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PRECISE DECISIONS FOR PLUGGING WASTE OF ENERGY BY ACCURATE DATA BASE

ENERGY AUDIT IN THERMAL POWER STATIONS


BY

H. S. Bedi
Sr. Vice President (Power)

ENERGO ENGINEERING PROJECTS LIMITED


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OBJECTIVES OF ENERGY AUDITS


      ESTABLISH PRESENT TRUE PERFORMANCE LEVEL. IDENTIFY SHORTFALL AMONGST MAJOR EQUIPMENT. APPORTION SHORTFALL TO ITS SUBCOMPONENTS. DEVELOP COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS. OPTIMIZE DETAILED SCOPE OF WORK. RECOMMEND IMPROVEMENTS.
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APPROACH
ENERGY AUDITING AGENCIES TO CONSIDER:    Exhaustively major energy consuming Boiler TG area. Follow procedure for Boiler TG performance checking as per ASME test codes. Carryout Performance Evaluation of high energy Aux. power consumption drives as per international standards or BEE Guidelines. Use accurate and calibrated instruments. Preferably plan energy audit after exhaustive overhaul 3

 

LET US CONSIDER THE PATTERN OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN THERMAL POWER STATION

TYPICAL PLANT LOSSES

TYPICAL BOILER LOSSES


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TYPICAL CYCLE LOSSES

GLANCE

THROUGH

ENERGY LOSS BY OPERATING INEFFICIENT UNIT TYPICAL (200 MW)


% (PERCENTAGE) INCREASE IN TURBINE CYCLE HEAT RATE LOWER BOILER EFFICIENCY INCREASED AUX. POWER CONSUMPTION 1.0 % 1.0% 10.0% LOSS IN CRORES PER ANNUM 2.0 2.0 2.0
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ESSENCIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ENERGY AUDIT I TO VI


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REQUIREMENT I
1.1 ACCURACY OF COLLECTED DATA

You cannot Manage what you cannot Measure

(Accurately)

- Jack Welch, CEO, General Electric


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Collected data has to be most accurate & doubtless. Use calibrated and accurate instruments better conforming to ASME-PTC standards 1.0% Error in data means unreliability and 25,000 tons of coal loss/annum for 200 MW Unit or approx Rs. 2 crores i.e. 10 lacs per kcal/kwhr / year based on assumption that TG cycle heat rate is taken as 2000 kcal / kwh Coal CV is taken as 4000 kcal / kg Price of coal taken as Rs. 2000 / ton

Loss increases with machine size

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1.2 A. B.

EFFECT OF INSTRUMENTATION ON ACCURACY Plant on-line instruments with few audit instruments, Error around 5 to 6%. Accurate calibrated instruments as per ASME-PTC-6 for steam turbine& ASME-PTC-4-1 for Boilers , Error around 1.0% EFFECT OF PROCEDURE ON ACCURACY OTHER THAN ASME-PTC-6 S for steam turbines and ASME PTC-4.1 for boiler Error in Boiler Energy Audit around 2.0% Error in steam turbine Energy Audit around 3.0%
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1.3

1.4

TOTAL ERROR BECAUSE OF INSTRUMENTATION & PROCEDURE INACCURACY 6.0%

NOTE:
COST OF ENERGY AUDIT BY ACCURATE INSTRUMENTS AS PER ASME IS ARROUND 6 TO 8 LACS MORE THAN THE COST BY NORMAL / PLANT INSTRUMENTS.
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EFFECT OF INSTRUMENT INACCURACY ON HP/IP Turbine Efficiency


Main Steam HPT Efficiency Pressure Kg/cm2 1 0.6 % Temp Deg C 1 0.6 % HPT Exhaust Pressure Kg/cm2 1 2.0 % Temp Deg C 1 0.7 %

IPT Inlet IPT Efficiency Pressure Kg/cm2 1 1.2 % Temp Deg C 1 0.3 %

IPT Exhaust Pressure Kg/cm2 1 6.0 % Temp Deg C 1 0.4 %


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Impact of Turbine Efficiency on HR/Output


Description 1% HPT Efficiency 1% IPT Efficiency 1% LPT Efficiency Effect on TG HR 0.16% 0.16% 0.5 % Effect on KW 0.25% 0.16% 0.5 %

Output Sharing by Turbine Cylinders are around


HPT IPT LPT 28% 23% 49%

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EFFECT ON HEAT RATE FOR PARAMETER DEVIATION (500MW UNIT)


DEVIATION IN PARAMETER EFFECT ON HEAT RATE (KCAL/KWH) 6.25 6.0 5.6 9.0 4.0 3.5 4.0
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1. HPT inlet press. by 5.0 ata 2. HPT inlet temperature by 10.0deg C 3. IPT inlet temperature by 10.0deg C 4. Condenser pressure by 10.0 mm of Hg 5. RH spray water quantity by 1.0% 6. HPT Cylinder efficiency by 1.0% 7. IPT Cylinder efficiency by 1.0%

REQUIRED ACCURACY AND CALIBRATION OF THE INSTRUMENTS


The proposed instruments should have following level of accuracy i. ii. Thermocouples and PRTs ASME special class A i.e DIN tolerance Pressure and differential pressure transmitters better than iii. Power Meter for generator & Unit Aux Power measurement iv Data Logger v Power transducers / Load Analyser vi Flue gas analyser vii Ultrasonic flow meters 0.03% 0.5% 0.5%
17 0.5%

0.1% 0.1%

viii Anemometer ix Infrared Thermometer x Lux meter

1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 0.25%

xi RH meter Xii Calibrated test flow assembly as per ASME

These should be duly calibrated from NABL accredited lab.

