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COMPUTER NETWORKING

BASICS OF SWITCHING

AND ROUTING

BY K.SANDEEP 07C91A0481

INTRODUCTION
A COMPUTER NETWORK is a collection of computers, servers,etc which can communicate with each other. Types of NETWORKS: LAN, MAN, WAN

OSI REFERENCE MODEL


Application layer Presentation layer Session layer Transport layer Network layer Data link layer Physical layer
Layer 3 device Router Layer 2 device Switch

REQUIREMENTS TO CREATE A NETWORK


COMPUTERS
PCs SERVERS

INTERCONNECTIONS
NICs MEDIA

NETWORK DEVICES
SWITCHES ROUTERS

PROTOCOLS
IP

NIC (NETWORK INTERFACE CARD)

NICs also popularly known as LAN card. NICs translate data produced by computer that can be transmitted over LAN. Purpose is to allocate a user an unique identity in the network through MAC address. It consists of a MAC

address.

A MAC address is a 48 bit address 24bit-by manufacturer 24bit-by the network provider

SWITCHES

A switch is a small hardware device that joins multiple computers together within one local area network(LAN). Technically, network switches operate at layer two (Data Link Layer) of the OSI model. Switches allow different devices on a network to communicate.

How does a SWITCH look?


Generally the SWITCHes we use are 24, 48 port switches, with speeds of 10Mb/s and 100Mb/s.

Diff kinds of ports--- fast ethernet ports, serial ports.

FEATURES OF A SWITCH
Turn some particular port range on or off. Full duplex communication. Priority settings for ports MAC filtering and other types of "port security" features which prevent MAC flooding Use of Spanning Tree Protocol. VLAN settings

Example for a SIMPLE LAN

Server switch

Communication between two hosts at LAYER 2


Its indirectly between two computers. HOST A to SWITCH and then SWITCH to HOST B HOST B sends an ack to SWITCH n SWITCH sends it to HOST A that HOST B is ready to accept data.
SWITCH

HOST A

HOST B

Here the communication is terms of frames and source & destination address are in terms of MAC

ROUTER

A router or a gateway is a network device that determines the optimal path for transmitting data from network to another. Technically, routers operate at layer 3 (Network Layer) of the OSI model. Routers are used to connect no.of lans in a network to the internet.

How does a ROUTER look?


A routers window to the internetwork is through its ports and modules. Without them, a router is a useless box. The different kinds of ports in a router are Fast Ethernet ports and Serial ports.

Internally routers have CPU,motherboard,RAM and ROM.

Functions of a ROUTER
The main function of a ROUTER is to: Determine a path Forward a packet The data is in the form of packets.

Path determination is by static routing and dynamic routing.

Communication between two networks


Packets are exchanged between two networks(lans). The addressing used in routing a data packet is in form if IP. Each data packet consists of a source and destination MAC address & source and data IP address. When a packet of data arrives at a router, based on the destination and source IP addresses of the packet, the router decides which neighbour it will forward it to. It chooses the route with the least cost, and forwards the packet to the first router on that route.

Example of a simple WAN

Addressing modes of ROUTER


There are two modes of IP addressing. IPv4 IPv6

IPv4 (present generation)


To uniquely identify each device on an IP network, we require IP address. IPv4 stands for INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 4. No.of bits in this addressing mode is 32. Example for IPv4: 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111111

Cont
IPv6

IPv6 is the successor to IPv4. Due to increasing no.of devices to the network day by day, there is a short of address in version 4. IPv6 solved this shortage. No.of bits in IPv6 128

It has eight 16-bit hexadecimal colon delimited blocks. Example 2001:0db8:3c4d:0012:0000:0000:1234:56ab

Note: Devices which support IPv6 , support IPv4 too.

Difference between IPv4 and IPv6


IPv4
Source and destination addresses are 32 bits (4 bytes) in length. Must be configured either manually or through DHCP. Uses host address resource records in Domain Name System (DNS) to map host names to IPv4 addresses. IPv4 can support up to 232 addresses.

IPv6
Source and destination addresses are 128 bits (16 bytes) in length. Does not require manual configuration or DHCP. Uses host address (AAAA) resource records in DNS to map host names to IPv6 addresses. IPv6 is 128 bits, can support up to 2128 addresses to fulfill future needs with better security and network related features.

CONCLUSION
Network is a collection of end devices to communicate each other. LANs are implemented using SWITCHes. LANs communicate at LAYER 2 i.e., data link layer. The data is in the form of frames and addressing in the form of MAC. Collection of LANs is a MAN or WAN. All the LANs are connected to a ROUTER which is a LAYER 3 device i.e., Network Layer. The data is the form of packets and addressing in the form of IP.

REFERENCES
WEBSITES
WWW.CISCO.COM WWW.WIKIPEDIA.COM WWW.earningnetwork.cisco.com WWW.COMPNETWORKING.ABOUT.COM

BOOKS
CISCO CERTIFIED NETWORK ASSOCIATE by TODD LAMMLE,CCSI

T H A N K Y O U

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