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# Phys 207: University Physics I

Instructor: Dr. Demchenko Pre-requisites: Math 200 (Calculus I) Highly Recommended: CPS clicker (register at Blackboard) Recommended: Physics - Vol. 1 by Knight

Drag Racing

Motion Part 1

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## Syllabus for PHYS207

Class Work (5% or 0%*) 2 lowest dropped Recitation (5%) lowest dropped (Meets in Rm. 2305 in Physics building at intersection of Grace St. & Laurel St.) Homework (20%) due on Wed by 8 am in LC, lowest dropped Quizzes (20%) In-class (Thurs) + LC (due Thurs 8 am), lowest dropped Laboratory (10%) lowest dropped Mid-term exams (20%) in-class, closed-book, no calculator Final exam (20% or 25%*) in-class, closed-book, no calculator
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1. If your clicker doesn't work, can you still get credit? (a) yes (b) no 2. Have you used LON-CAPA before? (a) yes (b) no (b) no

## 3. Can you use a calculator on quizzes/exams? (a) yes

4. Will you be given a formula sheet on quizzes/exams? (a) yes (b) no 5. Is the laboratory required for this course? (a) yes (b) no

6. Can you under very special circumstances make-up a homework, (b) no quiz, lab, or mid-term exam? (a) yes ANY QUESTIONS?
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## Motion - Part 1 (one dimension)

Pictorial Verbal
Fred speeds up to right and Tom runs at constant speed to left. When do they meet?

Graphical
1 2
Motion Part 1

Mathematical

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## Metric (or SI) System

Metric system is a foreign language for many people, but we USE SI or le Systme Internationale dUnits in physics! If you dont think in metric, then you must PRACTICE converting from metric to common units EVERY time you see a physics problem.

## 1 meter = 39.4 inches (~3.3 ft)

Motion Part 1

or 1 inch = 2.54 cm

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## Velocity in Metric & Common Units

If you are racing on your bike at 10 m/s, what is your speed in mph?

## 10 m 3600 s 1 mile ! 22.4 miles/hr s 1 hr 1609 m

Notice that a quick conversion between m/s and mph is to simply double the metric velocity. The conversion is more accurate if you add another 10% to your answer.

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## Speed Conversions [no calculator]

 Approximately how fast is 30 m/s in mph? [format = XX]

 The fastest recorded baseball pitch is 101 mph by Lynn Nolan Ryan at Anaheim Stadium on August 20, 1974. Approximately how fast is this speed in m/s ? [format = XX]

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Average Velocity/Speed
How fast?

## How fast speeding up or slowing down?

vave

(x ! (t

(s Speed (ave) ! (t

aave

(v ! (t

An objects average velocity v equals its net displacement (x over a time period (t. (Note: Negative velocity is usually left or down.) An objects speed equals the total distance traveled (s over (t. (Note: Speed is NEVER negative.)

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## Average Velocity Examples

In both cases the truck covers the distance in 10 s.

& v1 ave

& v2 ave

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## Average Velocity vs. Average Speed

If you jog 400 m in 200 s and then run back 100 m in 25 s towards the starting point, what is your average velocity and average speed? (x = 300 m 400 m in 200 s
vave (x 300 m ! ! ! 1.3 m/s (t 225 s

100 m in 25 s

0s

## (s 400  100 m Average Speed ! ! ! 2.2 m/s (t 225 s

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## Average Velocity Calculation

 If you drive 100 km in 1 hour on a straight road and then drive back to your starting point in 2 hours, what is your average velocity in km/h?

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## Average Velocities of Two Balls

 The figure shows the positions of two balls as they roll left to right at 1 s intervals (called a motion diagram). The average velocity of ball A is less than that of ball B: (a) between 1 & 2 s. (b) between 1 & 2 s and between 2 & 3 s. (c) between 2 & 3 s and between 3 & 4 s. (d) None of the above.

0s Ball A Ball B 0s
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1s

2s

3s 4s

1s

2s

3s

4s
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Acceleration
How fast?

