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Chapter 3 (Part 1) : Project Management and Planning

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Introduction


- The Project Manager (PM) is the leader in project management and is responsible for:  Initiating the project  Planning the project  Executing the project  Closing-down the project - The main focus project management is  to assure that system development projects meet user/customer expectations and are delivered within budget and time frame - Thus, project manager need certain skills
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Activities and Skills of a Project Manager


- Leadership  - Management  - Customer relations  - Technical problem solving  - Conflict management  - Team management  - Risk and change management

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Why system development projects are performed?




- To take advantage of business opportunities  Providing an innovative services to customers through creation of a new systems - To solve business problem  Modifying the existing systems to be better; or  Building a new systems
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Project Management Phases


Project Initiation Project Planning Project Execution Project Closedown
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Project Initiation


- First phase of project management, involves assessment of project scope, size, and complexity and establishment of project procedures to support subsequent activities - It involves several steps

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Six Project Initiation Activities

1.1 Establishing the project initiation team

1.2 Establishing a relationship with customer/userowner

1.3 Establishing the project initiation plan

1.4 Establishing management procedure

1.5 Establishing the project management environment and project workbook

1.6 Developing the project charter

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Establishing project initiation team




- It involves organizing an initial core of team members to assist in accomplishing the project initiation activities - At least one use representative and one member of IS development group

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Establishing a relationship with the customer/user-owner customer/user - Better

relationship and stronger understanding about the customer can foster strong working-relationship between customer (example purchasing department) and IS development group. - Usually, a specific individual will be assigned as liaison between both groups
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Establishing the project initiation plan




 

- It defines the activities required to organize the initiation team while it is working to define the real scope of the project - For example, ask the customer about his business requirement that need to be translated into written project request It involves collection, analysis, - organization, and transformation of a lot of information - This lead to the creation of Systems Service Request
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Chapter 3

Establishing management procedures




- Management procedures such as:


Communication and reporting Job assignments and roles Project change procedures How project funding and billing

- Helping the IS development team to act and communicate


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Chapter 3

Establishing the project management environment and project workbook


To identify the appropriate tools that will be used in the project development and create project workbook. y Example tools are diagrams, charts, systems description y Project workbook serves as a repository for all project correspondence, input, output, deliverable, pr0cedure, and standard y Project workbook is useful for reference in future and project audit and trail y Project workbook can be a hard-copy or an electronic document
y
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The Project Workbook




An online or hardcopy repository of all project correspondence, inputs, outputs, deliverables, procedures, and standards Used as a primary communications medium for the project team

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Project workbook grows and evolves during project activities


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Developing the project charter




- It is a short (one page) high-level document prepared by both parties to formally to announce the establishment of the project and to briefly describe its objectives, key assumptions, and stakeholders - It is useful communication tool and to announce to the organization that a particular project has been chosen for development
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What next?
- Before moving to the next phase, the initiation project need to be reviewed in meeting attended by management, userowner/customer, and project members  - Any changes or modification? Satisfy?  Revisit the initiation project, if needed before moving to next phase

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Project Planning


- Second phase of project management - It involves defining clear, discrete activities, and the work needed to complete each activity within a single project - It involve assumption about availability such as hardware, software and personnel
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Project initiation does not include detailed plans for entire project

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Describing project scope, alternatives and feasibility


The purpose is to understand the content and complexity of the project y In order to determine scope, lets check the following:
y y y y y y y

What problem or opportunity does the project address? What are the quantifiable results to be achieved? What needs to be done? How will success be measured? How will we know when we are finished?

Identify and document general alternative solutions for the current problem, assess the feasibility for each solution
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Chapter 3

Dividing the project into manageable tasks


 

    

- It is critical activities in this phase - Work breakdown structure (WBS) is done to define the needed tasks to be taken and their sequences in the activities - It may can be executed concurrently - Each task will produce a deliverable to another task - A Gantt Chart is an example tool that can display the breakdown tasks, using the MS Project - It shows the duration of task and its predecessors - Other tool such as Network diagram it shows the tasks and its relationship with another task
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How do you define the task?


- Can be done by one person or welldefined group  - Has a single and identifiable deliverable  - Has a known method or technique  - Has well-accepted predecessor and successor steps  - Is measureable so that percentage can be determined

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Estimating resources and creating a resource plan


- To estimate resources requirement for each project activity and use this information to create resource project plan  - Constructive cost model (COCOMO) is widely used to estimate the project cost and size  - Other tools?  - Assigned staff cost is considered significant to the project management

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Developing a preliminary schedule




- Based on the information on WBS (time and detail task), and the cost estimation, the project manager can prepare the preliminary schedule for the whole project (when to start and when to end)

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Developing a communication plan




- To outline the communication procedures among the management, project team member, and the customer - When to meet? What the outcome of the meeting? Who will take the action? What is the deliverable? How useful the deliverable?
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Determining the project standard and procedures


- To ensure the project development documentation at high-quality and also to ensure the quality of work performed at the certain standard  - To help to train a new member who join the project later  - Sharing or interchanging personnel for other project is feasible and easy

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Identifying and assessing risks


- To identify the associate risk and to estimate the likelihood risk  - To estimate the consequences of those risks  - Source of risks:

use of new technology Resistance to change Resources availability Inexperience of new member
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Creating the preliminary budget




- A preliminary budget will be prepared to justify the benefits - Simple cost-benefit analysis will be performed - ROI and cash flow analysis
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Developing a project scope statement




- This documents outlines work will be performed and clearly describes what the project will deliver - It is useful to ensure everybody have a clear understanding of the intended project size, duration and outcomes
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Setting a baseline project plan




- It provides an estimate of entire projects tasks and resources requirement, including risks analysis, scheduling etc - It is used to guide the next project phasethe execution of project development

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The Baseline Project Plan (BPP)




The major deliverable from the project initiation and planning phases, this document contains estimates of scope, benefits, schedules, costs, risks, and resource requirements BPP is updated throughout project execution and closedown
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Two Project Scheduling Diagrams in Microsoft Project

Gantt: Focus is on time. Network: Focus is on dependencies.


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These diagrams are important components of the BPP.


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Cost-benefit analysis is a key component of the BPP


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Project Execution


- Third phase of project management, involving putting the plans (BPP) created in the previous phases into action, and monitoring actual progress against the BPP

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Executing the baseline project plan




- Project manager is responsible to oversee the execution of the baseline project plan - He is
Initiating the execution of the project activities,

acquiring and assigning the resources, orientating and training new team members, keeping on the schedule, and assuring the quality of project deliverable
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Monitoring project progress against the BPP




- Monitoring involves
Adjusting the budget and time if necessary Evaluating and appraising team members, Providing feedback to employees supervisor

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Managing changes to the BPP




- Project manager should manage the changes properly - Changes occurred due to unpredictable event or beyond the project manager control - Rescheduling the Gantt chart
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- Maintain the project workbook

- Communicate the project status about  Work result: what had been done  Project plan: what next to be done

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Project Closedown


- Final phase of the project management process, focusing on bringing the project to an end - Two way to terminate the project:
Natural: when all requirements are met Unnatural: project is stopped before completion

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