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Objectives

Review basics of centrifugal compressors Explore key terminology Understand parameter relations Performance capabilities of different compressor technologies

Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Basics of Compressors
The principles of increasing pressure for pumps and compressors are the same. A PUMP moves an incompressible fluid - a liquid. The volume of a liquid does not change with pressure and temperature. A COMPRESSOR moves a compressible fluid - a gas. The volume of a gas changes with pressure, temperature, and gas composition.

Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Centrifugal Compressor characteristic (performance) curve

Surge

Head

Stonewall

Flow (ACFM)
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Centrifugal compressors dont make pressure ratio


They make HEAD!
Had (ft-lbf/lbm) = z * 1545 * T1 (R) * k * P2 M.W. k-1 P1
(k-1)/k

-1

Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

And they do Volume Flow, not Mass Flow


Q=w*T*z M.W. * P
Q = volume flow w = mass flow MW = mole weight P = absolute pressure T = absolute temperature z = compressibility

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Flow
Process Engineers are trained to calculate mass balances and therefore work in MASS flow (lbm/hr, kgm/hr). Centrifugal compressors are designed to handle a given VOLUME flow. Difference between Standard volume flow, and Actual volume flow

Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Flow
Standard Conditions = 0 psig, 60 F Normal Conditions = 0 BAR g, 0 C Example: 1,000 lb/min of pure Methane @ 1,000 psia & 100 F correspond to 339.2 acfm, or 23,616 SCFM; 1,000 lb/min of pure Methane @ 500 psia & 50 F correspond to 632.7 acfm, or 23,616 SCFM

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Key Terminology
Volume Flow Headrise (adiabatic and polytropic)
Specific heat ratio (k) Compressibility (z)

Specific Speed Mass Flow Power Mach Number Surge, Stonewall or Choke

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Headrise
Head is the energy in ft-lbf (N-m) required to compress and deliver one lbm (kgm) from one energy level to another. Head H = ft-lbf / lbm (N-m/ kgm)

Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Headrise
Reversible thermodynamic paths
Isentropic (adiabatic) = no heat loss Polytropic = heat loss Adiabatic and polytropic virtually the same for single stage. Much different for multistage

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Headrise Calculation
Required Headrise = z* R*T1(r m-1)/m
z = Compressibility Factor (approx. 1.0) R = Universal Gas Constant (1545/MW) T1 = Absolute Suction Temperature of Gas r = Pressure Ratio m = [(k-1)/kLA k = Specific Heat Ratio of Gas (Cp/Cv) L= Polytropic Efficiency

Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Headrise
The amount of energy required to compress a volume to the same pressure for a gas is much higher because the gas is at a much lower density than the liquid.

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Polytropic vs. Adiabatic (Isentropic) Head


Had (ft-lbf/lbm) = z * 1545 * T1 (R) * k * P2 M.W. k-1 P1 Hp (ft-lbf/lbm) = z * 1545 * T1 (R) * n * P2 M.W. n-1 P1 n = polytropic exponent T2 = P2 T1 P1
(n-1)/n (k-1)/k

(n-1)/n

Lp = k-1 * n k n-1

Had = Hp Lad Lp

Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Headrise
LIQUID
HEAD = 2.311 X P (Ft.) S.G. Water P = 100 PSI HEAD = 231 Ft. P1 - 14.7 PSIA 1T1 = 100F HEAD 1545 (T1) (Ft.) = M. W.

GAS
K K-1
( )

P2 P1

K-1 K

-1

Nitrogen P = 100 PSI HEAD = 86,359 Ft. P1 = 14.7 PSIA 1T1 = 100F

231 Ft.

114.7 PSIA

86,359 Ft.
114.7 PSIA

Pump

Compressor

Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Headrise from the Impellers Point of View


Head = C * Q N2 * D2
C = Unit conversion constant N = Speed D = Impeller Diameter Q = Impeller head coefficient (.4 to .7)

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Volume Flow
Actual Flow volume flow rate entering the suction flange acfm, m3/hr Standard Flow volume flow rate referenced to an established set of P, T conditions scfm, Nm3/hr, MMSCFD

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Specific Speed
Ns = N * Q1/2 H 3/4
N = speed Q = flow H = headrise

