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THE REVOLUTION AT FULL SWING

Table of Contents
Declaration of Martial Law The Revolution Spread Actions against the Katipunan The Martyrs of the Revolution Prominent Katipuneros and Revolutionaries Tejeros Convention Why Bonifacio lost the elections? Naic Convention The Persecution of Andres Bonifacio The Trial of Bonifacio The Death of Bonifacio Why Bonifacio was killed? The Backlash The Pact of Biak-na-Bato The Truce Failure of the Truce

Declaration of Martial Law


Because of the revelation of the Katipunan and subsequent skirmishes around Manila, Gov.Gen. Ramon Blanco declared a state of war and martial law in the following provinces:

Manila Bulacan Pampanga Nueva Ecija Morong Laguna Cavite Batangas

The Revolution Spread


After the declaration of war and martial law, surrounding provinces soon joined the revolution.

Tarlac Bataan Zambales Pangasinan Ilocos provinces Bicol region

The revolution will further spread down south to Visayas and Mindanao.

Actions against the Katipunan


Gov.-Gen. Blanco promised amnesty to those Katipuneros who will surrender and lay down their arms. Drastic measures such as torture was implemented to gather intelligence materials and to know the whereabouts of other Katipuneros. Finally, many Katipuneros will be executed in Bagumbayan as a warning to those who will join the Katipunan and the Revolution.

The Martyrs of the Revolution


Sept. 6, 1896
Battle


of San Juan del Monte

Sancho Valenzuela, Ramn Peralta, Modesto Sarmiento, and Eugenio Silvestre

Sept 11, 1896


Thirteen


martyrs of Cavite

Luis Aguado, Eugenio Cabezas, Feliciano Cabuco, Agapito Conchu, Alfonso de Ocampo, Mximo Gregorio, Mriano Inocencio, Jos Lallana, Severino Lapidario, Victoriano Luciano, Francisco Osorio, Hugo Prez, Antonio San Agustn.

Jan. 4, 1897

Bicol martyrs


Manuel Abella, Domingo Abella; priests Inocencio Herrera, Gabriel Prieto and Severino Daz; Camio Jacob, Tomas Prieto, Florencio Lerma, Macario Valentin, Cornelio Mercado, Mariano Melgarejo

Jan. 11, 1897

Businessmen martyrs


Francisco Roxas, Telesforo Chuidian and Jacinto Limjap; Numeriano Adriano, Jos Dizon, Domingo Franco, Moises Salvador, Luis Enciso Villareal, Braulio Rivera, Antonio Salazar, Ramon P. Padilla, Faustino Villaruel and Eustaquio Maalak Apolonio de la Cruz, Roman Basa, Teodoro Plata, Vicente Molina, Hermenegildo de los Reyes, Jose Trinidad, Pedro Nicodemus, Feliciano del Rosario, Gervasio Samson and Doroteo Domnguez

Feb. 6, 1897


The Execution of Katipuneros in Bagumbayan

Trece Martires Shrine Governors Drive Trece Martires, Cavite

Prominent Katipuneros and Revolutionaries

Emilio Aguinaldo

Andres Bonifacio

Antonio Luna

Apolinario Mabini

Manuel Tinio Emilio Jacinto Macario Sakay

Vicente Lukban

Pio Valenzuela

Artemio Ricarte

Miguel Malvar

Pio del Pilar

Tejeros Convention
The convention was called to settle disputes among the two factions of the Katipunan: the Magdalo and the Magdiwang. There was a preliminary meeting for this presided by Bonifacio. He mediated the two factions together but the meeting ended without any results. Aguinaldo was not able to attend this convention due to a battle in Pasong Santol.

March 22, 1897


The convention convened at a former friar estate in Sitio Tejeros, San Francisco de Malabon, Cavite. Jacinto Lumbreras acted as the presiding officer while Severino de las Alas acted as the secretary. The convention became heated with arguments that Bonifacio intervened and now presided the proceedings. In his capacity as the Supremo, he let the members of the convention swear to respect all the outcomes of the convention without contentions and questions. Everyone agreed at his request and he secured the unanimous approval that the decision will not be questioned.

Results of the Tejeros Convention


Elected Member Emilio Aguinaldo Mariano Trias Artemio Ricarte Emiliano Riego de Dios Andres Bonifacio Position President Vice - President Captian - General Secretary of War Secretary of Interior

Daniel Tirona, upon the election of Bonifacio as Interior Secretary, objected his election. He said that a fiscal, in this case Jose del Rosario, must be in that position. Bonifacio was insulted and so upset by this disrespect and broke of their promise, he wanted to shoot Tirona, who later disappeared in the crowd, for his insolence. Ricarte intervened so that peace can be settled. As the Supremo of the Katipunan, Bonifacio voided the convention.

Why Bonifacio lost the elections?


