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HS1224 Health Science II Anatomy & Physiology

Immune system Non-specific defense mechanism Specific defense mechanism (Immunity) Acquired immunity

Objectives
Describe the four non-specific defense mechanism and explain their functions Described cell-mediated immunity Discuss antibody-mediated immunity (humoral immunity) Identify four classes of antibodies and explain their functions Understand acquired immunity

Immune system
The human body is continually exposed to disease-producing organisms called pathogens The bodys ability to fight pathogens & other harmful agents - resistance Two mechanisms that act against harmful pathogens: a.Non-specific defense mechanism b.Specific defense mechanism

Immune system

Body defenses
Innate / nonspecific defense system Mechanisms protect against a variety of invaders Responds immediately to protect body from foreign materials Adaptive /specific defense system Specific defense is required for each type of invader

Non-specific defense mechanism


Directed against all pathogens and foreign substances regardless of their nature Initial defense against invading agents Foreign agents have to pass through barriers first to enter the body If succeed pass the barrier, second line of defense such as chemical action of complement protein & interferon, and the processes of phagocytosis & inflammation would fight the foreign agents

Non-specific defense mechanism


Four line of non-specific defense mechanism are: A.Barriers B.Chemical action C.Phagocytosis D.Inflammation

A. Barriers
Intact or broken, skin & mucous membrane form mechanical barriers against entry of foreign substances Fluids such as tears, saliva & urine flush pathogens out of body before they have chance to damage the tissues Lysozymes in tear, saliva and nasal secretions destroys bacteria

B. Chemical action
Second line of barriers that continue to battle against disease if microorganism succeed in getting through first barrier Various body chemicals are produced as direct response to microbial invasion such as complement proteins and interferon

B. Chemical action
Complement proteins - group of proteins normally found in the plasma in an inactive form

B. Chemical action
Complement proteins become activated when they come in contact with a foreign substance Complement proteins activates next complement protein until the final protein is activated The final activated complement protein enhances phagocytosis & inflammation and causes bacterial cells to rupture

B. Chemical action
Interferon offer protection for neighbouring uninfected cells against viruses When a virus infects a cell, the cell produces interferon which diffuses into neighbouring uninfected cells

B. Chemical action
Interferon stimulates the uninfected cells to produce a protein that blocks viral replication In this way, the uninfected cells are protected from virus

C. Phagocytosis
Ingestion & destruction of solid particles by certain phagocytes The primary phagocytes are: a.Neutrophils b.Macrophages

C. Phagocytosis

C. Phagocytosis
a. Neutrophils Small granular leukocytes First cells to leave the blood & migrate to the site of an infection, where they phagocytize the invading bacteria Neutrophils die after engulfing a few bacteria Accumulation of dead neutrophils, cellular debris & bacteria - pus

C. Phagocytosis
b. Macrophages Monocytes that have left the blood & entered the tissues Large agranular leukocytes Macrophages appear at the site of infection after neutrophils Responsible for clearing away cellular debris and dead neutrophils during latter stages of an infection Present in uninfected tissue to protect it from pathogens

D. Inflammation
Non-specific defense mechanism that occurs in response to tissue damage from microorganism or trauma Sign of inflammation - redness, warmth, swelling and pain Functions to : localize the damage & destroy its source of infection Sets the stage for tissue repairs & have protective function

D. Inflammation
Steps of inflammation: 1.Bacteria or foreign particles enter the body 2.Tissue are damaged 3.Damaged tissues release chemical mediators

D. Inflammation
4. Chemical mediators have three effects: Attract neutrophils & macrophages Increase blood flow through vasodilation Increase capillary permeability

D. Inflammation
5.Overall effect of chemical mediators is to bring additional phagocytes to damaged area 6.Phagocytes successfully destroy bacteria 7.Area is cleaned of debris 8.Tissue are repaired

D. Inflammation

Tutorial Questions
16.Name the four line of non-specific defense mechanism 17.What are the functions of complement proteins? 18.What are the functions of interferon? 19.What is phagocytosis? 20.Name the two primary phagocytes 21.What is inflammation? 22.What are the signs of inflammation? 23.What is the function of inflammation 24.What are the effects of chemical mediators?

Specific defense mechanism


Third line of defense Selective and remember (memory) Once the system has been exposed to pathogensm, components of mechanism remember that agent & launch a quicker attack if it enters the body again The primary cells - lymphocytes & macrophages

Specific defense mechanism


For immune system to function properly, lymphocytes have to distinguish between self & non-self Self - proteins & other large molecules that belong to the body Non-self - molecules not recognized by lymphocytes Antigen - non-self molecule that triggers immune response Sometimes body failed to recognize its own molecule & trigger an immune response against self. This damage normal body tissue & is the basis of autoimmune disease

Specific defense mechanism


Lymphocytes develop from stem cells in the bone marrow During fetal development, the bone marrow releases immature & undifferentiated lymphocytes into the blood

