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Introduction to APA Style


Pamela May State University of New York at Geneseo

What is APA?
American Psychological Association oversees publication of books and journals provides a standard editorial style for manuscripts Without APA style conventions, the time and effort required to review and edit manuscripts would prohibit timely and cost-effective publication and would make clear communication harder to achieve
(APA, 2001, pp. xxi).

Learning the Basics


General Characteristics Tone Spacing and margins Font Page numbers Headings Citations Specific Components Title page Abstract Body References

Tone
Scientific, not literary, writing Be clear, concise, and formal No long-winded sentences loaded with descriptive words Example:
Sally Richards is an unfortunate person afflicted with bipolar disorder. Her emotions are like a rollercoaster, sometimes shes really happy and sometimes shes down in the dumps. Sally Richards is diagnosed with bipolar disorder, a disorder characterized by dramatic mood swings.

Spacing, Margins, and Font


Always double space on title page, abstract, body after headings between and within references 1 inch margins Right, left, top, and bottom 12 pt. Times New Roman

Page Numbers and Headers


Page Numbers start with the title page number all pages on the upper RIGHT edge Page Headers first two or three words from the title in upper right hand corner, five spaces to left of page number Word- go to View Header and Footer

Prosopagnosia: Addressing Running head: PROSOPAGNOSIA: ADDRESSING LATERALITY

Page number Page header

Prosopagnosia: Addressing the Problem of Laterality Sara Summers State University of New York at Geneseo

Reference Citations in Text


One work by one author In a recent study of cigarette smokers, 40,000 reported withdrawal effects (Walker, 2000). In the study by Walker (2000), 40,000... One work by two authors Cognitive pathways...are substantial (Earl & Whitter, 2004). Earl and Whitter (2004) found...

Reference Citations in Text


One work by three, four, or five authors For the first time it is citedIn a recent study of cigarette smokers, 40,000 reported withdrawal effects (Smith, Rapp, & Kurs, 1997). Smith, Rapp, and Kurs (1997) found... Second time cited and after(Smith et al., 1997) Smith et al. (1997)

Reference Citations in Text


One work with six or more authors- cite only the first author followed by et al. (Koenig et al., 1994) Koenig et al. (1994)

Reference Citations in Text


Two or more references within the same parentheses By the same authors Chronological order by year (Walls & Rine, 2000, 2003) By different authors Alphabetical order by the first authors last name, and separate works by semicolons (Coldwell, 1999; Massa & Abrams, 2003; Moritz & Balmer, 2001)

Title Page
Running head left justified at top, abbreviated title in caps., below header and page number 50 characters max- including spacing and punctuation Title centered, half way down page Your name and institutional affiliation centered, below title, different lines for each Dont forget page number, header, and double spacing!

Prosopagnosia: Addressing Running head: PROSOPAGNOSIA: ADDRESSING LATERALITY

Running head format

Prosopagnosia: Addressing the Problem of Laterality Sara Summers State University of New York at Geneseo

Abstract
Brief but dense summary of paper Begin on a new page (p. 2) Type Abstract at top, centered No indentation at beginning of abstract Do not exceed 120 words Leave the rest of the page blank, start the rest of the essay on page 3

Body
Begins on page 3 First line- Restate your title, centered Start body one double-spaced line below title
Using a Double Using a Double Span Task to Measure Working Memory Performance on Recognition Tasks The working memory is a system that underlies complex human thought processes by maintaining and storing information in the short term (Baddeley, 2003). It keeps track of what we are doing or where we are at the moment, and 3

A little sidetracking...
If references are cited in the abstract, cite them in full form when they are cited again in the body for the first time In abstract for first time (Smith, Rapp, & Kurs, 1997) In body for first time (Smith, Rapp, & Kurs, 1997) Second time in either abstract/body (Smith et al., 1997)
*this applies to references with three or more authors only

References
Not a bibliography! Cited references in your paper should be on your reference page AND anything cited on the reference page should be in your paper Be accurate and complete

Reference Technicalities
On a separate page after the body Type References on first line, centered List references in alphabetical order First line is left justified, hanging indent (5 spaces) for following lines within reference Tip: Press Control T When listing authors use & not and

Reference Form: Scholarly Journals


Last name, Initials of first and middle names. (Publication year). Title of article. Journal Title, Volume, Page numbers. Capitalize only first letter of article title and after a colon if present Italicize journal title and volume Issue numbers are unnecessary Do not write pp. for pages

Journal Examples
One to six authors- list all Keller, M. P., & Chance, P. F. (2003). Inherited neuropathies: From gene to disease. Brain Pathology, 9, 327-341. Seven or more- type first six and use et al. for the rest Krajewski, K. M., Lewis, R. A., Fuerst, D. R., Turanksy, C., Hinderer, S. R., Garbern, J., et al. (2000)...

Reference Form: Books


Last name, Initials of first and middle names. (Publication year). Book title. Location of publisher: Publisher. If there are more than 6 authors- follow the same rule for journals Capitalize only first letter of book title and after a colon if present Italicize book title

Book Examples
Sosa, C. A., & Maley, D. D. (2002). Psychological theories. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Charr, J. S., & Young, L. N. (Eds.). (1988). Child psychology. New York: McGrawHill. If book is edited put (Ed.) after editors name If city is well known (New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, etc.), do not include state

Book Examples cont.


Referring to a chapter in an edited book
Thomas, P. K. (2005). Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: Historical perspective and overview. In G. J. Parry (Ed.), Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disorders: A Handbook for Primary Care Physicians (pp. 1-4). Chicago: The CharcotMarie-Tooth Association. Chapter author and date chapter title In editor (Ed.) of whole book Book title and chapter numbers (pp.) Publisher information

Reference Form: Websites


Includes internet-only journals, websites, newsgroups, online discussion groups, etc. General online document form Last name, Initials. (Publication year). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from site Capitalize only first letter of title and after a colon if present Italicize title Always include Retrieved date and from site

Website Example
Crow, T. J. (2003). Being happy. Retrieved August 6, 2003, from http://www.health.com/ _4a.html#1

Reference Form: Motion Pictures


General form
Producers last name, Initials (Producer), & Directors last name, Initials (Director). (Year). Title of video [Motion picture]. Country: Movie Studio. Identify primary contributors as directors, producers, or both (Producer/Director) Capitalize only first letter of title and after a colon if present Italicize title, identify it as a motion picture in brackets immediately after

Motion Picture Example


Thomas, T. (Producer), & Kine, D. (Writer/Director). (1980). Ten wonderful things about you [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.

Note: This PowerPoint is only a basic introduction to APA. For more specific guidelines, please refer to the latest Publication Manual.

References
American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Tomczak, T. A students guide to American Psychological Association (APA) publication style. Unpublished manuscript, Genesee Community College, Batavia.