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APPLE

Taxonomic Classification

Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsoda Order: Rosales Family: Rosaceae Genus: Malus Species: M. domestica

Brief Description
exhibits great deal of variability is a tree and its pomaceous fruit, of the species Malus domestica in the rose family Rosaceae most widely cultivated tree fruits in older orchards or in the wild, the trees commonly known as standard trees can grow to 40 ft in height in more recent orchards, where the trees are being grown on dwarfing rootstocks, they frequently are 10 feet and under leaves are alternately arranged, simple oval with an acute tip and serrated margin, slightly downy below, 5-12 cm long and 3-6 cm broad on a 2-5 cm petiole blossoms are generally pinkish there are five petals, five carpels and many stamens the centre of the fruit contains five carpels arranged star-like, each carpel containing one or two (rarely three) seeds

Apple seed (star)

Blossoms (flowers) ---

Origin
Malus sieversii is its ancestor is known in Kazakhstan, where it is native, as 'alma' the region where it is thought to originate is called Almaty, or "reach of the apples" tree is still found wild in the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Xinjiang, China earliest tree to be cultivated have remained an important food in all cooler climates have been an important food in Asia and Europe for millennia, as well as in Argentina and in the United States since the arrival of Europeans the word 'apple' comes from the Old English word ppel, which has recognisable cognates in a number of the northern branches of the Indo-European language family the scientific name malus, on the other hand, comes from the Latin word for apple, and ultimately from the archaic Greek m lon (m lon in later dialects) Linnaeus assigned the apple to the genus Pyrus, along with pears and quinces Philip Miller subsequently separated the apple into its own genus, a division repeatedly ratified over the years

Distribution
is grown over much of the U.S. and southern Canada, in at least home gardens generally does better in more northern than southern climates the main commercial apple production in the U.S. is located in Washington, Michigan and New York in Canada, the main commercial producing province is Ontario followed by British Columbia, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick the largest national producer of apples is China, followed by the U. S. Blooming period: Common apple generally blooms in the early spring after the other deciduous tree fruits have bloomed.

Economic Uses
Edible Uses
may be made into jams, jellies, wines, ciders, vinegars, fresh juice, sauces, apple butter, brandies, pies and cakes may also be baked, fried, stewed, spiced, candied, or used in mincemeat or chutney Edible oil can be obtained from the seed that can be used to make ciders

Economic Uses (cont.)


Medicinal Uses
the fruit is astringent and laxative the bark, and especially the root bark, is anthelmintic, refrigerant and soporific used in the treatment of intermittent, remittent and bilious fevers leaves contain up to 2.4% of an antibacterial substance called 'phloretin' this inhibits the growth of a number of gram-positive and gramnegative bacteria in as low a concentration as 30 ppm apple juice will reduce the acidity of the stomach, it becomes changed into alkaline carbonates and thus corrects sour fermentation is also an excellent dentifrice, the mechanical action of eating a fruit serving to clean both the teeth and the gums

Economic Uses (cont.)


Other Uses
pectin is used as a thickener in jams and as a culture medium in laboratories. Pectin is said to protect the body against radiation the oil from the seed has been used as an illuminant the hard wood is used for turnery and cane Apple can also make into oil and pectin

Toxicity
All members of this genus contain the toxin hydrogen cyanide in their seeds and possibly also in their leaves, but not in their fruits. Hydrogen cyanide is the substance that gives almonds their characteristic taste but it should only be consumed in very small quantities. Apple seeds do not normally contain very high quantities of hydrogen cyanide but, even so, should not be consumed in very large quantities. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.

First Apple Seeds


When the first colonists migrated to North America, they brought apple seeds with them. The first recorded planting was in 1629 by the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Apple and computer


McIntosh Apples were discovered on a single mutated plant in the late 1700's by Canadian John McIntosh. John McIntosh discovered about 20 young apple trees. He transplanted the trees to a place near his home, but by 1830, only one tree was still alive. McIntosh combined his own name with the colour of the fruit, and called the tree the "McIntosh Red".