The above accuracies for S.No. I to V are as per ASME specified for Performance Evaluation of Thermal Power Plants.

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REQUIREMENT II FOLLOW PROPER PROCEDURE OF BOILER EFFICIENCY AND TURBINE HEAT RATE AND PERFORMANCE OF PUMPS, FANS, COMPRESSORS AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS
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BOILER EFFICIENCY HEAT LOSS METHOD BOILER EFFICIENCY = 100 - % AGE LOSSES
1. Heat Loss in Dry flue gas a. Hg = 0.24 wg (Tg Ta) G.C.V a. Hg = K (Tg Ta) /1.8 as percentage of heat input K=0.32 for fuel oil

% CO2 in flue gas K=0.35 for Bituminous coal 2. Heat loss due to evaporation of moisture & H2 in fuel Hm = Wm+9H (100 Tf) + 540 4.6 (Tg -100) G.C.V 3. Heat loss due to moisture in air Ha = 0.26 Wma (Tg Ta) G.C.V 4. Heat loss due to Incomplete combustion to Co Hco = 2414 C x CO x 1 CO+CO2 G.C.V 5. Heat loss due to unburnt carbon C Hc = Wc x 7831 G.C.V %of heat input

% of heat input

as % of heat input

as % of heat 20 input

6. Heat loss due to Blow Down Hbd = W b (hbw hw) G.C.V 7. Heat loss due to Radiation HR

as % of heat input

= Difficult to evaluate & thus take design values only

In above Wg =Wt of dry flue gas W..G = [44.01 *CO2 + 32*O2 28.02 * N2 + 28.01*CO]*[Cb + 12.01 * S/32.07] 12.01 * (CO2 + CO) Tg = Tempt. Of flue gas at exit of Boiler Ta = Tempt. Of air at inlet (ambient) Tf = Tempt. Of fuel inlet hbw-hw = Heat in blow down Wm = Weight of moisture Wma = Wt of waterin Kg/Kg of air X Wt of air in Kg supplied / Kg of fuel Wc = Weight of unburnt C Wb = Wt of water blow down All wts are / kg of fuel
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PROPER SCHEMES FOR ENERGY AUDIT


FG

Expansion Bellow

Economizer APH Sampling Locations


FG
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APH

Annexure I BOILER EFFICIENCY AND APH TEST SCHEME & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM

1. Grid measurement for gas composition and gas temp. at air pre heater inlet / outlet.
W/6 W/3 T1 T2 W/3 W/6 T3 D/6 D/3 N11 N21 N31 D/3 N12 N22 N32 DEPTH

N13

N23

N33 D/6
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EVALUATION OF BOILER DATA           Boiler efficiency Air ingress in the APH Gas side efficiency of APH X-Ratio of APH Pressure drop in APH Un-burnt loss Dry flue gas loss attributable to excess air Dry flue gas loss attributable poor heat transfer in furnace Air ingress at different levels of furnace Performance of ID, FD & PA fans and air compressors
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ENERGY AUDIT SCHEME FOR 210 LMW STEAM TURBINE

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STEAM TURBINE HEAT RATE EVALUATION Methodology of Heat and Mass Balance of finding Main and Hot reheat steam flows as per instrumentation provided in the scheme is furnished below: Heat Balance of HPH - 7 MFW (H7 H6) = Mext7 (Hex7 HD7) Heat Balance of HPH - 6 MFW (H6 H5) = Mext6 (Hext6 HD6) + Mext7 (HD7- HD6)Heat Balance of HPH 5 MFW (H5 HFW)= Mext5 (Hext5 HD5)+[(Mext7+ Mext6) (HD6 HD5)]-Equ. (3) Heat Balance of Deaerator MFW, HFW= Mext4 Hext4 + MF1 H4 +(Mext7 + Mext6 + Mext5) HD5 MF4 Hej Equ. (4) Equ. (2) Eq. (1)

Mass Balance of deaerator MFW = Mext7 + Mext6 + Mext5 + Mext4 + MF1 Mej Equ. (5) In above equations H7, H6, H5, H4 are the enthalpies of water after HP7, HP6, HP5 & LP4 respectively Hext7, Hext6, Hext5, Hext4 are the enthalpies of extraction 7, 6, 5 & 4 respectively HFw is the enthalpy of FW at deaerator outlet Mext7, Mext6, Mext5, Mext4 are the extraction steam flow of Ext 7, 6, 5 & 4 respectively. MF1 MF4 = = Condensate flow to deaerator Ejector steam flow from deaerator

Four unknown quantities of Mext7, Mext6, Mext5 and Mext4 from above five equations can be known by solving above equations and then M1 i.e. Main Steam Flow = MFW can be established