## How fast speeding up or slowing down?

vave

(x ! (t

(s Speed (ave) ! (t

aave

(v ! (t

An objects average acceleration a equals its CHANGE in velocity (v over a time period (t. Be CAREFUL about using your "intuition" for acceleration! If an object is momentarily stopped, then can you say that its acceleration is zero? (a) yes (b) no

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## Directions of Velocity & Acceleration

 What happens when the velocity v and acceleration a are in the same direction? Opposite direction? (a) Object speeds up (b) Object slows down (c) Object turns

What is an example of an object with positive velocity and positive acceleration?  Can an object have a northward velocity and southward acceleration? (a) yes (b) no  Is it possible for an object to have "negative" acceleration while increasing in speed? (a) yes (b) no
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Motion Diagram
 Choose the correct scenario for the motion diagram. (a) Bowling ball falling to the floor. (b) Mars landing vehicle slowing down during a descent. (c) Man in a parachute falling at constant speed. (d) None of the above. 4s 0s 1s 2s 3s

5s
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## Motion of Falling Objects

 When a bowling ball and basketball are dropped from the same height, which of the following statements is true? Assume that there is no air resistance. (a) Bowling ball speeds up faster and hits the ground first. (b) Basketball speeds up faster and hits the ground first. (c) Both objects hit the ground at the same time.

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Falling Objects
Falling objects speed up by 9.8 m/s every second (or 9.8 m/s2) (Actually, we will use 10 m/s2 in this course!) That means the velocity increases by ~22 mph after each second! After 1 second, how fast is the car falling? Is the cartoon correct? It goes from zero to 60 mph in about 3 seconds. Motion Part 1
Figure from Tipler

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## Vertical Motion of Tossed Ball

When throwing a ball straight up, which of the following statements is true about its velocity v and acceleration a at the highest point (apex) in its path? (a) v = 0 and a = 0 (b) v = 0 and a { 0 (c) v { 0 and a = 0 (d) v { 0 and a { 0

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## Vertical Motion of Tossed Ball #2

 What are the directions of the balls velocities just before and after reaching the apex? (a) Up & Up (b) Down & Down (c) Up & Down (d) Down & Up

 What is the direction of the balls acceleration at the apex? (a) Up (b) Down (c) Zero

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## Vertical Motion of Ball Thrown Downward

 A ball is thrown downwards from a tall building at 5 m/s. Which statement is TRUE after it is released? (a) It speeds up by more than 10 m/s every second. (b) It speeds up by less than 10 m/s every second. (c) It speeds up by 10 m/s every second. (d) It speeds up by more than 10 m/s in the first second (after being released) and by 10 m/s each second after that.

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## Vertical Motion of Ball Thrown Downward

A ball is thrown straight down from a tall building at an initial speed of 5 m/s. (assume no air resistance)  How fast is it traveling at 4 s?

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## Vertical Motion of Rocket Launched Upward

At time t = 0 a rocket is shot upward from the ground with an initial velocity of 30 m/s.  How long does it take to reach its greatest height (apex)?

##  What is the greatest height reached by the rocket?

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 Which position-versus-time graph represents the motion shown in the motion diagram? (assume positive to right and negative to left) 4s 3s 2s 0 1s 0s

## GRAPH of Horizontal Motion

x (m)

+x

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0s 1s 0m 1m

vave2

Average Velocity
2s 4m 3s

x (m)
9m

x (m)
9

vave
vave 2

(x ! (t

4 m 1 m ! ! 3 m/s 2 s 1 s

4 1

vave2

2 3

1
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t (s)

## What is average acceleration?

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v2 0s 1s 0m1m x (m) 9 2s 4m

Instantaneous Velocity
3s 9 m x (m)

dx v(t ) ! dt

## v(t ! 2s) ! 2 2 s ! 4 m/s

v2

4 1 1
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x t ! t m v t ! 2t m/s a t ! 2 m/s 2
2

## Instantaneous velocity = SLOPE of tangent

t (s)

dv a (t ) ! dt
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GRAPHS of x, v, a
dx v (t ) ! dt dv a (t ) ! dt

x
x!t m
2

v
v ! 2t m/s
t

a
a ! 2 m/s 2
t
Integrate

t
Take Derivative

Graphs for object with initial position at origin, zero initial velocity, and constant positive acceleration. Use calculus to generate graphs by taking derivative (moving to right) or integrating (moving to left).
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## Position and Velocity Graphs

 Which velocity-versus-time graph corresponds to the position-versustime graph on the left? x t (a) (b) (c) (e) None of the above. (d) v v v v

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## Acceleration and Velocity Graphs

 Which velocity-versus-time graph corresponds to the accelerationversus-time graph on the left? a t (a) (b) (c) (e) None of the above. (d) v v v v

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## Horizontal Acceleration on Incline

The ball rolls up the ramp, and then back down. Which is the correct acceleration graph for horizontal motion? (assume positive x to right)

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## Graphs of Balls Motion

Complete the x, v, a graphs corresponding to the motion of the ball shown above.

a
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Review Graphs of x, v, a
Position x Velocity = dx/dt Acceleration = d2x/dt2

x t

a>0 t

a=0

a<0

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## Horizontal Acceleration on Incline - AGAIN!

