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Population Concerns and Population Policy

lack of stable consensus on the policy on fertility and Population growth.

shifting objectives of fertility reduction, upholding reproductive rights, and promoting maternal health.

Population Act passed in 1971 which made family planning part of national development.

opposition of the Catholic Church hierarchy to the policy of reducing population growth the promotion of artificial family planning methods.

fertility, mortality, and migration

the fertility decisions of couples. proper role of government

Government action in fertility decisions of couples can be justified in the following contexts: first in the context of imperfect information but in the absence of externalities, and then in the context of externalities in fertility decision making A case for government action in the context of modifying fertility behavior to affect population growth rate (demographic objective),

and in the context of simply helping couples achieve their fertility preferences or to improve maternal and child health

(1) orientation towards overall improvement of family welfare, not just fertility reduction; (2) respect for the rights of couples to determine the size of their family and to choose voluntarily the means which conform to their moral convictions and religious beliefs; (3) promotion of family solidarity and responsible parenthood; and (4) rejection of abortion as a means of controlling fertility.

Population 101,833,938 (July 2011 est.) Age structure 0-14 years: 34.6% (male 17,999,279/female 17,285,040) 15-64 years: 61.1% (male 31,103,967/female 31,097,203) 65 years and over: 4.3% (male 1,876,805/female 2,471,644) (2011 est.)

Population growth rate 1.903% (2011 est.) Birth rate 25.34 births/1,000 population (2011 est.) Death rate 5.02 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.) Infant mortality rate total: 19.34 deaths/1,000 live births male: 21.84 deaths/1,000 live births female: 16.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 94 deaths/100,000 live births (2008) Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.66 years male: 68.72 years female: 74.74 years (2011 est.) Total fertility rate 3.19 children born/woman (2011 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate less than 0.1% (2009 est.)