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Steam Turbine heat rate evaluation Methodology of Heat and Mass Balance of finding Main and Hot reheat steam flows as per instrumentation provided in the scheme is furnished below:
M9 (Hfw28 Heat balance of H.P. Heater Hfw18) + QDS8 (H2DS8 H1DS8) II, gives: Q8= ----------------------------------------------- (Eq.-1) (H8 Hk8)
Symbol M9 Hfw28 Hfw18 H2DS8 H1DS8 H8 Hk8 QDS8 Q8 Unit kg /hr k. cal/kg k. cal/kg k. cal/kg k. cal/kg k. cal/kg k. cal/kg kg /hr 31 kg /hr

S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Description Feed Water flow quantity through HPH II Enthalpy of feed water at the outlet of condensing section of HPH II Enthalpy of feed water at the inlet of condensing section of HPH II Enthalpy of feed water at the outlet of de-superheating section of HPH - II Enthalpy of feed water at the inlet of DS section of HPH -II Enthalpy of 8th extraction steam at HPH II Enthalpy of condensate drain at HPH II Feed water flow quantity through D.S. section of HPH II Quantity of VIIIth extraction steam

Heat balance of H.P. Heater I, gives: Q M9 (Hfw27 Hfw17) + QDS7 (H2DS7 H1DS7)-Q8 (Hk8-Hk7) 7= --------------------------------------------------------------(H7 Hk7) (Eq.-2)
Unit

S.No. Description

Symbol

1 2

Feed Water flow quantity through HPH

M9

kg /hr k. cal/kg

Enthalpy of feed water at the outlet of condensing Hfw27 section of HPH I Enthalpy of feed water at the inlet of condensing section of HPH I Feed Water flow quantity through the Desuperheating (D.S) section of HPH I Hfw17

k. cal/kg

*QDS7

kg/hr
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Enthalpy of feed water at the outlet of DS section of HPH - I

H2DS7

k. cal/kg

Enthalpy of feed water at the inlet of DS section of HPH -I

H1DS7

k. cal/kg

7 8 9 10

Quantity of condensate drain from HPH Enthalpy of condensate drain at HPH Enthalpy of condensate drain at HPH II I

II

Q8 Hk8 HK7

kg/hr k. cal/kg k. cal/kg k. cal/kg

Enthalpy of 7th extraction Steam at HPH

H7

th extraction steam 11Values of Qof 7and Q Quantity kg /hr * are evaluated in proportion Q7 the design to DS7 DS8

quantity.
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Heat balance of Deaerator M9 . Hf2D =QD.HD + MC.Hf25+ Q9.H9 + D.Hf2D Mass balance of Deareator M9 =QD + Mc + Q9 + D - (Eq.-4)

- (Eq.-3)

In above equations Hfw27, Hfw28 & Hf25 are the enthalpies of water after HP1, HP2 & LPH5respectively. H7, H8, HD are the enthalpies of extraction HPH 1, HPH2 & Ext6 respectively. Hf2D is the enthalpy of FW at deaerator outlet Q9 = Q7 + Q8 Q8 , Q7 & QD are the extraction steam flow of Ext 8, 7 & 6 respectively. H9 is the enthalpy of drain to deaerator MC = Condensate flow to deaerator D = Deaerator level change
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Solving equation 1,2,3 & 4 three unknown quantities i.e M9, Q7 & Q8 can be known by solving these four equations. Main Steam Flow (M1) = Feed Flow Reheat spray flow which shall also be measured.

Hot reheat steam flow is also evaluated i.e extraction VIII steam flow to HP II is evaluated from heat balance across heater where all other measurements are being made as per the scheme. Leak off flows shall either be taken as design values or evaluated from the collected data. Reheat Steam flow (M2) = MS flow Extraction flow of last HP Heater II - (HPT front + rear leak off flow) = M1 (H1 HFW28) + M2 (H3 H2) Pg

Turbine heat rate

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Where M1 = HI = turbine HFW28 = M2 = H3 = H2 = Pg =

Main steam flow Enthalpy of Main steam flow at inlet to HP Enthalpy of Feed water after final HP heater Hot reheat steam flow Enthalpy of Hot reheat at inlet to IP turbine Enthalpy of cold reheat at outlet HP turbine Power generated at the generator terminals.

The above heat rate equation gets modified depending upon TG cycle & tapping of superheater & reheater spray flow & Aux steam flows.
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COMPUTATION OF TOTAL GLAND LEAKAGES


Steam leakage through the glands A,B and C is calculated using the formula given below: G = K [P1] 2 - [P2] 2 P1 . V1 Steam leakage through the glands Pressure before the glands Pressure after the glands Specific volume at inlet conditions to the glands . T/H . ATA . ATA Cu M3/Kg

G P1 P2 V1

= = = =

For design case P1, V1 and G are known and hence K can be evaluated. For test case, by putting this value of K and the test values of P1, P2 and V1, the computation of G can be done.