Aguinaldo was in a homecourt advantage. The Katipuneros of Cavite is extremely regionalist, meaning they will support any Caviteos regardless whether they are a Magdalo or Magdiwang. Bonifacio was met with passive hostilities and seemingly he was not highly respected by many of the convention members.

Naic Convention
March 23, 1897
Bonifacio

returned to Tejeros and accused the members of electoral fraud. In a convention called by Bonifacio in Naic, he was elected in a new elections to void the Tejeros elections results. Aguinaldo, while sorry over Bonifacios ill-treatment at Tejeros, tried to convince Bonifacio to respect the results of the Tejeros elections in the name of unity. Bonifacio flatly rejected Aguinaldos pleas.

The Persecution of Andres Bonifacio


Aguinaldo, now acting as the President, sadly ordered the arrest and imprisonment of Andres Bonifacio because of his actions in Naic. Limbon, Indang
A battalion, led by Agapito Banzon, was able to intercept Bonifacio and his supporters. Ciriaco Bonifacio, brother of Andres, was killed. Bonifacio was badly injured and was carried by a hammock.

April 28, 1897

Aguinaldo gave the Bonifacio case to the War Council.

Ypinagbibigay alam ko po sa iong kapangyarihan na ang patanto sa akin ng Coronel G. Agapito Banzon na inutusan sa Yndang kaakbay ang ating kawal bagay sa Supremo at walang iba kung hindi ang susunod. Nanag kanyang Makita ang nasabing Supremo, ginamitan niya ng matatamis na uica upang pahinuhod sa maganda niyang anyaya, datapuat di rin po niya napalambot ang matigas na puso, na bucod sa pagtanguing itoy guinaui ng parang tunay na caauay. - Mariano Noriels letter to Emilio Aguinaldo

The Trial of Bonifacio


Lasted from April 29 to May 4, 1897 In the trial:
Andres and Procopio Bonifacio Placido Martinez Bonifacios defense attorney Presiding officers

Mariano Noriel main presider  Crisostomo Riel  Tomas Mascardo  Mariano Riego de Dios  Esteban Ynfante  Sulficio Antony


Bonifacios Trial House Maragondon, Cavite

Bonifacios Trial Scene

Bonifacio, however, arrived at a most pitiful situation when he was taken from Yndang. He was stabbed, stripped of the clothes on his person and of the little things that he carried with him. I think that such punishment is sufficient for the offense he has committed. And if this is not enough, hear what I shall further say. Is it not stated in our Kartilla, or constitution of the Katipunan, that we should love our fellowmen as we love ourselves? Did not our Savior Jesus, ask our God the Father to pardon the Jews who had slandered him and killed him? And how should we, who are only creatures made of dust, not pardon our fellowmen? In consideration of all this, I plead that Andres Bonifacio be pardoned for the crime he has committed, so that in so doing we may fulfill what we pray in Our Father, Forgive our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us. - MARIANO NORIEL Maragondon, May 5, 1897

The Verdict...
The military tribunal, despite shady and dubious evidences, found the Bonifacio brothers guilty of treason, sedition, and filibustering. May 8, 1897
Baldomero

Aguinaldo, the Auditor of War, gave Emilio the verdict a death sentence. Emilio, horrified with this verdict, decided to commute the sentence to banishment as a respect for Bonifacio as Supremo.

But Noriel and Pio del Pilar pressured Aguinaldo to execute the Bonifacio brothers. They explained that if Bonifacio and his brother would live, they would disrupt the unity of the revolutionary government.. Their arguments were supported by Clemente Jose Zulueta, Anastacio Francisco and Mamerto Natividad. Aguinaldo, under pressure from his advisers, retained the original sentence.

"By virtue of my power as head of the revolutionary movement, I ordered Colonel Pedro Lipana, the presiding judge, to ask the military court to relax the penalty on the brothers. My reasons were pity, my desire to preserve the unity of the Filipinos, and above all, because I did not want to shed the blood of other revolutionists. I therefore suggested that the brothers be banished to Pico de Loro, a mountain quite far but still within Cavite. "Upon learning of my wish, Generals Pio del Pilar and Mariano Noriel rushed back to me. "'Our dear general,' General Pio del Pilar began, 'the crimes committed by the two brothers, Andres and Procopio, are of common knowledge. If you want to live a little longer and continue the task that you have so nobly begun, and if you want peace and order in our Revolutionary Government, do not show them any mercy etc.