State Symbol
Apple fruit state of New York, West Virginia, Washington and Rhode Island Washington largest state to produce apples hence, Washington Apples

The Number Five


The number five is important in the world of apples, and not just because apple is a five-letter word: Apple blossoms typically form in clusters of five an apple blossom has five petals Red Delicious apples usually have five bumps (lobes) on the base of the apple The "star" you see when you cut an apple in half is due to the fruit's five seed cavities. Each cavity has the potential for 2 seeds, thus 10 seeds per apple are the norm.

Apples and Air


25 percent of an apple's volume is air. That is why they float.

The Garden of Eden


According to the Bible, Eve's inability to resist an apple's allure led to humanity's fall from grace. Long before apples were cultivated, it is believed they grew wild in Central Asia and China, as well as in Southwest Asia, where biblical historians place the Garden of Eden.

Fibrous Apple
A medium sized apple contains 5 grams of fiber, 20 percent of the recommended daily allowance.

Varieties of Apples
7000 varieties of apple but only 100 are commercially grown in the US: FUJI, GOLDEN AND RED DELICIOUS, BRAEBURN, ROME BEAUTY, JONAGOLD, WINESAP, MCINTOSH, GRANNY SMITH

World production of apple is about 40 million tons

Why You Should Love Apples?


Theyre tasty and good for you. They dont leave a slippery peel behind--like bananas do. It takes a long time for apples to go bad, so theyre perfect for lunches, long hikes, or the bus ride home from school. Unlike oranges, apples dont make your fingers stink. Apples wont make you fat. Theyre way cheaper than caviar. They look cool. You can make a zillion other foods out of apples, like apple pie, apple sauce, candy apples, apple juice, and ummmm--fried apples.

in the story of Adam and Eve the apple became a symbol for knowledge, immortality, temptation, the fall of man into sin, and sin itself. In Latin, the words for "apple" and for evil" are similar in the singular (malusapple, malumevil) and identical in the plural (mala). This may also have influenced the apple becoming interpreted as the biblical "forbidden fruit".

In Christianity

Apple
The larynx in the human throat has been called Adams apple because of a notion that it was caused by the forbidden fruit sticking in the throat of Adam. The apple as symbol of sexual seduction has been used to imply sexuality between men, possibly in an ironic vein. The idea of an apple being the fruit of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil with English speakers may have been helped by the fact that apple could also be a generic word for fruit in Old English, the word being used in various commentaries on Genesis.

An apple a day keeps the doctor away


the result of farmers encouraging higher sales of produce in an effort to counteract the belief that it was an apple that was the forbidden fruit which Adam and Eve ate research suggests that apples may reduce the risk of colon cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer.

Other facts of apple..


Compared to many other fruits and vegetables, apples contain relatively low amounts of Vitamin C as well as several other antioxidant compounds. The fiber content, while less than in most other fruits, helps regulate bowel movements and may thus reduce the risk of colon cancer. They may also help with heart disease, weight loss and controlling cholesterol,as they do not have any cholesterol, have fiber, which reduces cholesterol by preventing reabsorption, and are bulky for their caloric content like most fruits and vegetables

Other facts of apple..


There is evidence that in vitro apples possess phenolic compounds which may be cancerprotective and demonstrate antioxidant activity. The predominant phenolic phytochemicals in apples are quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2. Apple juice concentrate has been found to increase the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in mice, providing a potential mechanism for the "prevent[ion of] the decline in cognitive performance that accompanies dietary and genetic deficiencies and aging."

Other facts of apple..


Others studies have shown an "alleviat[ion of] oxidative damage and cognitive decline" in mice after the administration of apple juice. The seeds are mildly poisonous, containing a small amount of amygdalin, a cyanogenic glycoside; usually not enough to be dangerous to humans, but it can deter birds.

Major Producers
twoCHINA produced about two-fifth of this total. UNITED STATES the second leading producer, with more than 7.5% of the world production TURKEY

Etymology
The word apple comes from the Old English word aeppel, which was used to refer to any round object. This word in turn comes from the Latin word abella, which is the name of a town in Campania.

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