LEAKAGE THROUGH VALVE SPINDLE


G= 75.202 X X fcl Po Vo

Gis leakage is kg/hr function of P1/P0 and Reynolds number, P0 and P1 are initial and final pressure in ata. fcl = = Where clearance area in cm2 dh d h = = Diameter of Spindle in CM Rachal clearance in CM

Vo =

Initial specific volume in m3 / kg Po Vo = = 75.202 x G


VO/ PO

G=

c .fcl

Where C or

/fcl

From design values

Hot reheat steam flow is also evaluated i.e extraction steam flow to last two HP Heaters shall be evaluated from heat balance across these heaters where all other measurements are being made as per the scheme. Leak off flows shall either be taken as design values or evaluated from the collected data.

Thus Reheat Steam flow = MS flow Extraction flow of last 2 HP Heaters - (HPT front + and rear leak off flow) - MHV Thus turbine heat rate is established as= M1 (H1 HF) + M2 (H3 H2) Pg

Where M1 HI HF M2 H3 H2 Pg MHV = = = = = = = = Main steam flow Enthalpy of Main steam flow at inlet to HP turbine Enthalpy of Feed water after final HP heater Hot reheat steam flow Enthalpy of Hot reheat at inlet to IP turbine Enthalpy of cold reheat at outlet HP turbine Power generated at the generator terminals. Total leak off flow from spindles of HPT and IPT (CV + ESV)

Evaluation of Extraction Flow to HPH-7

Extraction to HPH-7 (Heater end) 36.509 3197.95 389.80 0.0498mf (h3)

mf Boiler feed water outlet 147.08 1046.8 241.63 (h2) mf 1058.78 Drip of HPH - 7 (h4) 244.4177 0.0498mf Enthalpy Pressure kJ/kg kg/cm2 Flow Temperature TPH C = {BF flow * (h2-h1)/(h3-h4)} = mf*(1046.8-940.1645)/(3197.95-1058.78) = 0.0498*mf Boiler feed water inlet 147.67 940.1845 (h1)

218.3782

36.509

Extraction to HPH - 7 flow

Heat Balance of HPH - 5


Extraction steam to HPH-5 3331.87 12.618 149.922 783.3549 (h5) 433.428 0.027 mf 182.969 (h8)

Boiler feed water inlet 149.37 704.0627 mf 164.667 (h10)

HPH-7 drip 24.909 879.5234 (h7)

Drip flow 12.618 704.0627 (h9)

205.939 0.1118 mf

0.1388 mf 185.034

Pressure Enthalpy kg/cm2 kJ/kg Temperature Flow C TPH Extraction flow to HPH - 5 = {BF flow * (h5-h10)-drip ext. 6 * (h7-h9)}/(h8-h9) = {mf*(783.355-704.063)-0.1118*mf (879.523-785.485)}/(3331.8696-785.485) = 0.027*mf TPH

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Turbine Cycle Heat Rate = M1 (H1 Where M1 = H1 = Hfw2 = M2 = H3 = H2 = Pg =

Hfw2) + M2 (H3-H2) Pg

Main Steam Flow at inlet to HP cylinder. Enthalpy of Steam at inlet to HP cylinder. Enthalpy of Feed water at outlet of HPH 7. HRH steam flow at inlet to IP cylinder. HRH steam enthalpy at inlet to IP cylinder. CRH steam enthalpy at outlet of HP cylinder. Power at generator terminals

Methodology of Heat and Mass Balance of finding Main and Hot reheat steam flows as per instrumentation provided in the scheme is furnished below: Heat Balance of HPH - 7 Mfw1 (H7 H6) = Mext7 (Hex7 HD7) Eq. (1) Heat Balance of HPH 6 Mfw1(H6 H5) = Mext6 (Hext6 HD6) + Mext7 (HD7- HD6)- Eq. (2) 45

Heat Balance of Deaerator Mfw1 . Hfw1 = MFc . Hc + Mext5 . Hext5 + Ml . Hl + (Mext7 + Mext6). Hd -3

Mass Balance of Deaerator Mfw1 = MFc + Mext7 + Mext6 + Mext5 + Ml 4

While MFc is measured and Ml is also measured or evaluated. Three other unknown quantities Mext7, Mext6 and Mext5 can be known by solving above four equations. Thus Main steam flow Ml = Mfw2 = Mfw1 + l RH Spray Super heater spray also to be deducted in case tapped at inlet to HPH 6 Hot Reheat flow M2 = M1 + Rh spray Mext7 Mext6 turbine shaft leak off

EVALUATION OF DATA
        Cycle heat rate. HP/IP cylinder efficiencies. Performance of HP/LP heaters (TTD/DCA). Pressure survey in turbine cylinders. Turbine glands performance. Condenser performance and reasons contributing to shortfall. Extraction lines pressure drops. Complete heat and mass balance.
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ENERGY AUDIT OF AUX POWER CONSUMPTION FOR PUMPS, FANS AND COMPRESSORS FOLLOW PROCEDURES AS PER BEE RECOMMENDED BOOKS FOR ENERGY AUDITORS
S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8a 9 Suction Temp. Item Ref Unit Load Grid Frequency CEP Flow Condenser Pressure Hotwell Level Suction Pressure Discharge Pressure Total Head Units MW Hz TPH Kg/cm2 m Kg/cm2 Kg/cm2 Kg/cm2 Mwc
0C

