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Job Analysis and Competency Models

Chapter Four Recruitment & Selection in Canada (Catano et al)

Designing and Analyzing Jobs

Chapter 4 in Human Resources Management in Canada (Dessler and Cole) Reference to Recruitment and Selection in the Real World Assignment Guideline

Major Learning

Job analysis and recruitment and selection Job analysis techniques Identifying job specifications What are competencies?

How to identify competencies The need to validate competency-based systems Competency-based human resources models versus those based on job analysis

R & S in the Real World Individual Submission

Due November 7, 2011

Elements Needed
Refer to page 2 of the marking Scheme: 1. Interview Summary 2. Completed Job Analysis Questionnaire 3. Job Description based on the Job Analysis questionnaire must be compiled by you (if you are using a position description the individual you interviewed gave you, please reference/include this source)

15% of your overall mark Refer to pages 1 9 in the Assignment Guideline Please use templates provided in the Assignment Guideline The templates are also available electronically on BlackBoard This helps with consistency of marking

Group Comparative Report

Due November 21, 2011

Areas for questions and comparison:

10% of your overall mark See pages 10 12 of Assignment Guideline 3 - 5 people in your groups Aim for diversity in your group demographically and organizationally. At least 2 different organizations compared the greater number of organizations represented the better the comparison.


Internal and external factors affecting organizations R & S practices The organizations recruitment strategy Screening methods used Testing is it used or not? If used, what type of tests? Interview methods and types Decision-making how are decisions made about hiring and promotions?

What is job analysis?

The procedure for determining the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of each job, and the human attributes (KSAs) required to perform it.
Human Resources Management in Canada (Dessler & Cole, p. 90)

Why is so important to understand the KSAs involved in jobs?

Uses of Job Analysis Information

Human Resources Management in Canada Dessler & Cole, p. 90

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.


Job Analysis and Employment Law


No laws specify that a job analysis is required Employment decisions must be based on job related information Job analysis is a legally acceptable way of determining job relatedness

Equity & Access to Employment

A good job analysis ensures that accurate information on skill, effort, responsibility and working conditions is specified reducing the likelihood of impediments to equitable employment access for all Canadians.
Recruitment & Selection in Canada (Catano, p. 118)

Job Evaluation

The use of job analysis data to establish the worth of a job and to set compensation rates Job evaluation is highly dependent on job analysis data

Job evaluation allows comparisons between jobs within an organization (internal equity) and to those outside of it (external equity) to determine the fairness of the companys compensation system.

Recruitment & Selection in Canada (Catano, p. 118)

Job Evaluation is NOT Performance Evaluation

Organizing Work for Strategic Success

Human Resources Management in Canada Dessler & Cole, p. 84

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.


Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.


Organizational Analysis

The study of the organizational system and its components or subsystems. Organizational and job levels HR functions are embedded within the context of an organization and are influenced by all of the factors that affect it.

Organizational analysis is an important step in the recruitment and selection process that can be used to anchor job analysis in the context of the organizations mission, goals and strategy.



Recruitment and Selection in Canada, p. 120

Purposes of Organizational Analysis

Identification of overall organizational goals Description of the environmental constraints Definition of functions and relationships among organizational components

Assessment of the capabilities of the system and its components relative to strategic goals Identification of the gaps in the system that must be addressed in order to promote optimal system functioning

Job and Organizational Analysis

Organizational analysis is an important step in the R & S process Used to anchor job analysis in the context of the organizations mission, goals and strategy HR specialists design and implement R & S programs to fulfill organizational goals

Recruitment and Selection


Guiding principles and goals are identified Operating environment is identified R & S processes can contribute to the organizations longterm survival

Human capital is assessed in an organizational analysis What experience and qualifications (i.e. people) do we need to achieve our organizational objectives?

Effective Recruitment and Selection

Links recruitment, hiring, placement and promotion decisions with the strategic goals of an organization Often times the HR manager is placed within the ranks of senior leadership

Where does HR fit within the organization you are researching? Is HR represented at a senior decision-making level in the organization?

The Job Level

Recruitment & Selection in Canada, p. 122

A job is defined as a collection of positions that are similar in their significant duties. A position is a collection of duties assigned to individuals in an organization at a given time. Job family is a set of different but related jobs that rely on the same set of KSAOs Significant building blocks of an organization

Job Description

Job description: a written description of what job occupations are required to do, how they are supposed to do it, and the rationale for any required job procedures Job specification: the knowledge, skills, abilities and other attributes that are needed by a job incumbent to perform well on the job
Recruitment and Selection in Canada, p. 122

SMEs and KSAOs

Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) people who are most knowledgeable about a job and how it is currently performed; generally job incumbents and their supervisors KSAOs: the knowledge, skills, abilities and other attributes necessary for a new incumbent to do well on the job

National Occupational Classification (NOC)

Job related information can be found in the National Occupational Classification (NOC) system. See R & S Today 4.2 (p. 126) and Figure 4.2 (p. 127)

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information Qualitative

Human Resources Management in Canada (Dessler & Cole, pps 93 - 98)

