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Topic: Recruitment and Selection

By: Kwesi Amponsah-Tawiah, PhD


Recruitment what is it?  Goals of Recruitment  Types of Recruitment  Strategic Decisions on Recruitment  The Recruitment Process


Recruitment What is it?

Definition :

searching for and obtaining potential job candidates in sufficient numbers and quality so that the organization can select the most appropriate people to fill its job needs
(Dowling and Schuler, 1990).

The process of attracting, screening, and selecting qualified people for a job at an organization or firm

Department of OHRM-UUGBS

Goals of Recruitment

The attraction of high proportion of wellqualified job applicants who are seriously interested in accepting a job offer. Post-recruitment goal must be considered the process must yield workers who are good performers and will stay with the organization for reasonable length of time. Indirectly projecting a positive image of the organization to those who come in contact with it, such that unsuccessful candidates could develop positive attitude towards the firm and its products.

Types of Recruitment

Recruitment can be:

Internal(i.e. recruiting from among its present employees who are qualified and desire promotion or transfer) External(recruiting from the labour market),

Advantages of internal recruitment:


The person who fills in a vacancy is known to the organization and there is less guesswork in assessing suitability of applicant. Internal recruitment serves as a source of motivation for current employees as they are less likely to quit. It reduces training cost and socialization time May make the recruiting process faster and less expensive if possible candidates are found.

Disadvantages of internal recruitment

Employees may be promoted beyond their qualification if the internal supply is insufficient. Internal recruitment may create a ripple effect in the organization ( multiple personnel movements due to one or two promotions or transfers) Internal recruitment may cause inbreeding within the organization as well as loss of flexibility.

Advantages of external recruitment

It serves as a source of new ideas, rich experience and viewpoints It avoids the confusion that accompanies the rippling effect of the internal recruitment Organizations can cope with rapid expansion without overusing inexperienced personnel It may reduce training costs if experienced workers are hired.

Disadvantages of external recruitment


It is time consuming It is expensive Takes key personnel away from their job disorganizing the operations of the organization Integration process and probationary period very tedious

Strategic Decisions on Recruitment

Organisational Strategy

HR Plans Number and types of Vacancies

Recruitment Goals and Priorities Attract large numbers of applicants Attract highly qualified applicants Attract applicants willing to accept offers Fill vacancies quickly Fill vacancies at minimal cost Hire people who perform well Hire people who stay with the company Generate positive public relations

Recruiting Philosophy Internal or external Fill vacancies, or hire for careers? Commitment to diversity? Marketing orientation to candidates? Ethics in recruiting?

Recruitment choices and Behaviours Plans, Timing, Methods, Sources

The Recruitment Process


Request to fill Vacant position Examination of job for the skills, abilities and experience needed to fill the position.

Use job analysis documents where available.

To generate a pool of applicants, decide whether to use internal or external sources for the recruitment

External- Use News Paper/Electronic adverts, headhunting, college open days, etc. Internal Use Corporate Intranet, Notice boards, Appraisal Forms

The Recruitment Process (cont)


Provide mode of application (e-mail, postal, hand delivery, etc) Receive applications -Usually there are more applicants than the existing vacancies Shortlist based on requirements: age, educational qualification, experience, etc. Plan/Arrange to conduct interview or test, depending on the type of job. Contact short listed applicants via email, telephone, etc, informing them of date, time, venue, duration of interview

The Recruitment Process (cont)

Conduct interview or test, depending on the job and method agreed on Based on criterion, decide who to call for second interview (or employ right away) depending on agreed procedure


Defined: The process of identifying from a pool of applicants those individuals who will be hired and who will be performers. Importance of good selection processes:

Reduces training and monitoring costs Facilitates successful implementation of strategy It procures new hires who are able to learn the job Facilitates successful implementation of strategy.

Methods of Selection.

Biodata (information of applicants reflecting age, gender, educational background, etc) Work Samples (e.g., asking the applicant to type some pages, where the position is for a Typist.) Situational Exercises (to assess problem diagnosis, oral communication/persuasion skills e.g., InBasket exercise, Leaderless Group Discussions Letters of Reference

Methods of Selection (cont)


Interviews- The most used method Types:

One-on-one: As the name suggests, the-one to-one interview involves one interviewer Sequential interview: Series of interviews involving one interviewer at a time and utilizing the strength and knowledge base of each interviewer( e.g. finance to HRM and then to technical skills)


Panel interviews: consists of two or more interviewers, each focusing on a particular area but taking one interviewee at a time.

Methods of Selection (cont)

Assessment Center Evaluation: for selection into managerial/supervisory position, Features:  It takes one or two days  Multiple raters are involved  Assessees go through a series of performance exercises Personality Profiling

The Recruitment Process (cont)

Job analysis
The proper start to a recruitment effort is to perform a job analysis, to document the actual or intended requirement of the job to be performed. This information is captured in a job description and provides the recruitment effort with the boundaries and objectives of the search. Oftentimes a company will have job descriptions that represent a historical collection of tasks performed in the past. These job descriptions need to be reviewed or updated prior to a recruitment effort to reflect present day requirements. Starting a recruitment with an accurate job analysis and job description ensures the recruitment effort starts off on a proper track for success.

The Recruitment Process (cont)


Involves  Advertising: A common part of the recruiting process, often encompassing multiple media, such as the Internet, general newspapers, job ad newspapers, professional publications, window advertisements, job centers, and campus graduate recruitment programs; and  Recruiting research: The proactive identification of relevant talent who may not respond to job postings and other recruitment advertising methods done in #1. This initial research for so-called passive prospects, also called namegeneration, results in a list of prospects who can then be contacted to solicit interest, obtain a resume/CV, and be screened (see below).

The Recruitment Process (cont)

Screening and Selection

Suitability for a job is typically assessed by looking for skills, e.g. communication, typing, and computer skills. Qualifications may be shown through rsums, job applications, interviews, educational or professional experience, the testimony of references, or in-house testing, such as for software knowledge, typing skills, numeracy, and literacy, through psychological tests or employment testing. Other resume screening criteria may include length of service, job titles and length of time at a job. In some countries, employers are legally mandated to provide equal opportunity in hiring. Business management software is used by many recruitment agencies to automate the testing process. Many recruiters and agencies are using an applicant tracking system to perform many of the filtering tasks, along with software tools for psychometric testing.

The Recruitment Process (cont)


A term which describes the process of helping new employees become productive members of an organization. A well-planned introduction helps new employees become fully operational quickly and is often integrated with a new company and environment. Onboarding is included in the recruitment process for retention purposes.