"Besides these two generals, many people, most of them former followers of Andres Bonifacio, came to me to dissuade me from my decision of relaxing the sentence on them. Because of their explanations and requests, plus the strong evidence to prove their criminal acts (sic), I rescinded my order. Thereupon, General Mariano Noriel ordered Major Lazaro Macapagal to bring with him a squad of soldiers to fetch the prisoners and carry out the orders originally imposed by the military court. "Very early on the morning of May 10, 1897, Major Macapagal and his men took the prisoners to Mount Tala where they were shot." - Excerpts from the Memoirs of Emilio Aguinaldo

The Death of Bonifacio


May 10, 1897
The Bonifacio brothers were brought to Mount Tala in Maragondon under the command of Major Lazaro Makapagal. Makapagal have a sealed letter only to be open upon their arrival in the site. When Makapagal opened the letter as per instruction, he read the letter containing the death sentence against the Bonifacio brothers. The letter also warned that anyone who refused to carry the orders will be punished. After the execution, Makapagal buried the brothers in a shallow grave and mark them with crosses made from twigs.

How was Bonifacio executed?


According to Makapagal

Andres flee in terror when the soldiers shot Procopio to death. They eventually caught up with Andres and he too was shot to death.

According to Guillermo Masangkay

In his interview with a soldier and an eyewitness on the execution, nobody wanted to shoot Andres as they too were in shock with the sentence. Also, witnesses said that it was Clemente Jose Zulueta who shot the brothers. As a coup de grace, the soldiers bayonetted the brothers. Masangkay also argued that it is impossible for Andres to flee in terror as he is still badly injured from his encounter in Naic. Also, many corroborated that Bonifacio was carried by hammock on his way to his execution.

Why Bonifacio was killed?


This is because he is very sympathetic to the middle-class and the masses; the intellectuals and the upper-class got alienated. Also, they find Bonifacio as terrible military tactician thus it aggravates the loss of lives and their chance of victory. Bonifacios treatment of the friars angered many pro-friar revolutionaries. The Caviteos find Bonifacio an inconvenience and does not serve their interests.

With the death of Bonifacio...


Gregoria de Jesus, the wife of Andres, was devastated with his death as it took her 10 days searching for any news of his husbands fate. Emilio Jacinto, Julio Nakpil, and Macario Sakay was also shocked with his death as they remained loyal to Bonifacio. They refused to swear their loyalty and conscript their soldiers to Aguinaldo. Also, they accused him of murdering the Supremo. The news spread from Manila, Laguna, and Batangas and it demoralized many Katipuneros and revolutionaries.

Gregoria de Jesus

Julio Nakpil

The Backlash
Because of the death of Bonifacio, it demoralized many revolutionaries. This gave the Spaniards an advantage to press against the revolution and started reclaiming areas held by the revolutionaries. Fernando Primo de Rivera, relieving Polavieja as Governor General, offered amnesties and pardon to those who will surrender and lay down their arms. It was ignored by many. Aguinaldo was forced to retreat after Cavite fell. He sought refuge in Biak-naBato in San Miguel, Bulacan.

The Pact of Biak-na-Bato


Aguinaldo sent Gov. Gen. Primo de Rivera his request to give way for an official truce.
The

expulsion of the friars in the Philippines Freedom of expression, the press, and religion The return of the friar estates to the Filipinos Equality and fair treatment The abolition of deportation against Filipinos Equal pay for government officials

Nov. 1, 1897
The

Constitution of Biak-na-Bato was signed


Elected Officials Emilio Aguinaldo Mariano Trias Position President Vice-president Secretary of Foreign Affairs Secretary of Interior Secretary of War Secretary of Treasury

Antonio Montenegro Isabelo Artacho Emiliano Riego de Dios Baldomero Aguinaldo

Pact of Biak-na-Bato Representatives Pedro Paterno and Emilio Aguinaldo on the front

The Truce
August December 1897
Negotiation between the Spanish authorities and the Revolutionary Government began. Pedro Paterno acted as the main negotiator. Paterno accepted the position due to a deal with the Spanish authorities. They offer him wealth and a nobility title in Spain if he succeed in his mission.

Dec. 15, 1897 The Truce was signed with the following provisions:
Aguinaldo

will voluntarily exile himself. The Spanish Government will pay compensations amounting 800,000 pesos.
400,000 upon Aguinaldos departure  200,000 upon surrendering of all weapons  200,000 upon the granting of amnesty


Aguinaldo

Also, 900,000 pesos will be given to the family of the victims of the revolution.

Failure of the Truce


While the truce gave the Philippines some peace, both sides still distrust each other. Many revolutionaries did not entirely surrender their weapons in fear that the Spaniards will renege on the truce. Sporadic clashes continued from February to May 1898. Primo de Rivera was replaced by Basilio Augustin on April 8, 1898. This proved to be unfortunate since Augustin knew nothing of the situation in the Philippines.

Augustin did, however, promised to continue Primo de Riveras pacification policies and waited for some developments to happen before he acts. He attempted to create a consultative assembly of Filipino ilustrados loyal to Spain and a militia force of Filipinos, as a pretext for autonomy in the Philippines. Augustins plans for reform end in failure as most of the Spanish-trained Filipino militia deserted to the revolutionary ranks, and his consultative assembly finally dissolved.