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Absorption

Reading: Chap. 13

• Definition
• Equipment
• Packing materials
• Design considerations:
– Mass balance
– High gas flow
– Mass flow
img.alibaba.com/photo/50678451/Ceramic_Metal_...
• Concentrated systems
• HTU and NTU

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Definition
Transfer of a gaseous component
(absorbate) from the gas phase to a
liquid (absorbent) phase through a
gas-liquid interface.

Q: What are the key parameters that affect the effectiveness?


Q: How can we improve absorption efficiency?

Mass transfer rate:


♥ gas phase controlled absorption
♥ liquid phase controlled absorption
Q: Does it matter if it’s gas phase or liquid phase controlled?

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Equipment
Spray tower Clean gas out Countercurrent
Clean gas out packed tower

Mist
Eliminator
Spray
nozzle Liquid
Spray
Packing

Dirty gas in Dirty gas in

Redistributor Liquid outlet


Q: Limitations of a
spray tower? Q: Why redistributor? Mycock et al., 1995
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Three-bed cross Liquid spray Dry Cell
flow packed tower

Packing

Berl Intalox Raschig Lessing Pall Tellerette


Saddle Saddle Ring Ring Ring
Q: Criteria for good packing materials? Mycock et al., 1995

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Design considerations:
What are known? What are we looking for?
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Mass Balance Gas out
In = Out
Liquid in Gas in

Liquid out

Gm1 + Lm 2 = Gm 2 + Lm1
Gm ( y1 − y2 ) = Lm ( x1 − x2 )
(for a dilute system)
Lm: molar liquid flow rate
Slope of Operating
Gm: molar gas flow rate Line = Lm/Gm
x: mole fraction of solute in pure liquid
y: mole fraction of solute in inert gas
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Dirty air

Clean air

Clean water Dirty water


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Generally, actual liquid
flow rates are specified
at 25 to 100% greater
than the required
minimum.

Q: How much is X2 if fresh


water is used? What if a
fraction of water is recycled?

• G = 84.9 m3/min (= 3538 mole/min). Pure water is used


to remove SO2 gas. The inlet gas contains 3% SO2 by
volume. Henry’s law constant is 42.7 (mole fraction of SO2 in
air/mole fraction of SO2 in water). Determine the minimum water
flow rate (in kg/min) to achieve 90% removal efficiency.
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Problems with high gas flow
• Channeling: the gas or liquid flow is much greater at some
points than at others
• Loading: the liquid flow is reduced due to the increased gas
flow; liquid is held in the void space between packing
• Flooding: the liquid stops flowing altogether and collects in
the top of the column due to very high gas flow
• Gas flow rate is 3538 mole/min and the minimum liquid flow rate
is 2448 kg/min to remove SO2 gas. The operating liquid rate is
50% more than the minimum. The packing material selected is 2”
ceramic Intalox Saddles. Find the tower diameter and pressure
drop based on 75% of flooding velocity for the gas velocity.
Properties of air:: molecular weight: 29 g/mole; density: 1.17×10-3
g/cm3. Properties of water:: density: 1 g/cm3; viscosity: 0.8 cp.
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(G ' ) 2 FΦµ 0L.1
ρG ρ L g

L: mass flow rate


of liquid
G: mass flow rate
of gas
G’: mass flux of gas
per cross sectional
area of column
F: Packing factor
Φ: specific gravity
of the scrubbing
liquid
µL: liquid viscosity
(in cP; 0.8 for water) L ρG
(dimensionless)
G ρL
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Mass Transfer
Flux =   /  interfacial  = k  concentration 
rate of mass
  area   difference 
 transferred     

J ( = M / A) = k ( Ci − C )
mass
J: flux (
area × time
)

k: mass transfer coefficient CI


Two-Film Theory (microscopic view)
J = k G ( pG − pI )
(gas phase flux) CL
J =k L ( C I − C L ) pG
(liquid phase flux)
pI = HC I
pI
1
J= ( pG − HCL )
1 / kG + H / k L Cussler, “Diffusion”, Cambridge U. Press, 1991.
(overall flux)
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1 pG
J = K OL ( C* − C L ) K OL = C* =
(overall liquid phase MT coefficient) 1 / k L + 1 / k G H (equivalent concentration
H
1
= K OG ( pG − p* ) K OG =
to the bulk gas pressure)

