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A router is a computer Computers have four basic components:

a CPU, memory, interfaces, and a bus

The router is a computer that selects the best paths, and manages the switching of packets between two different networks

Cisco Routers

Router - internal components

Stores routing tables, ARP cache, fastswitching cache, packet buffering (shared RAM), and packet hold queues. also provides temporary and/or running memory for the routers configuration file while the router is powered on. RAM content is lost when you power down or restart.

Router - internal components

non-volatile RAM stores a routers backup/start-up configuration file; content remains when you power down or restart

Router - internal components

erasable, reprogrammable ROM holds the operating system image and microcode allows you to update software without removing and replacing chips on the processor content remains when you power down or restart multiple versions of IOS software can be stored in Flash memory 5

Router - internal components

contains power-on diagnostics, a bootstrap program, and operating system software software upgrades in ROM require replacing pluggable chips on the CPU

Router - internal components

network connection through which packets enter and exit a router it can be on the motherboard or on a separate interface module


Router Configuration
A router is made up of configurable components. A router has modes
examining, maintaining, and changing the components.

Router Configuration
show commands are used for examination. You use cdp to show entries about neighbours. You access other routers by using telnet. You test network connectivity layer by layer.
Testing commands include ping, trace, telnet, and debug

Router Configuration
A router can be configured from many locations:
y Upon initial installation, it is configured from the console terminal. The console terminal is a computer connected to the router through the console port. y It can be connected via modem by using the auxiliary port. y After it is installed on the network, it can be configured from Virtual Terminals 0 through 4.

Files can also be downloaded from a TFTP server on the network


Router Modes
Whether accessed from the console or by a Telnet session through a TTY port, the router can be placed in several modes. Each mode provides different functions:
User EXEC mode Privileged EXEC mode Set-up mode Global configuration mode Other configuration modes RXBOOT mode


Router Modes
y User EXEC mode
y A look-only mode in which the user can view some information about the router, but cannot change anything.

y Privileged EXEC mode

y Supports the debugging and testing commands, detailed examination of the router, manipulation of configuration files, and access to configuration modes.

Router Modes
y Set-up mode
y Presents an interactive prompted dialog at the console that helps the new user create a first-time basic configuration.

y Global configuration mode

Implements powerful one-line commands that perform simple configuration tasks.


Router Modes
y Other configuration modes
y Provide more detailed multiple-line configurations.

y RXBOOT mode
A maintenance mode that can be used, among other things, to recover lost passwords.


Router Status Commands

y show version
y Displays the configuration of the system hardware, y the software version, y the names and sources of configuration files, and y the boot image.

y show processes
y Displays information about the active processes.

Router Status Commands

y show protocols
y Displays the configured protocols. y This command shows the status of all configured Layer 3 protocols.

y show mem
y Shows statistics about the routers memory, including memory free pool statistics.


Router Status Commands

y show stacks
y Monitors the stack use of processes and interrupt routines and displays the reason for the last system reboot.

y show buffers
y Provides statistics for the buffer pools on the router.

y show flash
y Shows information about the Flash memory device.

Router Status Commands

y show running-config
y Displays the active configuration file.

y show startup-config
y Displays the backup configuration file.

y show interfaces
Displays statistics for all interfaces configured on the router.

Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)

CDP provides a single proprietary command that enables network administrators to access a summary of what the configurations look like on other directly connected routers. CDP runs over a data link layer connecting lower physical media and upper-networklayer protocols.

Because CDP operates at this level, CDP devices that support different network-layer protocols can learn about each other. CDP starts up automatically at boot up. CDP can then automatically discover neighbouring Cisco devices running CDP.


Discovered devices extend beyond those having TCP/IP. CDP discovers directly connected Cisco devices regardless of which Layer 3 and 4 protocol suite they run.


CDP provides information about each CDP neighbour device. Values include the following:
y Device identifiersFor example, the routers configured host name and domain name (if any) y Address listAt least one address for SNMP, up to one address for each protocol supported y Port identifierSuch as Ethernet 0, Ethernet 1, and Serial 0 y Capabilities listIf, for example, the device acts as a source route bridge as well as a router y VersionInformation such as that provided by the local command show version PlatformThe devices hardware platform; for example, Cisco 7000 23

Cisco Router Configuration

We have seen
show and cdp commands

show startup-config - display the backup configuration file show running-configdisplay active configuration file.

Cisco Router Configuration

erase startup-config - deletes the backup configuration file in NVRAM. reload - reloads the router, causing it to run through the entire configuration process. Setup - to enter setup mode from the privileged EXEC prompt.


Cisco Router Configuration

configure terminalConfigures manually from the console terminal. copy tftp running-configLoads configuration information from a network TFTP server. copy running-config startup-config Stores the current configuration from RAM into NVRAM.

Cisco Router Configuration

copy running-config tftp Stores the current configuration from RAM on a network TFTP server.


Cisco Router Configuration

Router> enable password: Router# configure terminal Router(config)# [configure mode command] e.g. interface, subinterface, controller, line, router etc.

Cisco Router Configuration

Specific configuration modes:
interface mode - for configuring interfaces subinterface mode - for configuring multiple virtual interfaces on a single physical interface line mode - for configuring the operation of a terminal line router mode - for configuring an IP routing protocol etc.


Cisco Router Configuration

Configuring router identification Router# config term Router(config)# hostname LABA LABA# ctrl-z : back to privileged exec mode exit : back out one level

Cisco Router Configuration

Message of the day banner LABA(config)#banner motd # message # Interface description LABA(config)#interface ethernet 0 LABA(config-if)#description my LAN, BG

Password configuration
Console password Virtual terminal password Privileged exec password


Console password
LABA(config)#line console 0 LABA(config-line)#login LABA(config-line)#password cisco


Virtual Terminal password

LABA(config)#line vty 0 4 LABA(config-line)#login LABA(config-line)#password cisco Enable Password LABA(config)#enable password class or prefer LABA(config)#enable secret class


Configuring interfaces
LABA(config)#int s 0 LABA(config-if)#clock rate 56000 clk rate is set for DCEs LABA(config-if)#bandwidth 56 no clock rate removes clock rate shut down/no shut down

Configuring routing protocols

LABA(config)#router rip LABA(config-router)#network LABA(config-router)# network LABA(config-router)#ctrl-z LABA(config)#ctrl-z LABA#show ip protocol LABA#show ip route [routing table]

Configuring routing protocols

LABA>show ip interfaces LABA#debug ip rip


Exercise - Configuring LABA

Hostname: Router>ena password: Router#config term Router(config)#hostname lab-a


Exercise - Configuring LABA

Enable secret password - class lab-a(config)#enable secret class


Exercise - Configuring LABA

All appropriate interfaces with IP addresses and subnet masks lab-a(config)#int s 0 lab-a(config-if)#ip address lab-a(config-if)#clockrate 56000 lab-a(config-if)#bandwidth 56

Exercise - Configuring LABA

lab-a(config)#int e 0 lab-a(config-if)#ip address lab-a(config-if)#bandwidth 56 lab-a(config)#int e 1 lab-a(config-if)#ip address lab-a(config-if)#bandwidth 56


Exercise - Configuring LABA

Configure rip lab-a(config)#router rip lab-a(config)#network lab-a(config)# network lab-a(config)# network


Exercise - Configuring LABA

Console login password - cisco lab-a(config)#line console 0 lab-a(config-line)#login lab-a(config-line)#password cisco


Exercise - Configuring LABA

Vty login password - cisco lab-a(config)#line vty 0 4 lab-a(config-line)#login lab-a(config-line)#password cisco