Specific defense mechanism


Some of these go to thymus gland & differentiate into T lymphocytes or T cells Differentiated T cells leave thymus, enter the blood and are distributed to lymphoid tissue especially lymph nodes 70% of circulating lymphocytes - T cells

Specific defense mechanism


Other lymphocytes travel to fetal liver & differentiate into B lymphocytes or B cells B cells enter the blood & are distributed to lymphoid tissue B cells constituent of 30% of circulating lymphocytes

Specific defense mechanism


There are two ways for specific defense mechanism (immunity): a.Cell-mediated immunity b.Antibody-mediated immunity (humoral immunity)

Cell-mediated immunity
T cells T cells directly attack the invading antigen Most effective against virus-infected cells, cancer cells, foreign tissue cells (transplant rejection), fungi and protozoan parasites

Cell-mediated immunity
when antigen is introduced into the body, it is phagocytized by a macrophage which then presents the antigen to the T cell population T cells that have receptor sites for that specific antigen recognize it & it become activated

Cell-mediated immunity
Both macrophage & activated T cells secrete chemical that stimulate the division of activated T cells

Cell-mediated immunity
Activated T cells divided into four subgroups of clones: Functions T cells clones Killer T cells

Directly destroy the cells with antigen Helper T cells Secrete substance that stimulate B cells & promote immune response Suppressor T Inhibit B cells & the immune cells response Memory T cells remember the specific antigen & stimulate faster &

Antibody-mediated immunity (Humoral immunity)


B cells Each type of B cells respond to only one specific type of antigen B cells responsible for the production of antibodies that react with the antigen or substances produced by the antigen Most effective against bacteria, viruses that are outside the body cells and toxins. It also involved in allergic reactions

Antibody-mediated immunity
When an antigen enters the body, a macrophage engulf & processes it, and presents it to B cells & helper T cells B cells & helper T cells that have receptor for the antigen are activated

Antibody-mediated immunity
Activated helper T cells secrete substances that stimulate the activated to rapidly divide & form a clone of cells consisting of plasma cells &memory B cells Plasma cells rapidly produce large quantities of antibodies that are transported in the blood & lymph to the site of infection

Antibody-mediated immunity
Antibodies inactivate the invading antigens. This initial action is primary response When antigens are destroyed, macrophages clean up the debris & suppressor T cells decrease the immune response Memory B cells remain dormant in lymphatic tissue until the same antigen enters the system The memory cells recognize the antigen & launch a rapid & intense response. This is called secondary response

Antibody-mediated immunity
The purpose of vaccination - provide an initial exposure so memory cells are available for a rapid & intense reaction against subsequent exposure to the antigen All antibodies have similar structure but differ in globulins and because they involved in immune reaction, they are immunoglobulin (Ig) There are five classes of antibodies: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD & IgE

Antibody-mediated immunity
Class Function IgG Major antibody in primary & secondary response; inactivates antigen; neutralizes toxins; crosses placenta to provide immunity to newborn IgA IgM IgD IgE Protects mucuos membrane on body surface; provide immunity to newborn Causes antigens to clump together; responsible for transfusion reactions in ABO blood typing system Receptor sites for antigens on B cells; binding with antigen results in B cells activation Bind to mast cells & basophils causing release of

Tutorial Questions
25.What are self and non-self? 26.What are the lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated and humoral immunity? 27.State the four subgroups of T cells and their functions? 28.Name the five classes of antibodies and their functions

Acquired immunity
Term active = when the own body produce memory T cells & B cells in response to antigen Term passive = when immune agent develop in another person & transferred to an individual previously not immune Term natural = when immunity is acquired through normal, everyday living without deliberate action Term artificial = when deliberate action is taken to acquire immunity

Acquired immunity
a. b. c. d. Combining the terms, there are four types of acquire immunity: Active natural immunity Active artificial immunity Passive natural immunity Passive artificial immunity

Active natural immunity


Results when a person is exposed to antigen, contracts the disease & recover Exposure to pathogens stimulates production of memory cells In the next exposure, memory cells recognize the pathogens & launch a rapid assault before disease develop Eg. A child who get chickenpox, recover & never contract it again although being exposed several times

Active artificial immunity


Develops when a specially prepared antigen is deliberately introduced into individuals system vaccination The prepared antigen - vaccine, consist of weakened (attenuated), inactivated or dead pathogens or their toxin The antigen is altered so they do not produce symptoms of disease Eg. Vaccines for tetanus

Passive natural immunity


Results when antibody are transferred from one person to another through natural means Occurs only in prenatal & postnatal relationships between mother & child IgG cross the placenta & enter fetal blood - provides protection for child for a short time after birth IgA transferred through mothers milk and offer some intestinal protection

Passive artificial immunity


Results when antibodies that developed in another person are injected into an invidual Antiserum is the preparation that contain the antibodies Eg. Hepatitis, rabies, tetanus, botulism Provides immediate but short-term protection

Tutorial Questions
29.Name four types of acquired immunity