Design

Unit #

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10 11 12 13 14 15 16

CEP motor Power input Liquid KW Combined Efficiency (pp+motor) % Load on Motor % Load on Flow % Load on Head SEC

KW KW % % % % KWH/Ton

Pump Efficiency: Q(m3/s ) xTotal head, hd hs (m) x (kg/m3) x g(kg/m3) / 1000 Power Input Mechanical Fan Efficiency: Volume in m3 / Sec x p (total pressure) in mmwc 102 X Power input to the shaft in (kW)

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PERFORMANCE DEMONSTRATION OF AIR COMPRESSORS


Parameter Date Trial time Final Pr ( P1) Initial Pr ( P2) Atm Pr (Po absolute) Amb Temp (t) Reciever + pipework Volume(V) Time ( T) M3 Minutes Kg/Cm2 Kg/Cm2 Kg/Cm2
0

Units

COMP-1

COMP-2

COMP-3

Q- P2 P1 x V
P0

Nm3/Minute
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Capacity at amb temp FAD (at NTP) Design FAD (at NTP) Actual Power Consumption Designed Power Consumption Actual SEC Design SEC

NM3/Min NM3/Min NM3/Min KW KW KW/NM3/Min KW/NM3/Min

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REQUIREMENT - III
FREQUENCY OF READINGS FOR ACCURATE DATA COLLECTION
TURBINE CYCLE AUDIT Pressure Temperature Flow Power Levels BOILER UNIT AUDIT Temperature Flue Gas Composition DURATION OF AUDIT TEST Turbine Cycle Boiler Unit 5 Minutes 5 Minutes 1 Minute 1 Minute 10 Minutes 15 to 30 Minutes to one hour 2 Hrs 4 Hrs
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REQUIREMENT IV
1.0 METHODOLOGY TO BE ADOPTED FOR ENERGY AUDIT INTERACTION WITH OBTAIN DATA ON PLANT ENGINEERS AND

1.0.1

Various equipment problems. Present performance level i.e. unit heat rate, fuel consumption, DM Water and raw water consumption etc. Plant design data for the main and auxiliary equipments. 55

Boiler TG Cycle layout, condensate, feed and steam pipe line schematics. Performance / Guarantee test reports of the tests carried out on equipments. Plant electrical power distribution system and transformer etc. Auxiliary power transformer etc. distribution system and

Evaluation procedure for day to day monitoring i.e. plant M.I.S. systems. Loading / requirement during test.
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1.0.2 Follow approved Test scheme for boiler and turbine, pumps, fans, air compressors testing etc. 1.0.3 Develop Energy Audit procedure following for each equipment Object of energy audit Scheme and list of measurements Range, make & class of accuracy of instruments. Frequency of instrument readings.
Duration of instrument readings.
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covering

Required man power. Interconnected plant data required. Finalize procedure with customer / consultants 1.0.4 Check up the availability of instrument mounting points and organize for missing points. (customer to arrange or spare alternate points) 1.0.5 Arrange calibrated instruments. 1.0.6 Plan schedule of activities for Energy Audit.
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1.0.7 Customer to Arrange shutdown if required for providing non available / missing points and attending defects noticed during walk down survey. 1.0.8 Conduct test as per above plan. 1.0.9 Prepare preliminary energy audit report. 1.0.10 Evaluate Final Results. 1.0.11 Conduct mass and energy balance in Turbine cycle components and boiler. 1.0.12 Make comparison with design Acceptance test data and establish shortfall areas.
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1.0.13 Furnish recommendations in the form of cost benefit analysis. 1.0.14 Give presentation on findings with backup data

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REQUIREMENT V CONFORMITY FOR ENERGY AUDITS


FOLLOW TEST CODES ASME PTC 6S For Steam Turbines ASME PTC - 4.1 for Boilers CALIBRATION LAB


 

Govt. Accredited i.e. NABL Labs TEST SCHEME

To be Furnished And Approved Sample enclosed


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MAJOR GUIDELINES OF ASME PTC-6S & ASME PTC 4.1 FOR TURBINE AND BOILER PERFORMANCE CHECKING

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GUIDELINES OF ASME PTC-6S FOR TURBINE


S.No. 1. ASME PTC - 6S Recommendations Use precision Instrumentation at critical locations for heat rate test Frequency of test readings and duration of test Data reduction by averaging whole set of readings and applying water leg and calibration Plan for instrumentation scheme for heat cycle, stage pressures Heaters Performance Clause Reference No. 0.1 and 9.2(a)

2.

3.4.2

3.

3.5 a to h

4.

3.1 and 9.7

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5.

Primary flow measurement (Main 4.4.1 (b) and 4.4.5 Steam) in low pressure condensate line (earlier used during P.G.test) Reheat steam flow measurement by heat balance Conduct of the test 9.2 (a) (4)

6.

7.

9.5

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GUIDELINES OF ASME PTC 4.1 FOR BOILER


S.No. 1. ASME PTC 4.1 Recommendations Clause Reference No. Flue gas sampling at APH inlet and outlet Flue gas Analysis at APH inlet and outlet Flue gas and air temperature measurement at APH inlet and outlet Duration of test run 5.04

2.

