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PROJECT: GAS LIQUID SEPARATORS

PRESENTED BY: KHUSHBOO N. MEHTA ROLL NO. Y760008

CONTENTS
y PRINCIPLES OF SEPARATION y PARTS OF SEPARATOR y TYPES OF SEPARATOR y DESIGNING OF VERTICAL SEPARATOR y EXAMPLE

PRINCIPLES OF SEPARATION
y MOMENTUM y GRAVITY SETTLING y COALESCING

MOMENTUM
Fluid phases with different densities will

have different momentum. If a two phase stream changes direction sharply, separation occurs. Usually employed for bulk separation of two phases in a stream.

GRAVITY SETTLING

COALESCING
Very small droplets such as fog or mist

cannot be separated practically by gravity. These droplets can be coalesced to form larger droplets that will settle by gravity. Coalescing devices in separators force gas to follow a tortuous path. Wire mesh screens, vane elements, and filter cartridges are typical examples of coalescing devices.

PARTS OF A SEPARATOR
Regardless of shape, separation vessels usually contain four major sections, plus the necessary controls The primary separation section, A  Secondary or gravity section, B  Coalescing section, C  The sump or liquid collection section, D.

TYPES OF SEPARATOR
y VERTICAL y HORIZONTAL y SPHERICAL

VERTICAL SEPARATORS

 Vertical separators are usually selected when

the gas-liquid ratio is high or total gas volumes are low.  Compressor Suction Scrubber is an example of vertical separator. In this service the vertical separator: Does not need significant liquid retention volume. The liquid level responds quickly to any liquid that enters, thus tripping an alarm or shutdown. The separator occupies a small amount of plot space.

HORIZONTAL SEPARATORS
 Horizontal separators are most efficient

where large volumes of total fluids and large amounts of dissolved gas are present with the liquid.  The greater liquid surface area in this configuration provides optimum conditions for releasing entrapped gas.  Following figure illustrates the separation of two liquid phases (glycol and hydrocarbon)

 Rich Amine Flash Tank is as an example of

horizontal separator. In this service: There is relatively large liquid surge volume leading to longer retention time. There is more surface area per liquid volume to aid in more complete degassing. The horizontal configuration would handle a foaming liquid better than a vertical. The liquid level responds slowly to changes in liquid inventory.

SPHERICAL SEPARATORS
 Spherical separators are occasionally used

for high pressure service where compact size is desired and liquid volumes are small.  Factors considered for spherical separators are: Compactness Limited liquid surge capacity Minimum steel for a given pressure.

DESIGNING OF SEPARATION VESSEL


Following equation can be used to estimate the settling velocity of the liquid droplets, for the design of separation vessel: 0.07 [( L- v)/ v]1/2 t= where t = settling velocity, m/s, = liquid density, kg/m3, L = vapour density, kg/m3. v If a demister pad is not used, the value of t obtained from the equation should be multiplied by a factor of 0.15 to provide a margin of safety and to allow flow surges.

DESIGNING OF VERTICAL SEPARATOR


The layout and typical proportions of a vertical gas-liquid separator is shown in the figure.

Contd .
Minimum allowable diameter will be given by: where Dv= minimum vessel diameter, m, Vv= gas, or vapour volumetric flow rate, m3/s, s= t, if a demister pad is used, and 0.15 t for a separator without a demister pad. The height of the vessel outlet above the gas inlet should be sufficient to allow for disengagement of the liquid drops. A height equal to the diameter of the vessel or 1m, whichever is the greatest, should be used.

EXAMPLE
Make a preliminary design for a separator to separate a mixture of steam and water; flowrates: steam 2000 kg/h, water 1000 kg/h; operating pressure 4 bar.

SOLUTION:
From steam table; at 4 bar: saturation temperature is 143.60C, liquid density 922.5 kg/m3, vapour density 2.16 kg/m3. = 0.07[(922.5-2.16)/2.16]1/2 t = 1.45 m/s As the separation of condensate from steam is unlikely to be critical, a demister pad will not be specified. So, t = 0.15 x 1.45 = 0.218 m/s

Contd .
Vapour volumetric = flow-rate = = 0.257 m3/s 0.5 = 1.23 m, round to 1.25 m (4 ft). Liquid volumetric = flow-rate = 1000/(3600 x 922.5) = 3.0 x 10-4 m3/s

Contd .
Allow a minimum of 10 minutes hold-up. Volume held = volumetric x time in vessel flow-rate = 3.0 x 10-4 x (10 x 60) = 0.18 m3 Liquid depth = required = = 0.15 m Increase to 0.3 m to allow space for positioning the level controller.

CONCLUSION
THUS, A GAS-LIQUID SEPARATOR IS DESIGNED TO HANDLE STREAMS WITH HIGH GAS-TO-LIQUID RATIOS.

THANK YOU