Interviews (individual, group, supervisory) Questionnaires Observation Participant Diary/Log

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

Job Analysis Techniques



Interviews Direct Observation Structured Job Analysis Questionnaires and Inventories Position Analysis Question (PAQ) Task Inventories Functional Job Analysis (FJA) Worker Traits Inventories Threshold Traits Analysis System Fleishman Job Analysis Survey (F-JAS) Job Element Method
(pps. 128 144, Course text)

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

Human Resources Management in Canada, page 98

Group Activity

Move into Groups from Yesterday

Review & discuss Job Analysis Questionnaire on pages 5 -7 in the R & S in the Real World assignment guideline (strengths & weaknesses)

Review sample job description on page 123 of your text R & S Today 4.1 CIBC Customer Service Representative Refer to pages 8 & 9 of your Assignment Guideline


Questions about the assignment? Questions about the Job Analysis Questionnaire or Job Description Questions about recruitment, selection and retention for employers.

The Changing Nature of Work

Global competition, rapid advances in information technology and changing workforce demographics Routine work done by machines Greater emphasis on the management of technology Workers require multiple and generic skills


Competencies are groups of related behaviours that are needed for successful job performance in an organization Competencies are used to identify the KSAOs that distinguish superior performers from others.

Competency Characteristics

The KSAOs that underlie effective or successful job performance The KSAOs must be observable and measurable The KSAOs must distinguish among superior and other performers

Job-Specific Competencies

What are some of the specific competencies required for HR? International HR competency framework Required professional capabilities (RPCs), Canadian Council of Human Resource Associations (CCHRA) Refer to pages 116 117, Course text and the back of each of your chapters

Look around, get answers to your questions, check out your options and see what other students and professionals have to say about HR. Human Resources A Profession for the 21stCentury A Day in the Life of an HR Professional So what exactly do HR professionals do? Faces What young HR professionals have to say about the CHRP The Edge 5 ways you win with a CHRP designation Link up Connect with other students and your provincial association

Core Competencies

Characteristics that every member of an organization, regardless of position, function, or level of responsibility within the organization is expected to possess.

Functional Competencies

Characteristics shared by different positions within an organization. Only those members of an organization in these positions are expected to possess these competencies. E.g. courtesy and service orientation.

Job-Specific Competencies

Characteristics that apply to specific positions within an organization. Only those people in the position are expected to possess these competencies.

Proficiency Levels

Different levels of competency dependent on position held Increasing levels of responsibility = increasing levels of proficiency

The Role of Competencies

Competency dictionary: lists all the competencies that are required by an organization to achieve its mandate. Competency profile: a set of proficiency ratings related to a function, job or employee (see Figure 4.8, p. 155)

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Great Eight Competencies

A model of performance developed by Bartram consisting of eight broad competency factors Table 4.4 (p. 159)


Great 8 Competencies by Bartram (p. 159, Course Text)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Leading and deciding Supporting and cooperating Interacting and presenting Analyzing and interpreting Creating and conceptualizing Organizing and executing Adapting and coping Enterprising and performing

Recruitment, Selection and Job Performance

Chapter 5 Notes

Questions to consider from Chapter 5: Recruitment, Selection and Job Performance


Who is the best person for the job? (pps. 174 175) Why is it important to understand performance as part of a recruitment & selection process? How is job performance linked to an organizations mission, vision and goals? How does employee performance factor into staffing decisions?




Job Performance and Performance Criteria

Job Performance is behaviour, the observable things people do, that are relevant to accomplishing the goals of the organization. Criteria are measures of job performance that attempt to capture individual differences among employees with respect to job-related behaviours. (p. 176, course text)

Job Performance Domain

The set of job performance dimensions (i.e. behaviours) that are relevant to the goals of the organization, or the unit in which the person works. (p. 178, course text)

Performance Dimensions

Sets of related behaviours that are derived from an organizations goals and linked to successful job performance. Examples of these include, technical skills, leadership ability, business awareness, organizational ability, communication etc.

On job performance.

Individual performance must contribute to achieving the organizational goals. Performance is not the consequence or result of action; it is the action itself. (Campbell, 1990) Performance (behaviours needed for successful job performance) to values and goals, and the competencies needed to maintain organizational effectiveness.

John Campbells Theory of Work Performance: Eight Job Dimensions

(pps. 179 183)

Job-specific task proficiency (technical skills) Non job-specific task proficiency (e.g. understanding of the business environment) Written and oral communication task proficiency Demonstrating effort

Maintaining personal discipline Facilitating peer and team performance Supervision/ leadership Management/ administration

Contextual Performance
(p. 182, course text)

The activities or behaviours that are not part of a workers formal job description but than remain important for organizational effectiveness. Include: persisting with enthusiasm, volunteering above and beyond, helping and co-operating, following rules and procedures and endorsing organizational objectives.organizational citizenship

Counterproductive Behaviour

Voluntary behaviours that violate significant organizational norms and in so doing, threaten the well being of an organization, its members or both.
(pages 183 184)