5.06 & PTC 19.10

3.

5.08

4.

3.08

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REQUIREMENT - VI SCOPE OF WORK FOR ENERGY AUDIT OF THERMAL POWER PLANT UNITS
Energy Audit should cover evaluation of the present performance level of all major equipments, identify the controllable losses and suggest remedial measures for improvements with cost benefit analysis and pay back period. The detailed scope of work covering the following is given as under. Boilers Turbine including regenerative cycle and condenser Electrical system
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Fans and Pumps in the above areas Insulation Balance of Plant including Station auxiliaries power consumption, Coal Handling plant, ash handling system, DM Plant, Station Compressed air system, CW system and Air conditioning.

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Preliminary Energy Audit, Preliminary Checking / Hot walk down


Energy Auditing agency to check the complete unit steam, condensate and feed water system along with the functioning of Heat cycle equipment like Boiler, Condenser Regenerative system Turbine Cylinders etc. during HOT WALK DOWN. Problem if any, shall be brought to the notice of the authority for rectification and arranging provisions for mounting audit instruments during Audit Preparatory Activities, prior to start of the detailed EA.
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DETAILED ENERGY AUDIT


A Energy Audit Of Boilers

Performance of Boiler and APH be established by measuring exit flue gas temperature and its analysis at around nine points in flue gas duct cross section before and after APH to eliminate effect of gas stratification as per international practice (Refer enclosed boiler test scheme Annexure I).

Conduct boiler efficiency measurements as per above test scheme by indirect method i.e heat loss method, evaluate Boiler efficiency and identify potential areas 69 for improvements such as.

a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

Heat loss due to heat in dry flue gas. Heat loss due to moisture in as fired fuel. Heat loss due to moisture from burning of hydrogen in fuel. Heat loss due to moisture in air. Heat loss due to surface radiation and convection. Heat loss due to formation of carbon monoxide. Heat loss due to combustibles in bottom and fly ash. Check up air ingress in boiler from LTSH area downwards up to I.D fans.
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Determine Air preheater performance to establish.

a. Gas Side Efficiency As ratio of gas temperature drop corrected for no air leakage to temperature heads. b. Air leakage as percentage of air passing from airside to gas side. c. X-Ratio I,e heat capacity of air passing through the air heater to the heat capacity of gas passing through the air heater. d. Air side and gas side pressure loss across the air heater.  Input power measurement of ID FANS / FD fans, PA fans, Fan Loading & combined efficiency of fan and motor and their specific power consumption
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 Energy Audit test has to be carried out for four hours by recording parameters at every 30 minutes and average of data to be utilized for evaluation. B Energy Audit of steam turbine cycle and it auxiliaries For Energy Audit of steam turbine cycle, all the parameters as per the enclosed scheme in Annexure II are to be measured simultaneously by hooking up these calibrated instruments to a data logger. The recording has to be at least for a minimum period of two hours with each measurement being recorded at an interval of one minute. Average of the data so collected to be utilized for evaluation of the following and suggestions for deficient areas for improvements to be made such as
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1. Turbine cycle heat rate. 2. HP, IP cylinders efficiency 3. Turbine pressure survey 4. Conduct heat and mass balance across the complete cycle 5. Check HP / LP heaters performance TTD & DCA Tube leakage Control valve checking and water levels

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6. Condenser performance i.e Condenser back pressure after duly considering the effect of present C.W inlet temp. C.W flow, heat load on condenser and air ingress to condenser vis-vis design conditions Tube side pressure drop in condenser Air flow rate Sub cooling


7.

Cycle losses / Deaerator drop test after cycle isolation 8. Performance of turbine glands 9. Ejector performance 10. Achievement of terminal parameters 11. HP feed heaters emergency drains to condenser 74 12. HP/LP bypass valves to condenser

For accurate heat rate determination, Turbine inlet flow and reheat flow need to be evaluated as per international practice by measuring condensate flow through measurement of p of plant condensate flow orifice after checking its condition and using evaluated drip and extraction to deaerator flows through heat and mass balance across heaters and deaerator as per scheme. Fall in deaerator level and HPTV and IPV leak off flow are also considered. Alternately by mass balance across deaerator if flow orifices are installed in drip and extraction lines to deaerator. Deaerator outlet feed flow shall then be taken as the main steam flow after considering for RH spray tap off from Boiler feed line.
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C.

Electrical system Assessment of the health & Transformer load loss of GT, UAT, Station Service transformers etc. Identification of possible Energy conservation options in this area.