Specific Speed drives impeller geometry and efficiency

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Impeller Efficiency
Full Emission Impellers

EFFICIENCY - (%)

Partial Emission Impellers

SPECIFIC SPEED - Ns
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Power
Gas Horsepower (GHP)
GHP = Head * Mass Flow 33,000 * Eff

Brake Horsepower (BHP)


BHP = GHP + FHP (seal + gearbox losses)

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Mach Number
Acoustic Velocity a = 223 * T1 * Z1 * k MW Relative Mach Number MnRel = Inlet Velocity a Machine Mach Number MnMachine = U = D * N a 229*a Affects curve shape and range. Practical limit = 1.3
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Surge & Stonewall


Surge

Head

Stonewall

Flow (ACFM)
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Surge
Surge is a system phenomena that is the result of flow separation caused by low gas velocity anywhere in a compressor stage. Surge is an oscillation of backflow and forward flow. Left to continue, Surge is a bad thing!

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Stonewall or Choke
Stonewall or choke flow is the maximum flow a given stage can handle. This value occurs when the ratio of the relative gas velocity to the acoustic velocity of the process gas is equal to 1.0, or Mach 1.

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Parameter Relations
Had (ft-lbf/lbm) = z * 1545 * T1 (R) * k * P2 M.W. k-1 P1 Q (acfm) =
(lb/min)
(k-1)/k

-1

* 10.729 * T1 (R) * z P1 (psia) * M.W.

BHP (hp) = GHP + losses = Had (ft-lbf/lbm) * (lb/min) + losses 33,000 * Lad
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Parameter Relations
Assuming No Hardware Changes Assuming Hardware Can Be Altered

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No Hardware Changes
VARIABLE P1 CONSTANT ACFM, T1, H, MW CHANGED CONDITIONS P2 , T2 , w , HP

MW

P1, T1, H, ACFM

P2 , T2 , w , HP

T1

P1, H, MW, ACFM

P2 , T2 , w

, HP

ACFM

P1, T1, MW

H , P2 , T2 , w , HP

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With Hardware Changes


VARIABLE P1 CONSTANT P2, w, T1, MW CHANGED CONDITIONS H , T2 , ACFM , HP

MW

P1, P2, T1, ACFM

H , T2 , w , HP

T1

P1, P2, T1, ACFM

H , T2 , w

, HP

ACFM

P1, P2, MW, T1, T2, H

w , HP

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Affinity Laws
Q 2 = N2 Q1 N1 GHP2 = N2 3 GHP1 N1 GHP (hp) = * Had (ft-lbf/lbm) = 33,000 * Lad
(lb/min) (lb/min)

H 2 = N2 H1 N1

* Hp (ft-lbf/lbm) 33,000 * Lp

Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

New Inquiry: Required info: Q & H


Flow (Q) Suction pressure (P1) Suction temperature (T1) Compressibility (z) Specific heat ratio (k) Mole weight (MW) or Gas Analysis Discharge pressure (P2)

Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Compressor Technologies
Positive Displacement Reciprocating (piston & diaphragm) Screw (oil flooded and dry) Rotary (liquid ring, sliding vane, lobe) Dynamic (Turbo) Centrifugal Regenerative Axial
Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Compressor Types
200

PRESSURE RATIO

Multi-st. Recip.

Integrally Geared Centrifugal

20
Single Stage Recip.

Sundyne
Multistage centrif Multi-st. Axial

Rotary

2
102 103 104 105 106

VOLUME FLOW

Positive Displacement vs Dynamic


Positive Displacement Dynamic

Pressure

Pressure

Volume
Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Volume

Positive Displacement Compressors


Constant volume delivery Variable head Not self limiting Flow not sensitive to pressure ratio - runs out of power.
9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Head 0 0 Flow
Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

500 ACFM 1000

Positive Displacement Compressors

Types Include
Reciprocating Screws Sliding Vane & Liquid Ring Rotary Lobe

Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Reciprocating Compressor
Similar to an automobile engine Compresses a given volume of gas through the use a reciprocating piston Positive displacement compressors increase the pressure of a gas by operating on a fixed volume in a confined space.
Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Horizontal, Balance Opposed, Double Acting, Reciprocating Compressor


