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BIOLOGY

CONCEPTS & CONNECTIONS Fourth Edition


Neil A. Campbell Jane B. Reece Lawrence G. Mitchell Martha R. Taylor

CHAPTER 7 Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food


Modules 7.1 7.5
From PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Life in the Sun

Light is central to the life of a plant Photosynthesis is the most important chemical process on Earth
It provides food for virtually all organisms

Plant cells convert light into chemical signals that affect a plants life cycle
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Light can influence the architecture of a plant


Plants that get adequate light are often bushy, with deep green leaves Without enough light, plants become tall and spindly with small pale leaves

Too much sunlight can damage a plant


Chloroplasts and carotenoids help to prevent such damage
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AN OVERVIEW OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis is the process by which autotrophic organisms use light energy to make sugar and oxygen gas from carbon dioxide and water

Carbon dioxide

Water PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Glucose

Oxygen gas

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7.1 Autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere Plants, some protists, and some bacteria are photosynthetic autotrophs
They are the ultimate producers of food consumed by virtually all organisms

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On land, plants such as oak trees and cacti are the predominant producers

Figure 7.1A
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Figure 7.1B

In aquatic environments, algae and photosynthetic bacteria are the main food producers

Figure 7.1C

Figure 7.1D

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7.2 Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts In most plants, photosynthesis occurs primarily in the leaves, in the chloroplasts A chloroplast contains:
stroma, a fluid grana, stacks of thylakoids

The thylakoids contain chlorophyll


Chlorophyll is the green pigment that captures light for photosynthesis
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The location and structure of chloroplasts


Chloroplast LEAF CROSS SECTION LEAF
Mesophyll

MESOPHYLL CELL

CHLOROPLAST

Intermembrane space Outer membrane

Granum Grana
Figure 7.2
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Inner membrane Stroma Thylakoid Thylakoid compartment

Stroma

Investigating Photosynthesis y Investigations into photosynthesis began with the following question: When a tiny seedling grows into a tall tree with a mass of several tons, where does the trees increase in mass come from?

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Van Helmonts 1. ______________ Experiment (1643) y y y Put soil in pot and took mass Took a seedling and took mass Put seed in soil...watered...waited five years... the seedling became a tree. He concluded that the mass came from water He determined the the hydrate in the carbohydrate portion of photosynthesis

y y

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2. ___________ Experiment (1771) Priestlys y y Put a lit candle in a bell jar- The flame died out. Placed a mint plant in the jar with the candleFlame lasted longer

Concluded plants release a substance needed for candle burning.  He determined plants release oxygen y

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Jan Ingenhousz 3. ________________Experiment (1779) y y Put aquatic plants in light... produced oxygen Put aquatic plants in dark... No oxygen

 He determined: Light is needed to produce oxygen Melvin Calvin 4. _______________ (1948) y y He determines carbons path to make glucose Known as the Calvins cycle

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7.3 Plants produce O2 gas by splitting water

The O2 liberated by photosynthesis is made from the oxygen in water

Figure 7.3A
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Experiment 1

Not labeled Experiment 2

Labeled
Figure 7.3B

Reactants:

Products:

Figure 7.3C
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7.4 Photosynthesis is a redox process, as is cellular respiration Water molecules are split apart and electrons and H+ ions are removed, leaving O2 gas
These electrons and H+ ions are transferred to CO2, producing sugar
Reduction

Oxidation
Figure 7.4A

Oxidation

Figure 7.4B
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Reduction

7.5 Overview: Photosynthesis occurs in two stages linked by ATP and NADPH The complete process of photosynthesis consists of two linked sets of reactions:
the light reactions and the Calvin cycle

The light reactions convert light energy to chemical energy and produce O2 The Calvin cycle assembles sugar molecules from CO2 using the energy-carrying products of the light reactions
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An overview of photosynthesis
H2O Chloroplast Light NADP+ ADP + P LIGHT REACTIONS (in grana) ATP NADPH CALVIN CYCLE (in stroma) CO2

O2
Figure 7.5
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Sugar

THE LIGHT REACTIONS: CONVERTING SOLAR ENERGY TO CHEMICAL ENERGY 7.6 Visible radiation drives the light reactions Certain wavelengths of visible light drive the light reactions of photosynthesis

Gamma rays

X-rays

UV

Infrared

Microwaves

Radio waves

Visible light

Figure 7.6A

Wavelength (nm)

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Light

Reflected light

Chloroplast

Absorbed light

Transmitted light
Figure 7.6B
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7.7 Photosystems capture solar power Each of the many light-harvesting photosystems consists of:
an antenna of chlorophyll and other pigment molecules that absorb light a primary electron acceptor that receives excited electrons from the reaction-center chlorophyll

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Primary electron acceptor

Photon Reaction center

PHOTOSYSTEM

Pigment molecules of antenna


Figure 7.7C
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Fluorescence of isolated chlorophyll in solution

Heat

Photon

Photon (fluorescence)
Chlorophyll molecule

Figure 7.7A
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Excitation of chlorophyll in a chloroplast

Primary electron acceptor

Other compounds

Photon Chlorophyll molecule

Figure 7.7B
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7.8 In the light reactions, electron transport chains generate ATP, NADPH, and O2 Two connected photosystems collect photons of light and transfer the energy to chlorophyll electrons The excited electrons are passed from the primary electron acceptor to electron transport chains
Their energy ends up in ATP and NADPH