1 / k + H / k p* = HC L
(overall gas phase MT coefficient) G L (equivalent pressure to the
bulk concentration in liquid)
2 Macroscopic analysis of a packed tower
Mole balance on the solute over the
differential volume of tower
 accumulation  =  flow of solute in 
 of solute   minus flow out 
   
dy dx L’m: molar flux
0 = −G 'm + L 'm of liquid
dz dz
G’m: molar flux
G 'm
⇒ x = x1 + ( y − y1 ) of gas
1 L 'm
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Mole balance on the solute in the gas only
 solute  =  solute flow in  −  solute lost 
 accumulation   minus flow out   by absorption 
     
dy
0 = G 'm − K OG aP ( y − y*) a: packing area per volume
dz
Z G 'm y dy
⇒ Z = ∫ dz = ∫ y* = Hx
1

0 K aP y ( y − y *)
Z
(tower height) OG

1 1  y1 − Hx1 
⇒Z = ln 
K OG aP (1 / G 'm − H / L'm )  y Z − HxZ 
G 'm 1  y1 − Hx1 
= × ln 
K OG aP (1 − HG 'm / L'm )  y Z − HxZ 
HTU? NTU?
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Mass balance x1, y1
L'm
y = y1 + ( x − x1 )
G 'm
Equilibrium
y* = Hx x 1, y 1*

G 'm y1 dy xZ, yZ
K OG aP ∫y Z ( y − y *)
Z=

xZ, yZ*
Alternative solution:

Z=
G 'm
×
y1 − y z
; ∆y LM =
( y − y )−(y
1
*
1 z − y *
z )
K OG aP ∆y LM  y1 − y1* 
ln 
* 
Assumptions for dilute/soluble systems?  yz − yz 
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Pure amine 0.04% CO2
Lm = 0.46 gmole/s

Q: A Packed tower using organic amine at 14 oC


to absorb CO2. The entering gas contains 1.27%
CO2 and is in equilibrium with a solution of
amine containing 7.3% mole CO2. The gas
leaves containing 0.04% CO2. The amine,
flowing counter-currently, enters pure. Gas
flow rate is 2.31 gmole/s and liquid flow rate is 1.27% CO2
0.46 gmole/s. The tower’s cross-sectional area Gm = 2.31
is 0.84 m2. KOGa = 9.34×10-6 s-1atm-1cm-3. The gmole/s
pressure is 1 atm. Determine the tower height C* = 7.3%
CO2 in amine
that can achieve this goal.

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Absorption of concentrated vapor
Mole balance on the controlled volume
x 1, y 1
d d
0 = − (G 'm y ) + ( L'm x)
dz dz
x1 , y1 *
Gas flux Liquid flux
 1   1 
G 'm = G 'm 0   L 'm = L ' m 0  
1− y  1− x 
xZ, yZ
 y1  L'm 0  x x1  xZ, yZ*
  +  − 
 1 − y1  G 'm 0  1 − x 1 − x1 
⇒y=
 y1  L'm 0  x x1 
1 +   +  − 
 1 − y1  G 'm 0  1 − x 1 − x1 

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Mole balance on the gas in a differential tower volume
G 'm 0 dy
0=− − K OG aP ( y − y*)
(1 − y ) dz
2

Z G 'm 0 y1 dy
⇒Z =∫ dz = ∫ = HTU × NTU
0 K OG aP Z (1 − y ) ( y − y *)
y 2

G 'm0
HTU =
K OG aP
y1 dy
NTU = ∫
yZ (1 − y ) ( y − y*)
2

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HTU (ft)

HTU

For a given packing material and


pollutant, HTU does not change
11/21/08 much.
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Quick Reflection

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