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A good presentatin for gas absorption review.

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You are on page 1of 19

Reading: Chap. 13

• Definition

• Equipment

• Packing materials

• Design considerations:

– Mass balance

– High gas flow

– Mass flow

img.alibaba.com/photo/50678451/Ceramic_Metal_...

• Concentrated systems

• HTU and NTU

Definition

Transfer of a gaseous component

(absorbate) from the gas phase to a

liquid (absorbent) phase through a

gas-liquid interface.

Q: How can we improve absorption efficiency?

♥ gas phase controlled absorption

♥ liquid phase controlled absorption

Q: Does it matter if it’s gas phase or liquid phase controlled?

Equipment

Spray tower Clean gas out Countercurrent

Clean gas out packed tower

Mist

Eliminator

Spray

nozzle Liquid

Spray

Packing

Q: Limitations of a

spray tower? Q: Why redistributor? Mycock et al., 1995

11/21/08 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 3

Three-bed cross Liquid spray Dry Cell

flow packed tower

Packing

Saddle Saddle Ring Ring Ring

Q: Criteria for good packing materials? Mycock et al., 1995

Design considerations:

What are known? What are we looking for?

11/21/08 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 5

Mass Balance Gas out

In = Out

Liquid in Gas in

Liquid out

Gm1 + Lm 2 = Gm 2 + Lm1

Gm ( y1 − y2 ) = Lm ( x1 − x2 )

(for a dilute system)

Lm: molar liquid flow rate

Slope of Operating

Gm: molar gas flow rate Line = Lm/Gm

x: mole fraction of solute in pure liquid

y: mole fraction of solute in inert gas

11/21/08 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 6

Dirty air

Clean air

11/21/08 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 7

Generally, actual liquid

flow rates are specified

at 25 to 100% greater

than the required

minimum.

water is used? What if a

fraction of water is recycled?

to remove SO2 gas. The inlet gas contains 3% SO2 by

volume. Henry’s law constant is 42.7 (mole fraction of SO2 in

air/mole fraction of SO2 in water). Determine the minimum water

flow rate (in kg/min) to achieve 90% removal efficiency.

11/21/08 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 8

Problems with high gas flow

• Channeling: the gas or liquid flow is much greater at some

points than at others

• Loading: the liquid flow is reduced due to the increased gas

flow; liquid is held in the void space between packing

• Flooding: the liquid stops flowing altogether and collects in

the top of the column due to very high gas flow

• Gas flow rate is 3538 mole/min and the minimum liquid flow rate

is 2448 kg/min to remove SO2 gas. The operating liquid rate is

50% more than the minimum. The packing material selected is 2”

ceramic Intalox Saddles. Find the tower diameter and pressure

drop based on 75% of flooding velocity for the gas velocity.

Properties of air:: molecular weight: 29 g/mole; density: 1.17×10-3

g/cm3. Properties of water:: density: 1 g/cm3; viscosity: 0.8 cp.

11/21/08 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 9

(G ' ) 2 FΦµ 0L.1

ρG ρ L g

of liquid

G: mass flow rate

of gas

G’: mass flux of gas

per cross sectional

area of column

F: Packing factor

Φ: specific gravity

of the scrubbing

liquid

µL: liquid viscosity

(in cP; 0.8 for water) L ρG

(dimensionless)

G ρL

11/21/08 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 10

Mass Transfer

Flux = / interfacial = k concentration

rate of mass

area difference

transferred

J ( = M / A) = k ( Ci − C )

mass

J: flux (

area × time

)

Two-Film Theory (microscopic view)

J = k G ( pG − pI )

(gas phase flux) CL

J =k L ( C I − C L ) pG

(liquid phase flux)

pI = HC I

pI

1

J= ( pG − HCL )

1 / kG + H / k L Cussler, “Diffusion”, Cambridge U. Press, 1991.

(overall flux)

11/21/08 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 11

1 pG

J = K OL ( C* − C L ) K OL = C* =

(overall liquid phase MT coefficient) 1 / k L + 1 / k G H (equivalent concentration

H

1

= K OG ( pG − p* ) K OG =

to the bulk gas pressure)

1 / k + H / k p* = HC L

(overall gas phase MT coefficient) G L (equivalent pressure to the

bulk concentration in liquid)

2 Macroscopic analysis of a packed tower

Mole balance on the solute over the

differential volume of tower

accumulation = flow of solute in

of solute minus flow out

dy dx L’m: molar flux

0 = −G 'm + L 'm of liquid

dz dz

G’m: molar flux

G 'm

⇒ x = x1 + ( y − y1 ) of gas

1 L 'm

11/21/08 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 12

Mole balance on the solute in the gas only

solute = solute flow in − solute lost

accumulation minus flow out by absorption

dy

0 = G 'm − K OG aP ( y − y*) a: packing area per volume

dz

Z G 'm y dy

⇒ Z = ∫ dz = ∫ y* = Hx

1

0 K aP y ( y − y *)

Z

(tower height) OG

1 1 y1 − Hx1

⇒Z = ln

K OG aP (1 / G 'm − H / L'm ) y Z − HxZ

G 'm 1 y1 − Hx1

= × ln

K OG aP (1 − HG 'm / L'm ) y Z − HxZ

HTU? NTU?

11/21/08 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 13

Mass balance x1, y1

L'm

y = y1 + ( x − x1 )

G 'm

Equilibrium

y* = Hx x 1, y 1*

G 'm y1 dy xZ, yZ

K OG aP ∫y Z ( y − y *)

Z=

xZ, yZ*

Alternative solution:

Z=

G 'm

×

y1 − y z

; ∆y LM =

( y − y )−(y

1

*

1 z − y *

z )

K OG aP ∆y LM y1 − y1*

ln

*

Assumptions for dilute/soluble systems? yz − yz

11/21/08 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 14

Pure amine 0.04% CO2

Lm = 0.46 gmole/s

to absorb CO2. The entering gas contains 1.27%

CO2 and is in equilibrium with a solution of

amine containing 7.3% mole CO2. The gas

leaves containing 0.04% CO2. The amine,

flowing counter-currently, enters pure. Gas

flow rate is 2.31 gmole/s and liquid flow rate is 1.27% CO2

0.46 gmole/s. The tower’s cross-sectional area Gm = 2.31

is 0.84 m2. KOGa = 9.34×10-6 s-1atm-1cm-3. The gmole/s

pressure is 1 atm. Determine the tower height C* = 7.3%

CO2 in amine

that can achieve this goal.

Absorption of concentrated vapor

Mole balance on the controlled volume

x 1, y 1

d d

0 = − (G 'm y ) + ( L'm x)

dz dz

x1 , y1 *

Gas flux Liquid flux

1 1

G 'm = G 'm 0 L 'm = L ' m 0

1− y 1− x

xZ, yZ

y1 L'm 0 x x1 xZ, yZ*

+ −

1 − y1 G 'm 0 1 − x 1 − x1

⇒y=

y1 L'm 0 x x1

1 + + −

1 − y1 G 'm 0 1 − x 1 − x1

Mole balance on the gas in a differential tower volume

G 'm 0 dy

0=− − K OG aP ( y − y*)

(1 − y ) dz

2

Z G 'm 0 y1 dy

⇒Z =∫ dz = ∫ = HTU × NTU

0 K OG aP Z (1 − y ) ( y − y *)

y 2

G 'm0

HTU =

K OG aP

y1 dy

NTU = ∫

yZ (1 − y ) ( y − y*)

2

HTU (ft)

HTU

pollutant, HTU does not change

11/21/08 much.

Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 18

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