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Where do the electrons come from that keep the light reactions running? In photosystem I, electrons from the bottom of the cascade pass into its P700 chlorophyll

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Photosystem II regains electrons by splitting water, leaving O2 gas as a by-product


Primary electron acceptor Primary electron acceptor

Photons

Energy for synthesis of PHOTOSYSTEM I

PHOTOSYSTEM II

by chemiosmosis

Figure 7.8

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7.9 Chemiosmosis powers ATP synthesis in the light reactions The electron transport chains are arranged with the photosystems in the thylakoid membranes and pump H+ through that membrane
The flow of H+ back through the membrane is harnessed by ATP synthase to make ATP In the stroma, the H+ ions combine with NADP+ to form NADPH

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The production of ATP by chemiosmosis in photosynthesis

Thylakoid compartment (high H+)

Light

Light

Thylakoid membrane

Antenna molecules

Stroma (low H+)

ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

Figure 7.9

PHOTOSYSTEM II

PHOTOSYSTEM I

ATP SYNTHASE

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THE CALVIN CYCLE: CONVERTING CO2 TO SUGARS 7.10 ATP and NADPH power sugar synthesis in the Calvin cycle The Calvin cycle occurs in the chloroplasts stroma
This is where carbon fixation takes place and sugar is manufactured
OUTPUT: INPUT

CALVIN CYCLE

Figure 7.10A
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The Calvin cycle constructs G3P using


carbon from atmospheric CO2 electrons and H+ from NADPH energy from ATP

Energy-rich sugar is then converted into glucose

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Details of the Calvin cycle


Step 1 Carbon fixation.

INPUT:

3 CO2

In a reaction catalyzed by rubisco, 3 molecules of CO2 are fixed.

1
3 P RuBP 3 ADP 3 ATP P 6 3-PGA 6 ATP P P

Step 2 Energy consumption and redox.

4 Step 3 Release of one molecule of G3P.

CALVIN CYCLE

6 ADP +

6 NADPH 6 NADP+

5 G3P

6 G3P

3 Step 4 Regeneration of RuBP.

OUTPUT:
Figure 7.10B
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1 G3P

Glucose and other compounds

PHOTOSYNTHESIS REVIEWED AND EXTENDED 7.11 Review: Photosynthesis uses light energy to make food molecules A summary of the chemical processes of photosynthesis
Chloroplast Light

Photosystem II Electron transport chains Photosystem I

CALVIN CYCLE

Stroma

Cellular respiration Cellulose Starch

Figure 7.11
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LIGHT REACTIONS

CALVIN CYCLE

Other organic compounds

Many plants make more sugar than they need


The excess is stored in roots, tuber, and fruits These are a major source of food for animals

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7.12 C4 and CAM plants have special adaptations that save water Most plants are C3 plants, which take CO2 directly from the air and use it in the Calvin cycle
In these types of plants, stomata on the leaf surface close when the weather is hot This causes a drop in CO2 and an increase in O2 in the leaf Photorespiration may then occur
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Photorespiration in a C3 plant

CALVIN CYCLE

2-C compound

EXAMPLES: wheat, barley, potatoes and sugar beet.


Figure 7.12A
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Some plants have special adaptations that enable them to save water
Special cells in C4 plantscorn, crabgrass and sugarcane incorporate CO2 into a four-carbon molecule This molecule can then donate CO2 to the Calvin cycle
Figure 7.12B
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4-C compound

CALVIN CYCLE

3-C sugar

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In C4 plants, the bundle sheath cells contain chloroplasts; carbon is fixed in mesophyll cells, then transported to bundle sheath cells where Calvin Cycle reactions occur in the absence of oxygen.
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The CAM plantspineapples, most cacti, and succulentsemploy a different mechanism


They open their stomata at night and make a four-carbon compound It is used as a CO2 source by the same cell during the day

4-C compound Night

Day

CALVIN CYCLE

3-C sugar
Figure 7.12C
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PHOTOSYNTHESIS, SOLAR RADIATION, AND EARTHS ATMOSPHERE 7.13 Human activity is causing global warming; photosynthesis moderates it Due to the increased burning of fossil fuels, atmospheric CO2 is increasing
CO2 warms Earths surface by trapping heat in the atmosphere This is called the greenhouse effect

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Sunlight

ATMOSPHERE

Radiant heat trapped by CO2 and other gases

Figure 7.13A & B


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Because photosynthesis removes CO2 from the atmosphere, it moderates the greenhouse effect
Unfortunately, deforestation may cause a decline in global photosynthesis

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7.14 Talking About Science: Mario Molina talks about Earths protective ozone layer Mario Molino received a Nobel Prize in 1995 for his work on the ozone layer His research focuses on how certain pollutants (greenhouse gases) damage that layer

Figure 7.14A
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The O2 in the atmosphere results from photosynthesis


Solar radiation converts O2 high in the atmosphere to ozone (O3) Ozone shields organisms on the Earths surface from the damaging effects of UV radiation

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Industrial chemicals called CFCs have hastened ozone breakdown, causing dangerous thinning of the ozone layer International restrictions on these chemicals are allowing recovery
Sunlight

Southern tip of South America

Antarctica

Figure 7.14B
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