1 Transformers

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2 Motors

Assessment of Loading condition of HT and LT motors of Boiler area, Turbine area and Balance of Plant area. Assessment of operating parameters like load variation, Power factor, of HT and LT motors consuming power more than 50 KW. Identification of possible Energy conservation options in this area (with latest techniques).
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Capacitors Plant Lighting system

y y

Assessment of health of capacitors. Lighting load survey and Assessment of installed load efficacy (I.L.E) and I.L.E ratio at various areas of plant. Assessment of present lighting controls Identification of Energy Conservation Opportunities.
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D Fans and Pumps Performance


Performance of fans consuming power more than 50 KW such as ID, FD, PA fans etc. Input power measurement Fan loading and combined efficiency of fan and motor Specific energy consumption Pump performance for BFPs, CEPs, Aux C.W.P & C.W.P and pumps consuming power more than 50 KW etc. Determine Pump efficiency as the ratio of power input to the pump shaft to hydraulic power. Specific power consumption Check Seal water flow of BFP Check Balance leak off flow of BFP
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Insulation Audit: A. Walk through survey of Boiler, Turbine and associated steam piping to identify the damaged and Hot spot area. B. Surface temperature measurement at the damaged and Hot spot area by infrared temperature indicator. C. Estimation of heat loss in the hot spots and damaged insulation area.
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Balance Of Plant

(i) Compressed air system: Free Air Delivery i.e. Capacity evaluation of the Plant and Instrument air compressors. Checking volumetric efficiency of compressors. Assessment of compressed air leakage quantity. Assessment of Energy performance of the air compressors/ specific power consumption. Study of the compressed air network and suggest suitable energy saving options.
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(ii)

Air conditioning system: Performance evaluation of AC Plant w.r.t net cooling / refrigeration capacity along with heat load of Air handling unit and energy requirements at the operating conditions vis--vis design condition to be determined. Ash Plant Performance of ash Slurry pumps through power measurement and flow measurement. Ash water ratio assessment and recommendations for optimization in water and power consumption.
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(iii)

IV

Cooling Tower Performance It shall include establishment of Liquid/Gas ratio Fan efficiency as the ratio of shaft power developed and the work done by the fan Cooling Tower Effectiveness, approach and range. Cooling capacity.

Coal Handling Plant

Input Power measurement of all the key equipment of the CHP area like: Paddle feeders, Conveyors, Stacker & Re-claimer, Wagon Tipplers, Crushers, Establishment of specific energy performance indicators. 83

NOTE:
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES TO BE SUGGESTED IN ALL THE ABOVE AREAS OF AUDIT. ENERGY AUDIT PROCEDURES, LIST OF INSTRUMENTS GIVING ACCURACY AND MEASUREMENT SCHEMES TO BE SUBMITTED WITH THE OFFER COPY OF REPORT OF PREVIOUS ENERGY AUDITS CARRIED OUT BY FOLLOWING ASME PTC 6S & PTC 4.1 OF SIMILAR UNITS TO BE SUBMITTED WITH THE OFFER
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PROPER SCHEMES FOR ENERGY AUDIT


Annexure I
FG Expansion Bellow

Economizer APH Sampling Locations


FG
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APH

Annexure I BOILER EFFICIENCY AND APH TEST SCHEME & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM

1. Grid measurement for gas composition and gas temp. at air pre heater inlet / outlet.
W/6 W/3 T1 T2 W/3 W/6 T3 D/6 N11 N21 N31 D/3 N12 N22 N32 D/3 N13 N23 N33 D/6
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DEPTH

ENERGY AUDIT SCHEME FOR 210 LMW STEAM TURBINE( Annx-2 )

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ENERGY AUDIT SCHEME FOR 210 KWU STEAM TURBINE( Annx-2 )

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USEFULNESS OF ENERGY AUDIT IN THERMAL POWER STATION


Identifies wastage areas of fuel, power and water utilization. Reduction in cost of generation by implementing findings of EA. Helps in availing the benefits of proposed P.A.T (Perform, Achieve and Trade) scheme of BEE. Increases power generation by efficient utilization of steam in turbine cycle and reduction in Aux Power Consumption. Maintenance planning and availability improvement. Provides guidance in loading sequences of the units. Identification and rectification of errors in on-line 89 instruments.

Leads to reduction in green house gases. Utilizes specialized engineers. services of experienced

Training of O&M staff for efficient control of unit operation. Improves competitiveness generation. by reducing unit

Creates bench mark for all equipments and systems. Fulfills bureau of energy efficiency mandatory requirement of Energy Audit.
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OBSERVATIONS FOR SAVINGS ENERGY IN POWER PLANT


1) Operation of machine at very low turbine I/L parameters. 2) Operation of turbine at lower loads. 3) HP and IP turbine cylinder efficiencies are very low. 4) Main steam and HRH inlet temperature to turbine very low. 5) RH pressure drop high. 6) High quantity of SH Spray and its tapings before HPH-5 resulting in loss of heat because of changed cycle.
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OBSERVATIONS FOR SAVINGS ENERGY IN POWER PLANT


7) 8) HP heater no. 5 out of service. Turbine cycle not operating as per design scheme i.e. Ejector and Deaerator pegging steam from PRDS header as against normal source from deaerator & extraction steam respectively. Passing of turbine cycle drain valves.