PISTON & RIDER RINGS VALVE DESIGN MOTOR-OVER MOUNTING SEGMENTED TEFLON PACKING
CYLINDERS CROSSHEAD

EXTERNAL VALVES

CRANKCASE LUBRICATION

FORCE FEED CYLINDER LUBRICATION

VARIABLE CLEARANCE HEADS

Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Diaphragm Compressor

Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Reciprocating Performance
Piston Type: flow to 3,000 cfm, pressure to 30,000 psi, compression ratio to 20:1 (3:1) per stage , power to 15,000 HP, efficiency +/90% special designs to nearly 20,000 cfm at low suction pressures Diaphragm Type: flow to 100+ cfm, pressure to 30,000 psi, compression ratio 20:1 per stage, power to 150 HP
Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Screw Compressor Hierarchy

SCREW COMPRESSORS
Oil Free Oil Flooded

Dry

Liquid Injected

Medium Pressure Air & Gas

High Pressure Gas & Refining

Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Screw Compressor
Top View

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Screw Compressor
Side View

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Rotary Liquid Ring

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Rotary Liquid Ring

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Rotary Liquid Ring

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Rotary Sliding Vane

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Rotary Sliding Vane

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Rotary Lobe (Roots) Blower


Operating Principle

Four distinct pockets of gas are moved from the suction to discharge in each revolution of the driving shaft.
Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Rotary Compressor Performance


Screw

Pressure to 350 psid, 4:1 compression ratio dry, 15:1 compression ratio flooded, flow to 10,000 cfm, max efficiency 75%
Liquid Ring

Pressure to 175 psig (29 Hg Vacuum), 5:1 compression ratio, flow to 17,000 cfm, max efficiency 50%
Sliding Vane

Pressure to 50/100 psid, 4:1 compression ratio, flow to 6,000 cfm, max efficiency 70%
Lobe (Roots Type)

Pressures to 20 psid, 2+:1 compression ratio, flow to 25,000 cfm, max efficiency 70%
Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Centrifugal Compressors
Dynamic Machines Impeller uses centrifugal force to add velocity to gas Diffuser reduces the velocity changing the energy from velocity to pressure

Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Dynamic Compressors
Variable volume delivery Fixed head capacity (for a certain flow) Self limiting Flow is sensitive to pressure ratio
9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Head 0 0
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Flow 500 ACFM 1000

Single Stage, Overhung, Centrifugal

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Multistage Centrifugal Compressor

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Multistage Centrifugal Compressor

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Multistage Centrifugal Compressor

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Regenerative Compressor

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Axial Compressor

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Axial Compressors
140 120 Percent Design Pressure Rise

Su r

100

ge

Li ne

% 100 N

N 95%

80
N 90%

60
N 80%

N 85%

40 20 60 70

80

90

100

110

Percent Design Volume


Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Competitors
Centrifugal
AC, Atlas Copco, Cooper, Demag, Dresser-Rand Man Turbo (Sulzer + Borsig), York

Reciprocating
Ariel, Dresser, GE, Neuman & Esser, Sulzer Burckhardt

Diaphragm / Regenerative
Burton-Corblin (Periflow)

Screw
Mycom, Howden, Kobelco, Roots
Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Centrifugal Compressors
Dynamic Machines Impeller uses centrifugal force to add velocity to gas Diffuser reduces the velocity changing the energy from velocity to pressure

Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Dynamic Compressors
Variable volume delivery Fixed head capacity (for a certain flow) Self limiting Flow is sensitive to pressure ratio
9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Head 0 0 Flow 500 ACFM 1000

Sundyne Multistage Multi-pinion

Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

IG Compressor Staging Arrangements

Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Integrally Geared Technology


Benefits and Features
Almost 40 years experience 1600+ process gas installations Compact designs-reduced space Lower installation costs Fewer rotating components API 617 specification Participation on API sub-committee Proven and accepted equipment Optimized specific speed-higher efficiencies Proven centrifugal reliability
Los Angeles, June 1, 2007

Applicable API Standards


613 Special Purpose Gear Units 614 Lubrication, Shaft Sealing ... 617 Centrifugal Compressors 618 Reciprocating Compressors 619 Rotary Type PD Compressors 670 Vibration, Axial Position and ... 672 Packaged Integrally Geared, Centrifugal Plant & Instrument Air

Los Angeles, June 1, 2007