theory X’
Assumptions of Theory X :
1.Employees dislike work and, whenever possible, will attempt to
avoid it;
2.Here employees must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with
punishment to achieve goals;
3.Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction
whenever possible;
4.Most workers place security above all other factors associated with
work and will display little ambition.

Suitability of Theory X :

According to this theory, labour is thought to be a part of machine

who works according to instructions. He is not given a chance to use
his own intellect. This theory presence a pessimistic view.
‘Theory Y’
Assumptions of Theory Y :
1.Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play;
2.People will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are
committed to the objectives;
3.The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility;
4.The ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed
throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of
those in management positions.

Suitability of Theory Y :

According to this theory, employers have also realised that workers

are human beings and they should be treated on humanitarian
grounds. Although these assumptions are not fully accepted by
employers but efforts are being made by govt. and labour unions in
this direction.
Theory Z

(Quchi’s Theory)
“Theory Z” of William Quchi
Thank You…