9)

10) Make up quantity to cycle is very high which indicates excessive system steam (heat) loss. 11) TTD & DCA of heaters high.
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OBSERVATIONS FOR SAVINGS ENERGY IN POWER PLANT


12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) Condenser air ingress and dirty tubes. Under loading of motors Excessive air leakage in compressed air system Faulty insulation Drain valves passing Air ingress to Boiler furnace FAD of compressors low
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OUR EXPERIENCE OF ENERGY AUDITS OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS


Two 2 x 210 MW units of M/s WBPDCL Kolaghat Thermal Power Plant. 15 units of Saudi Electric company of Saudi Arabia having unit sizes varying from 60 MW to 660 MW. Two 2 x 18 MW units of M/s Shree Cements Captive Power Plant. 5 x 210 MW units of APGENCO Vijayawada TPS. PG test of 110 MW steam turbine of PSEB Bathinda TPS. Performance Tests and RLA study Condition Assessment and Energy Audit of 1 210 MW Boiler and Steam Turbine of MPEB Sarni TPS 94

P.G.TESTS CONSULTANCY PROVIDED AS OWNER s ENGINEER


1. Reliance Rosa TPS 2 x 300 MW. 2. LANCO Infratec TPS Amarkantak 2x300 MW 3. WBPDCL Sagardighi TPS 1x300 MW 4. Shree Cement CPP 2 x15 MW Bewar and 1x15 MW Ras 5. Gujarat Ambuja Cement 2x15 MW Ropar CPP and 1x15 MW Bhatpara CPP 6. Vedanta (Hindustan Zinc CPP) 1x80 MW Zawar Mines
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P.G.TESTS CONDUCTED
1. PSEB Bathinda steam Turbine after R&M by NASL. 2. ACC Cement Captive Power Plant Bargarh Steam turbine (15 MW) for BHEL. 3. NTPC Ramagundam 210 MW Boiler before R&M by ANSALDO 4. UPPGCL (OBRA) 200 MW steam turbine before R&M for Power Machines (India)
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CASE STUDY I (210 MW Unit) TOTAL LOSS DUE TO POOR STATION HEAT RATE 25.85 crores per annum
S.No 1 2. 3. Nomenclature HP cylinder efficiency IP cylinder efficiency Condenser Vacuum (Total) - Dirty tubes - Less CW flow - Air ingress 4. 5. 6. 7. Poor HP heaters performance Boiler efficiency GC2 Gland leakages HP drain valve passing, system leakages losses Design Value 81.11 % 89.84% 76.64 mmhg Actual 75.18% 88.01% 98.78 mmhg Loss per annum in

crores
4.73 1.96 5.76 3.60 1.13 1.01 1.36 5.24 2.04 4.45

87.68 % 5.06 TPH -

86.42% 40 T/hr -

CASE STUDY - II (210 MW Unit) ENERGY CONSERVATION IN MAJOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS 3.62 crores
Sr. No. Area Savings in Electrical Energy (MU) 5.75 0.674 2.847 6.898 0.503 1.05 Cost Savings in crores per annum 1.17 0.14 0.56 1.41 0.09 0.24

1 2 3 4 5 6

Air Ingress at APH i/l, o/l & ID Fan i/l FD Fan motor under loading Poor performance of SACs & IACs BFPs poor efficiency CEPs poor efficiency Ash pumps poor efficiency

CASE STUDY III (210 MW Unit) TOTAL LOSS DUE TO POOR STATION HEAT RATE 14.19 crores
S. No 1 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Nomenclature Design Value 81.74% 89.95% 86.46% 130 ata 535 C 535 C 10.58% Actual Loss per annum in crores 1.59 1.83 1.39 5.73 3.37 1.54 0.99 0.30 1.95 1.22

HP cylinder efficiency IP cylinder efficiency Poor Performance of all HP heaters Boiler efficiency MS Pressure MS Temp. HRH Temp. RH Pr. Drop SH Spray HP heater 5 out off service, gland leakages & drain valve passing

76.53% 83.96% 85.181% 101.77 ata 503.35 C 502.39 C 12.71% 36.7 tph -

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BEST PRACTICES TO MANAGE STATION HEAT RATE 1. Efficiency engineer to have training of performance evaluation of each sub component of power plant preferably by associating closely during energy audit / performance evaluation . Increase operational awareness among the staff understand the effect of optimization of parameters. to

2.

3.

Display through signboards for creating awareness of financial losses due to inefficient operation.

Contd

4.

Install on line performance monitoring systems showing deterioration of heat rate shortfall and the cause thereof. OR

5.

Efficiency engineer to conduct Performance test every month as per standard guidelines with online instruments and identify trend of Heat Rate deterioration. For this he is to follow. ASME Standard guidelines of power plant performance monitoring such as: Procedure for evaluating mass flows. Duration and frequency of data for monitoring. Provide instrumentation for evaluation of performance of each system & sub- component

Contd

6. 7.

Establish the accuracy of existing instrumentation for reliability for ensuring efficient operation. Operate plant by minimizing the controllable losses such as:

Operation of the plant near to design conditions and design cycle. Minimize makeup water by controlling steam leakages and blow down etc. Minimizing unburnt fuel and optimizing excess air as per the requirement.

Thanks
Energo Engineering Projects Ltd.
A-57/4, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase II Phone: +91 - 11 - 26385323/ 28/ 29/ 38 Fax: +91 11 26385333 E-mail: energo@del3.vsnl.net.in energo@energo.co.in Web: www.energoindia.com
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