 The ball rolls up the ramp, and then back down. Which is the correct acceleration graph for horizontal motion? (assume positive x to right)

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## FORMULAS for 1D Motion (Uniform Acceleration)

Take Derivative

x0 ! x at t ! 0; v0 ! v at t ! 0

Integrate
t2

dv a (t ) ! dt

a t ! a v t ! v0  at x t ! x0  v0t 
1 at 2 2

dx v(t ) ! dt

v t ! a t dt
t1 t2

or (x ! vavet
Eliminate time: 2a(x ! v  v0
2
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x t ! v t dt
t1

(see Appendix)
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## Stopping Distance of Car

 If you brake to stop your car when traveling at 20 m/s, then what is your stopping TIME if a = 5 m/s2 ?

##  What is your stopping DISTANCE?

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Acceleration of Car
 A 1000-kg racing car is accelerated from rest at a constant rate and covers a distance of 125 m in 5 s. What is the cars acceleration?

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You are driving at a constant velocity and then step on it at a constant acceleration of 3 m/s2 after seeing a higher speed limit sign. How far are you from the sign when you reach 30 m/s after 4 s?

x ! x0  v0 t 
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1 at 2 2

! 18 m/s 4 s 

1 2

3 m/s 4 s
2

! 96 m
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## Stopping Distance of Car (again!)

 When you are traveling at 30 m/s, how long does it take you to stop if you slam on the brakes and have an acceleration of 6 m/s2?

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## Example of Falling Brick

The pilot of a helicopter drops a lead brick from a height of 500 m. How long does it take to reach the ground? (g~10 m/s2)
v0 ! 0

500 m

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## Falling Brick, cont.

How fast is the brick moving when it reaches the ground?
v0 ! 0

## v ! v0  gt v ! 0  10 m/s 2 10 s ! 100 m/s

How fast in mph?

500 m

 If the brick were dropped from double the height (1 km), instead of 10 s to fall it would take: (assuming no air resistance!) (a) 8 s (b) 14 s (c) 20 s (d) 23.5 s

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## Example of Vertical Rocket Motion

If you shoot a rocket upward with an initial velocity of 40 m/s, how long does it take to reach the apex and what is that height?

## v  v0 0  40 m/s t! ! ! 4s 2 a 10 m/s

(from v ! v0  at )

x ! x0  v0t 

1 at 2 2

! 0 m  40 m/s 4 s 

1 2

10 m/s 4 s
2

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## Vertical Rocket Motion

 What is the total time that the rocket is in the air? (apex time = 4 s)

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## Appendix: Vertical Motion of Rocket

When is the rocket 50 m above the ground?

## Set x ! x0  v0 t  1 at 2 ! 50 m 2 40 m/s t  1 10 m/s 2 t 2 ! 50 m 2

5 m/s2 t 2  40 m/s t  50 m ! 0
Use Quadratic Formula to solve: b s b  4ac ! t! 2a
2

## t ! 4 s 6 ! 4 s 2.5 ! 1.5 s (going up) or 6.5 s (coming down)

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## Appendix: Motion Formula w/o Time Dependence

Solve for t Substitute t into x(t)

v ! v0  at

v  v0 t! a

x ! x0  v0 t  1 at 2 2 v  v0 x ! x0  v0 a a x  x0 ! v0 v  v0
0

1 v  v0  2 a a

a x  x ! 1 v  v 2
2 2 2
0

2  1 v 2  2v0 v  v0 2

Expression without t

2a (x ! v  v0
2

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mgh !

1m 2

 v0

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## Appendix: Important Length Values

Object Diameter of Nucleus Diameter of Atom Paper Thickness (or hair thickness) VERY tall person Flying Altitude (or Deepest Ocean) Earth Circumference Earth to Moon Earth to Sun Radius of solar system To Edge of Visible Universe meters 1015 1010 0.0001 2 10,000 ~4107 4108 1.51011 61012 1026 1 fm 0.1 nm 0.1 mm or 100 Qm 200 cm (6 7) 10 km ~40,000 km 400,000 km 150 million km 6 billion km 10 billion light years

Speed of Light = 3108 m/s or 300,000 km/s Light year = 300,000 km/s (3.15 107 s/yr) = 9.5 trillion km Page 44 Motion Part 1